Medical Terminology Quiz 5

Medical Terminology Quiz 5 Chapter 6 - Blood And Lymphatic System
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blast/o
 
germ or bud
chrom/o, chromat/o
 
color
chyl/o
 
juice
immun/o
 
safe
lymph/o
 
clear fluid
morph/o
 
form
myel/o
 
bone marrow or spinal cord
phag/o
 
eat or swallow
plas/o
 
formation
reticul/o
 
net
splen/o
 
spleen
thromb/o
 
clot
thym/o
 
thymus gland
plasma
 
liquid portion of the blood and lymph; contains water, proteins and cellular components
serum
 
liquid portion of the blood
erythrocyte
 
red blood cell; transports oxygen and CO2
hemoglobin
 
the protein-iron compound in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
leukocyte
 
white blood cell; protects the body from harmful invading substances
granulocytes
 
a group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
neutrophil
 
a granular WBC named for neutral staining; fights infection by phagocytosis of bacteria
polymorphonuclear leukocyte
 
another term for neutrophil, referring to the many segments of its nucleus
eosinophil
 
a granular leukocyte names for rose colored acidic stain; increases in allergic and infectious reactions
basophil
 
a granular leukocyte, named for the dark basic stain of its granules; brings anti-coagulents to inflammed tissues
agranulocytes
 
WBC without granules in their nuclei
lymphocyte
 
active in process of immunity; T cells, B cells and natural killer cells
monocyte
 
performs phagocytosis to fight infection
platelets
 
thrombocytes; cell fragments in blood that are essential for blood clotting
thymus
 
primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, produces T lymphocytes
spleen
 
organ between the spleen and the diaphragm that filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by phagocytosis
lymph
 
fluid that is circulated through the lymphatic vessels
lymph capillaries
 
microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
lymph vessels
 
vessels that receive lymph from the capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
lacteals
 
specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat in to blood stream
chyle
 
white or pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by lacteals
lymph nodes
 
many small oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary and inguinal regions
lymph ducts
 
collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
right lymphatic duct
 
receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
thoracic duct
 
receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremeties
immunity
 
process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
antigen
 
a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
antibody
 
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
active immunity
 
results from stimulating the body to produce its own antibodies; developed from either response to infection or a vaccine
passive immunity
 
short-lasting immunity that results from foreign antibodies that are conveyed naturally through the placenta or by injection of serum
microcytosis
 
presence of small red blood cells
macrocytosis
 
presence of large red blood cells
anisocytosis
 
presence of blood cells of unequal size
poikilocytosis
 
presence of a large, irregularly shaped red blood cells
reticulocytosis
 
an increased number of immature RBC in the blood (reticulocytes)
erythropenia
 
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
lymphocytopenia
 
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
neutropenia
 
a decreased number of neutrophils
pancytopenia
 
an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
thrombocytopenia
 
an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood impairing the clotting process
hemolysis
 
breakdown of the RBC membrane
immunocompromised
 
impaired immunologic defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or by therapy with immunosuppressive agents
immunosuppression
 
impaired ability to provide an immune response
lymphadenopathy
 
enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
splenomegaly
 
enlargement of the spleen
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome
 
a syndrome caused by HIV that renders immune cells ineffective; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
anemia
 
a condition of reduced numbers of RBC or hemoglobin resulting in a diminished ability of RBCs to transport oxygen to the tissues
aplastic anemia
 
a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce RBC
iron deficiency anemia
 
a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin
pernicious anemia
 
a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by inadequate supply of vitamin B12 causing RBC to become large + vary in shape
autoimmune disease
 
any disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself
erythroblastosis fetalis
 
a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh+ blood and a mother with Rh- blood, causing RBC destruction in the fetus
Rh factor
 
presence or lack of antigens on the surface of RBCs which causes a reaction between Rh+ blood and Rh- blood
Rh positive
 
presence of antigens
Rh negative
 
absence of antigens
hemochromatosis
 
hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
hemophilia
 
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders caused by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
leukemia
 
chronic or acute malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by abnormal WBCs in the blood and bone marrow
myelodysplasia
 
disorder within the blood marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells; usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
lymphoma
 
any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
metastasis
 
process by which cancer cells are spread by the blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ
mononucleosis
 
condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by an increase in monocytes and lymphocytes along with swelling and fatigue
polycythemia
 
increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
septicemia
 
systemic disease caused by infection with microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
phlebotomy, venipuncture
 
incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
blood chemistry
 
test of fluid portion of blood to measure the amounts of its chemical constituents
blood chemistry panels
 
specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood, used as a screen for disease
blood culture
 
test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an place that encourages the growth of bacteria
CD4 cell count
 
a measure of the number of CD4 cells (type of T cell) used in monitoring the course of HIV and in timing the treatment of AIDS
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
 
timed test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle through the volume of plasma
partial thromboplastin time
 
test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
thromboplastin
 
substance present in tissues, platelets and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
prothrombin time
 
test to measure the activity of prothrombin in the blood
prothrombin
 
protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
complete blood count
 
laboratory blood test preformed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes
white blood count
 
a count of the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
red blood count
 
a count of the number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manual or automated laboratory methods
hemoglobin
 
a test to determine the level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
hematocrit
 
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
blood indices
 
calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, HGB concentration and content of RBCS to classify an anemia
mean corpuscular volume
 
calculation of the volume (size) of individual RBCs using HCT and RBC results: MCV=HCT/RBC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin
 
calculation of the content (weight) of hemoglobin the average RBC: MCH=HGB/RBC
mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
 
calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each RBC: MCHC=HGB/HCT
differential count
 
determination of the number of each type of WBC in a stained smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined
red cell morphology
 
as part of identifying and counting the white blood cells, the condition, size and shape of RBCs in the background of the smeared slide are noted
platelet count
 
calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood
bone marrow aspiration
 
needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
bone marrow biopsy
 
pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
lymphangiogram
 
an x-ray image of a lymph node or vessel obtained after injection of a contrast medium
computed tomography
 
full body x-ray Ct images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
positron-emission tomography
 
a scanning technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of anatomy and metabolic function
bone marrow transplant
 
transplantation of healthy bone marrow for a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
lymphadenectomy
 
removal of a lymph node
lymphadenotomy
 
incision into a lymph node
lymph node dissection
 
removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic examination
splenectomy
 
removal of the spleen
thymectomy
 
removal of the thymus gland
blood transfusion
 
introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
autologous blood
 
blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use
homologous blood
 
blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient
blood component therapy
 
transfusion of a specific blood component, such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or plasma
cross-matching
 
method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
chemotherapy
 
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases which chemical agents to destroy selected cells or to impair their ability to reproduce
immunotherapy
 
use of biological agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanisms, as seen in treatment of cancer, AIDS
plasmapheresis
 
removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements followed by reinfusion
anticoagulant
 
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
hemostatic
 
a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessels
vasoconstrictor
 
a drug that causes narrowing of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
vasodilator
 
a drug that causes dilation of blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow
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