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Side ASide B
a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistence
high levels of intensity and persistence in work effortemployees who are engaged completely invest themselves and their energies into their job
the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses. Argues that employee behavior is directed towards pleasure and away from pain,...
3 things that the expectancy theory says choices depend on
1) expectancy2) instrumentality3) valence
-represents the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of a task.-the probability, ranging from 0 (no chance) to 1 (a mortal lock) that...
the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task success. (self efficacy is a lot like self confidence or self esteem)(when considering...
the degree to which they have succeeded or failed in similar sorts of tasks in the past
their observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks
friends, coworkers, and leaders can persuade employees that they can "get the job done"
feelings of fear or anxiety can create doubts about task accomplishment, whereas pride and enthusiasm can bolster confidence levels
-the belief that successful performance will result in some outcomes-set of subjective probabilities ranging from 0 (no chance) to 1 (a mortal lock) that successful performance will...
-the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with performance-can be positive (in that they would prefer having the outcome), negative (in that they would not prefer to have the...
-cognitive groupings or clusters of outcomes that are viewed as having critical psychological or physiological consequences-outcomes are deemed more attractive when they satisfy needs-many...
motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance-result from extrinsic outcomes such as pay increase, bonuses, benefits and perks, etc.
motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward-result from intrinsic outcomes such as enjoyment, interestingness, accomplisment, knowledge gain, skill development,...
meaning of money
the degree to which they view money as having a symbolic, not just economic value-3 dimensions: 1) acheivement (money symbolizes success)2) respect (money brings respect in one's community)3)...
Motivational force equation
Motivational Force = [E -->P] x [sum of [P-->O x V]]*motivational force = zero if any of the three beliefs is zero
goal setting theory
-views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort-goals are defined as the objective of an action and usually refer to attaining a specific standard of...
specific and difficult goals
will result in higher levels of performance than assigning no goals, easy goals, or "do-your-best" goals-must find a balance b/w difficult goals but not impossible goals
self set goals
-the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress-the assignment of specific and difficult goals shape peoples self set goals
-developed after setting goals, these are learning plans and problem-solving approaches used to achieve successful performance
updates on employee progress toward goal attainment
-reflects how complicated the information and actions involvd in a task are, as well as how much the task changes-the effects of specific and difficult goals are almost twice as strong...
-the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it-when goal commitment is high, assigning specific and difficult goals will have significant benefits...
developed by Microsoft, an acronym that summarizes many beneficial goal characteristics:-Specific-Measurable-Achievable-Results-based-Time-sensitive
-acknowledges that motivation doesn't just depend on your own beliefs and circumstances but also on what happens to other people-suggests that employees keep a mental ledger of the...
-some person who seems to provide an intuitive frame of reference for judging equity
Three possibilities of equity theory comparisons:
1) your ratio equals other's and a sense of equity is felt2) your ratio of outcomes is less than the comparison others and equity distress is felt in the form of anger or envy2) your...
simply rethinking your inputs in order to restore balance mentally, without having to alter your behavior in any way-ex: maybe you have "undersold" your true contributions, and your...
you are comparing yourself to someone in the same company
you are comparing yourself to someone from a different company
-reflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose-represents a form of intrinsic motivation in that merely performing the work task serves as...
four concepts of psychological empowerment
-captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person's own ideals and passions-when a task is relevant to a meaningful purpose, it becomes easier to concentrate on the...
-reflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks-sense of self determination is a strong driver of intrinsic motivation-managers can instill a sense of self-determination...
-a person's belief in his/her capability to perform work tasks successfully-identical to self-efficacy-employees with a strong sense of competence believe they can execute the behaviors...
-the sense that a person's actions make a difference- that the progress being made toward some important purpose-phrases such as "being on track" or "getting there" convey a sense of...
motivation's effect on job performance
-motivation has a strong, positive effect on job performance-people who experience higher levels of motivation tend to have higher levels of task performance-motivation has a moderate...
motivation's effect on organizational commitment
-equity has a moderate positive effect on organizational commitment-people who experience higher levels of equity tend to feel higher levels of affective commitment and higher levels...