Medical Terminology Chapter 5

Medical Terminology Chapter 5

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Cardiovascularsystem  cardi/ovascular
consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. Cardi/o - means heartvascul /  means blood vessels-ar means pertaining to
is a hollow, muscular organ located between the lungs. It is a very effective pump that furnishes the power to maintain the blood flow needed throughout the entire body. The pointed...
is the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart also called the pericardial sac. 
Walls of the heart epi/cardi/ummy/o/cardi/umendo/cardi/um
epicardium - is the external layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium.myocardium- is the middle and thickest of the hearts three layers and consist of specialized cardiac...
Coronary Arteries 
Which supply oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium
Chambers of the heartatria ventricles interventricular
atria - are the two upper chambers of the heart. They are the receiving chambers, and all blood vessels comong into the heart enter here.ventricles are the two lower chambers of the...
Valves the hearttricuspid valve pulmonary semilunar valvemitral valveaortic semilunar valve
tricuspid valve- controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Tricuspid means having three cups(points) which describes the shape fo this valvepulmonary semilunar...
right atrium right ventricleleft atriumleft venticle
right atrium receives oxygen - poor blood from all tissues except the lungs.right ventricle-pumps the oxygen poor blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary...
Pulmonary Circulationpulmonary arteries pulmonary veins
is the flow of blood only between the heart and lungs.pulmonary arteries - carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs. this is the only place in the body...
Systemic circulation 
includes the flow of blood to all parts of the body except the lungs.
heart beat 
to pump blood effectively throughout the body the contraction and relaxation of the heart must occur in exactly the correct sequence.the rate and regulartiy of the heart beat is dtermined...
Sinoatrial node 
which is often referred to as the SA node , it establishes the basic rhythm and rate of the heartbeat for this reason it is known as the natural pacemaker of the heart.
atrioventricular node 
the impluses from SA node also travel to the atrioventricular node which is also known as the AV node. it tansmits the electrical impulses onward to the bundle of His.
Bundle of His Purkinje fibers
is a group of fibers located within the interventrucular septum. These fibers carry an electrical impulse to ensure the sequence of the heart contractions These fibers relay the electrical...
are large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of the body.
Walls of arteries  3 layers 
aorta - which is the largest blood vessel in the body.carotid arteries- are the major arteries that carry blood upward to the headarterioles - are the smaller thinner branches of arteries...
form a low-pressure collecting system to return oxygen-poor blood to the heart. veins have valves that enable blood to flow only toward the heart and prevent it from flowing away from...
Venae cavae
are the two largest veins in the body .superior vena cava- transports blood from the upper portion of the body to the heart.inferior vena cava- transports blood from the lower portion...
which are only one epithelial cell in thickness are the smallest blood vessels in the body. 
is the rhythmic pressure against the walls of the artery caused by the contraction of the heart
Blood pressure Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure
is the measurement of the amount of systoice and diatoslic pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries.Systolic pressure- which occurs when the ventricles contract, is the highest...
is the fluid tissue in the body. it is composed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% formed elements.
Plasma Fibrinogen and prothrombin Serum
is a straw-colored fluid that contains nutients,hormones and waste poduct.Fibrinogen and prothrombin - are the clotting proteins found in plasma. they are important in clot formation.Serum-...
Etythrocytes erythr/ocytes
are mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow. primary role is to transport oxygen to the tissues.erythr/o means red-cytes-means cell
Leukocytes leuk/ocytes
are the blood cells involved in defending he body against infective organisms and foreign substance leuk/o- means white-cyts/ means cell
also known as platelets are the smallest formed elements of the blood. They play an important role in the clotting of blood.
blood gases
Oxygen  (0  )carbon dioxide (C0 )nitrogen ( N  )
Specialties related to cardiovascular system
cardiologist -  is a physician who specilizes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, dieases and disorer of the heart.hematologist - is a physician who specializes is diagnosing...
 Atherosclerosisather/o/sclerosis  and ather/oma
 atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle. It creates an insufficient supply of oxygen that can cause angina (pain), myocardial...
Congenital heart defects
are structural abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally before birth. Congenital means present at birth
Ischemic Heart Disease
is a group of cardiac diabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart. Ischemic means pertaining to disruption of the blood supply.
is a condition in which ther ia an insufficient oxygen supply due to a restricted blood flow by to a part of the body isch/ means to hold back -emia means blood
is a condition of episodes of severe chest pains due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium. 
myocardial infarction 
also known as a heart attack is the occlusion ( total blockage) of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup.infarction means sudden insufficiency of blood
Heart Failure
which is also referrred to as congestive heart failure occurs mostly in the elderly .. when the heart is unable to pump out all of the blood it receives decreased pumping action causes...
caridomegaly cardi/o/megaly
Is the abnormal enlargement of the heart that is frequently associated with the heart failure. 
Carditis /  card/itis Endocarditis / end/o/card/itis Bacterial endocarditis
Carditis -in an inflammation of the heart Endocarditis- is inflammation of the inner lining of the heart Bacterial endocarditis - is an inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart...
Myocarditis / my/o/card/itis Pericarditis / peri/card/itis
 is an inflammationof the myocardium. this condition can develop as a complication of a viral infection.is an inflammation of pericardium that causes an accumulation of fluid within...
Cardiomyopathy cardi/o/my/o/pathy
is the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle cardi / means heartmy/o means muscle pathy / means disease
heart murmur 
is an abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart of neighboring large blood vessels. murmur are most often caused by defective valves 
valvulitis valvul/itis
is inflammation of a heart valve. valvu/ means valveitis means inflammation
valvular prolapse
is the abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely
valvular stenosis
is a conditon  inwhich ther is norrowing, stiffening, thickening or blockage of one or more calves of the heart.
Cardiac arrest 
is an event in which the heart abruply stops or develops a very abnoraml arrhythmia that prevents it from pumpong blood. Sudden cardic death results if treatment is not provided with...
Bradycardia brady/cardia
is an abnormally slow restin heart rate then is when a heart beats less than 60 beats per minute brady / means slowcard /mean heartia/ means abnormal condition
Tachycardia tachy/cardia
is an abnormally rapid resting heart rate apllies if it is greater than 100 beats per minute tachy means rapidcard means heart
is the pounding or racing heart with or without irregulartiy in rhythm.. this is associate dwith certain heart disorders however it also occur as part of a panic attack
Atrial fibrillation 
occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the artia are replaced by rapid irregular twiching of muscular heart walls also known as A fib
Paroxysmal atrail tachycardia 
is an episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that orginate in the atrium caused by abnormality in the bodys electrical system
Ventrucular fibrillation
is the rapid irregular and useless contractions of the venticles instead of pumping stronglyt the heart muscle quivers ineffectively. this condition is caused of many sudden cardiac...
Ventricular tachycardia 
also known as V Tach a very rapid heart beat that begins within the ventricles. this condition is potentially fatal because the heart is beasting so rapidly that it is unable to adequately...
is the inflammaiton of a blood or lymph vessel also known as vasculitis angi/ means vessel itis / means inflammation
is the abnormal norrowing of a blood vessel angi/o means vesselstenosis / means narrowing
is a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vesselshem / means blood angi/ means blood or lymph vessel oma / means tumor
is a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part.. perfusion is the flow of blood through teh vessels of an organ.
is a form of angiitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time poly/ mean manyarter / means artery itis / mean inflammation
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease 
is imparied circulation to the extremities and vital organs causes changes in the skin color and temperature plus intermittent claudication.. 20% of patients over 70 are effected
Raynaud's phenomernon 
is a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in whcih intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress. due to consticted circulation signs are paleness cyanosis ( blue color) and...

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