Medical Terminology Chapter 5

Medical Terminology Chapter 5
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consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

Cardi/o - means heart
vascul / means blood vessels
-ar means pertaining to

is a hollow, muscular organ located between the lungs. It is a very effective pump that furnishes the power to maintain the blood flow needed throughout the entire body. The pointed lower end of the heart is known as the apex

is the double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart also called the pericardial sac.
Walls of the heart
epicardium - is the external layer of the heart and the inner layer of the pericardium.
myocardium- is the middle and thickest of the hearts three layers and consist of specialized cardiac muscle tissue. This muscle contraction and relaxation creates the pumping movement that maintains the flow of blood throughout the body
endocardium- which consist of epithelial tissue, is the inner lining of the heart.

epi- means above
myo- muscle
endo-/ within

Coronary Arteries
Which supply oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium
Chambers of the heart

atria - are the two upper chambers of the heart. They are the receiving chambers, and all blood vessels comong into the heart enter here.
ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart. they are the pumpong chamber and all blood vesels leaving the heart emerge from the ventricles.
interventricular septum- are the ventricles of the heart which are seperated by the interventricular septum they are the pumping chambers.

Valves the heart

tricuspid valve
pulmonary semilunar valve
mitral valve
aortic semilunar valve
tricuspid valve- controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Tricuspid means having three cups(points) which describes the shape fo this valve
pulmonary semilunar valve - is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery this valve is shaped like a half moon.
mitral valve- known as the bicuspid valve, is located between the left atrium and left ventricle.bicuspid means having two cusps(points)
aortic semilunar valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta / semilunar means half moon shape

right atrium
right ventricle
left atrium
left venticle
right atrium receives oxygen - poor blood from all tissues except the lungs.
right ventricle-pumps the oxygen poor blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve and into the pulmonary artery which carries it to the lungs.
left atrium- receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through the four pulmonary veins
left ventricle receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium blood flows out of the LV through the aortic semilunar valve and into the aorta.

Pulmonary Circulation
pulmonary arteries
pulmonary veins

is the flow of blood only between the heart and lungs.

pulmonary arteries - carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs. this is the only place in the body where deoxygenated blood is carried by arteries instead of veins.
pulmonary veins- carry the oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left artium of the heart. This is the only place in the body where veins carry oxygenated blood.
Systemic circulation
includes the flow of blood to all parts of the body except the lungs.
heart beat
to pump blood effectively throughout the body the contraction and relaxation of the heart must occur in exactly the correct sequence.

the rate and regulartiy of the heart beat is dtermined by electrical impulses
Sinoatrial node
which is often referred to as the SA node , it establishes the basic rhythm and rate of the heartbeat for this reason it is known as the natural pacemaker of the heart.
atrioventricular node
the impluses from SA node also travel to the atrioventricular node which is also known as the AV node. it tansmits the electrical impulses onward to the bundle of His.
Bundle of His

Purkinje fibers
is a group of fibers located within the interventrucular septum. These fibers carry an electrical impulse to ensure the sequence of the heart contractions

These fibers relay the electrical impulses to the cells of the ventricles and it is this stimulation that causes the ventricles to contract. This contraction of the ventricles forces blood out of the heart and into the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
are large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of the body.
Walls of arteries 3 layers
aorta - which is the largest blood vessel in the body.

carotid arteries- are the major arteries that carry blood upward to the head
arterioles - are the smaller thinner branches of arteries that carry blood to the capillaries.
form a low-pressure collecting system to return oxygen-poor blood to the heart. veins have valves that enable blood to flow only toward the heart and prevent it from flowing away from the heart.
Venae cavae
are the two largest veins in the body .

superior vena cava- transports blood from the upper portion of the body to the heart.

inferior vena cava- transports blood from the lower portion of the body to the heart
which are only one epithelial cell in thickness are the smallest blood vessels in the body.
is the rhythmic pressure against the walls of the artery caused by the contraction of the heart
Blood pressure

Systolic pressure

Diastolic pressure
is the measurement of the amount of systoice and diatoslic pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries.

Systolic pressure- which occurs when the ventricles contract, is the highest pressure against the walls of an artery.
Diastolic Pressure- which occurs when the ventricles are relaxed is the lowest pressure against the walls of an artery.


is the fluid tissue in the body. it is composed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% formed elements.

Fibrinogen and prothrombin

is a straw-colored fluid that contains nutients,hormones and waste poduct.
Fibrinogen and prothrombin - are the clotting proteins found in plasma. they are important in clot formation.

Serum- is plasma fluid after the blood cells and the clotting proteins have been removed

are mature red blood cells produced by the red bone marrow. primary role is to transport oxygen to the tissues.

erythr/o means red
-cytes-means cell

are the blood cells involved in defending he body against infective organisms and foreign substance

leuk/o- means white
-cyts/ means cell
also known as platelets are the smallest formed elements of the blood. They play an important role in the clotting of blood.
blood gases

Oxygen (0 )
carbon dioxide (C0 )
nitrogen ( N )

Specialties related to cardiovascular system

cardiologist - is a physician who specilizes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, dieases and disorer of the heart.

hematologist - is a physician who specializes is diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues

vascular surgeon- is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical management and surgical treatment disorder of the blood vessels

ather/o/sclerosis and ather/oma
atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that reduces the blood supply to the heart muscle. It creates an insufficient supply of oxygen that can cause angina (pain), myocardial infarction (heart attack) or death..
atheroma is a characteristic of atherosclerosis
ather/o means fatty plaque build up
-sclerosis / means abnormal hardening

Congenital heart defects
are structural abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally before birth. Congenital means present at birth
Ischemic Heart Disease

is a group of cardiac diabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart.
Ischemic means pertaining to disruption of the blood supply.

is a condition in which ther ia an insufficient oxygen supply due to a restricted blood flow by to a part of the body

isch/ means to hold back
-emia means blood
is a condition of episodes of severe chest pains due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium.
myocardial infarction
also known as a heart attack is the occlusion ( total blockage) of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup.

infarction means sudden insufficiency of blood
Heart Failure
which is also referrred to as congestive heart failure occurs mostly in the elderly .. when the heart is unable to pump out all of the blood it receives decreased pumping action causes congestion which is fluid buildup

Is the abnormal enlargement of the heart that is frequently associated with the heart failure.
Carditis / card/itis

Endocarditis / end/o/card/itis

Bacterial endocarditis
Carditis -in an inflammation of the heart

Endocarditis- is inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
Bacterial endocarditis - is an inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream

card - means heat
endo- means within
itis- means inflammation

Myocarditis / my/o/card/itis

Pericarditis / peri/card/itis
is an inflammationof the myocardium. this condition can develop as a complication of a viral infection.

is an inflammation of pericardium that causes an accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac this restricts the beating of the heart and reduces the ability of the heart to pump blood throughout the body.

is the term used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle

cardi / means heart
my/o means muscle
pathy / means disease

heart murmur
is an abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart of neighboring large blood vessels. murmur are most often caused by defective valves

is inflammation of a heart valve.
valvu/ means valve
itis means inflammation

valvular prolapse
is the abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely
valvular stenosis
is a conditon inwhich ther is norrowing, stiffening, thickening or blockage of one or more calves of the heart.
Cardiac arrest
is an event in which the heart abruply stops or develops a very abnoraml arrhythmia that prevents it from pumpong blood. Sudden cardic death results if treatment is not provided with a few minutes.

is an abnormally slow restin heart rate then is when a heart beats less than 60 beats per minute

brady / means slow
card /mean heart
ia/ means abnormal condition

is an abnormally rapid resting heart rate apllies if it is greater than 100 beats per minute

tachy means rapid
card means heart
is the pounding or racing heart with or without irregulartiy in rhythm.. this is associate dwith certain heart disorders however it also occur as part of a panic attack

Atrial fibrillation
occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the artia are replaced by rapid irregular twiching of muscular heart walls also known as A fib
Paroxysmal atrail tachycardia
is an episode that begins and ends abruptly during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that orginate in the atrium caused by abnormality in the bodys electrical system
Ventrucular fibrillation
is the rapid irregular and useless contractions of the venticles instead of pumping stronglyt the heart muscle quivers ineffectively. this condition is caused of many sudden cardiac deaths
Ventricular tachycardia
also known as V Tach a very rapid heart beat that begins within the ventricles. this condition is potentially fatal because the heart is beasting so rapidly that it is unable to adequately pump blood through the body. For some patients this condition can be controlled with a cardioverter defibrillator
is the inflammaiton of a blood or lymph vessel also known as vasculitis

angi/ means vessel
itis / means inflammation
is the abnormal norrowing of a blood vessel

angi/o means vessel
stenosis / means narrowing
is a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels

hem / means blood
angi/ means blood or lymph vessel
oma / means tumor
is a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part.. perfusion is the flow of blood through teh vessels of an organ.

is a form of angiitis involving several medium and small arteries at the same time

poly/ mean many
arter / means artery
itis / mean inflammation
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease
is imparied circulation to the extremities and vital organs causes changes in the skin color and temperature plus intermittent claudication.. 20% of patients over 70 are effected
Raynaud's phenomernon
is a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in whcih intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress. due to consticted circulation signs are paleness cyanosis ( blue color) and then redness of fingers and toes.

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