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what is meiosis?
- Meiosis is a process of nuclear division...
what is the prurpose of meiosis?
- The purpose of meiosis is to form gametes...
what do cells preparing to divide undergo?
cells pre paring to divide by meiosis undergo the G1, S and G2 stages of interphase so the cell grow to mature size, and copies its DNA so it begins meiosis with...
what is one difference between meiosis and mitosis?
- The first major difference between meiosis...
how can meiosis be summarized?
- meiosis can be summarized as follows: you...
whay do varitations exist?
variations exist due to the farmation of a tetrad, synapsis, and crossing over.
what are 3 events that happen in prophase 1?
- The 3 events that occur in prophase I of...
what is a tetrad formed?
- A tetrad is homologous chromosomes of a...
what happens during synapsis?
- the chromatids of the...
what happens during crossing over?
segments of the chromatids may break off and attach to an adjacent chromatid on the homologous chromosome pair.
what does crossing over cause?
- Crossing over causes an exchange of genetic...
what leads to genetic variation?
- Crossing over leads to genetic variation...
what happens in metaphase 1?
the tetrads line up randomly along the equator.
what do the spindle fibers do in metaphase 1?
- the spindle fibers from one pole attach...
What happens in anaphase 1?
Eahc homologous chromosme move to opposite poles .
what separates in anaphase 1?
What actually separates during anaphase I of meiosis is the chromosomes separate, not the chromatids.
what is independent assortment?
- Independent assortment is the randomness...
what does independent assortment lead to?
Independent assortment leads to additional genetic variation.
what happens in Telophase 1 and cytokenisis 1?
the chromosomes reach opposite poles and the cytoplasm divides
what do the daughter cells produced at the end of meiosis have?
- the daughter cells produced at the end...
what happens in prophase 2?
The spindle startes to form.
what happens in metaphase 2?
- In metaphase II of meiosis the chromosomes...
what happens in anaphase 2?
- In anaphase II the chromatids separate...
Waht happens in telophase 2 and cytokinesis 2?
- In telophase II and cytokinesis II of meiosis,...
what are the final results of mieosis are?
The final result are 4 haploid cells that are not genetically identical
what is spermatogenesis is?
spermatogenisis is sperm production.
what happens in spermatogenesis?
- In spermatogenisis diploid...
what does the cytoplasm determin in the number of functional gametes?
The division of the cytoplasm determines the number of functional gametes procuded because when the cytoplasm divides equally, the result is four functional haploid gametes
what do spermatids devolope into?
Spermatids develop into a mature sperm cell
what is oogenesis?
Oogenisis is egg production.
What happens in oogenesis?
- In oogenesis, dipoild cells...
what does the division of the cytoplasm determine in the number of functional gametes?
- The division of the cytoplasm...
what does the ootid devolope into?
- The ootid develops into the...
why does the egg need extra cytoplasm?
- The egg needs the extra cytoplasm...
what are the other 3 cells called?
the three other cells produced by oogenesis are called polar bodies
what happens to the other 3 cells?
To these cells, they will eventually degenerate
what is reproduction?
- Reproduction is the process...
what are the two types of reproduction?
Asexual and sexual reproduction.
what is asexual reproduction?
- Asexual reproduction is the...
how many parents are involved in asexual reproduction?
- In asexual reproduction, the...
how do the offspring and parent compare in asexual reproduction?
- The offspring that result...
what is the first form of asexual reproduction?
Fission, it occurs when a unicellular organism replicates its genetic material and splits in two forming two new organisms. An example of this is bacteria and algae
what is the second form of asexual reproduction?
Budding, growth of a small reproductive fragment from a parent organism and an example is yeast.
what is the third form of asuexual reproduciton?
Spore, a spore is a reproductive cell that is covered by a hard coat and an example is molds and anthrax
what is the 4th form of asexual reproduction?
Vegetative propagation, is asexual reproduction in plants and an example is planting potato eyes, rooting systems and leaves, and runners on strawberry.
what is sexual reproduction?
- Sexual reproduction is the...
what gametes does sexual reproduction require?
- The gametes involved in sexual...
what is fertilization?
- Fertilization is when the...
what is a zygote?
- A zygote is the fusion of...
how are the offspring of sexual reproduction genetically different?
The 2 sources that make the offspring of sexual reproduction genetically different from their parents because genes are combined in new ways during meiosis.
what do all offspring of sexual reprduction contain?
they contain their oun unique genetic combination.
what do each gamete have?
each gamete has a unique combination and then combines with another gamete from a completely different genetic source.
what is the advantage of sexual reproduction?
- The type of advantage that...
what is an example of this?
a dieseas that strikes a crop of grain.
what happens in the disease that strikes a crop of grain?
A few plants have a genetic varitation that makes them resistant to disease. although many plants die thouse few that are resistant survive, reproduce, and pass this resistance to their...