Mendelian Genetics Vocabulary Flashcards (:

Created By Daisy Olaya.For Mrs. Goldberg's End Of The Year Biology Project.6th Period.
 
Created May 7, 2012
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Alleles
The different forms of a gene. Y and y are different alleles of the gene that determines...
Autosomal
A locus on any chromosome but a sex chromosome. Not sex-linked. 
Co-Dominant Alleles
Two different alleles at a locus are responsible for different phenotypes, and both alleles...
Complete Linkage
Complete linkage describes the inheritance patterns for 2 genes on the same chromosome when...
Crossing Over
Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosome during...
Dioecious
Organisms produce only one type of gamete; i.e. humans 
Diploid
Cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or 2n, number of...
Dominant Trait
cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or 2n, number of...
Egg
haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis
Epistasis
One gene masks the expression of a different gene for a different trait. 
F1 Generation
Offspring of a cross between true breeding plants, homozygous for the trait of interest 
F2 Generation
Offspring of a cross involving the F1 generation.
Fertilization
fusion of male and female gametes 
Gamete
male and female sex cells, sperm and eggs
Genetic Recombination
major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by re-assortment or crossing over...
Genetics
branch of biology that studies heredity 
Genotype
The genetic constitution of an organism with respect to a trait. 
Haploid
cell with one of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a haploid or n, number of chromosomes.
Hemizygous
If there is only one copy of a gene for a particular trait In a diploid organism, the organism...
Hereditary
passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
Heterozygous
Differing alleles for a trait in an individual, such as Yy. 
Homologous Chromosomes
The pair of chromosomes in a diploid individual that have the same overall genetic content....
Homozygous
Both alleles for a trait are the same in an individual. They can be homozygous dominant (YY),...
Hybrid
heterozygous; usually referring to the offspring of two true-breeding (homozygous) individuals...
Incomplete Dominance
Intermediate phenotype in F1, parental phenotypes reappear in F2. 
Lethal Alleles
Mutated genes that are capable of causing death. 
Linkage
genes that are inherited together on the same chromosome. Three inheritance patterns are possible: non-linkage,...
Meiosis
type of cell division where one body cell produces for gametes, each containing half the number...
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
Alleles of different genes are assorted independently of one another during the formation...
Mendel's Law of Segregation
Alleles segregate from one another during the formation of gametes. 
Monoecious
Organisms produce both male and female gametes; i.e. garden pea.
Monohybrid Cross
Cross involving parents differing in only one trait. 
Mutation
Change in the DNA sequence of a gene to some new, heritable form. Generally, but now always...
Non-Disjunction
failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis; results in gametes...
Non-Linkage
Non-linkage describes the inheritance patterns for 2 genes on the same chromosome, when the...
Partial Linkage
Partial linkage describes one of the inheritance patterns for 2 genes on the same chromosome,...
Phenotype
The physical appearance of an organism with respect to a trait, i.e. yellow (Y) or green (y)...
Pleiotropic
A single gene determines more than one phenotype for an organism. 
Pollination
Transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of a flower
Polyploidy
The condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Probability
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur. 
Punnet Square
A chart that shows the possible combinations of alleles that result from a genetic cross. 
Purebred
The offspring of many generations that have the same traits. 
Recessive Trait
The opposite of dominant. A trait that is preferentially masked. 
Reciprocal Cross
Using male and female gametes for two different traits, alternating the source of gametes. 
Sex Chromosomes
Sex determination is based on sex chromosomes  
Sex-Linked
A gene coded on a sex chromosome, such as the X-chromosome linked genes of flies and man. 
Sexual Reproduction
pattern of reproduction that involves the production of subsequent fusion of haploid cells.
Sperm
haploid male sex cells produced by meiosis
Test Cross
Generally a cross involving a homozygous recessive individual.
Trait
characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
True-Breeding
Homozygous for the true-breeding trait. 
Wild-Type Allele
The non-mutant form of a gene, encoding the normal genetic function. Generally, but not always...
Zygote
diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg.

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