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Medical Terminology - Chapter 12


Skin: The Int Egumenta
  
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Integumentary system
 
made up of the skin and its related structures, performs important functions in maintaining the health of the body
sebaceous glands
 
secrete sebum (oil) that lubricates the skin and discourages the growth of bacteria on the skin
sweat glands
 
help regulate body temperature and water content by secreting sweat

cutaneous
cutane
-ous
 

relating to the skin
skin
pertaining to
epidermis
 
the outermost layer of the skin
epithelial tissues
 
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
squamous epithelial tissue
 

forms the upper layer of the epidermis
squamous means scale-like
keratin
 

fibrous, water-repellent protein
soft keratin is a primary component of epidermis
hard keratin is found in the hair & nails
melanocytes
 
cells that produce and contain a dark brown to black pigment called melanin
dermis or corium
 
thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis
collagen
 
means glue, is a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material found in the skin and in the bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
heparin
 

is released in response to an injury, is an anticoagulant
angicoagulant prevents blood clotting

lipocytes or (fat cells)
lip/o
-cytes
 

predominant in the subcutaneous layer where they manufacture and store large quantities of fat
lip/o = fat; -cytes = cells
sebaceous glands
 
located in the dermis layer of the skin and are closely associated with hair follicles
hidrosis
 
the production and excretion of sweat
arrector pili
 
tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect
unguis (commonly known as a fingernail or toenail)
 

the keratin plate protecting the dorsal surface of the last bone in each finger and toe
(plural = ungues)
lunula
 

a pale half-moon-shaped region at every nail root that is generally most easily seen in the thumbnail
(plural = lunulae)
-plasty
 
surgical repair
acne vulgaris (acne)
 
a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum
comedo
 
a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle
bi/o
 
life
dermo/o, dermat/o
 
skin
erythr/o
 
red
hidr/o
 
sweat
hirsut/o
 
hairy, rough
kerat/o
 
horny, hard, cornea
lip/o
 
fat, lipid
melan/o
 
black, dark
myc/o
 
fungus
onych/o
 
fingernail or toenail
pedicul/o
 
louse or lice
rhytid/o
 
wrinkle
seb/o
 
sebum
urtic/o
 
nettle, rash, hives
xer/o
 
dry
actinic keratosis
 
a precancerous skin groth that occurs on sun-damaged skin; often looks like a red scaly patch and feels like sandpaper

albinism
albin; -ism
 
a genetic condition characterized by a deficiency or the absence of pigment in the skin, hair, & irises of the eyes white; condition

alopecia (baldness)
alopec; -ia
 

the partial of complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp
alopec = baldness; -ia = condition

blepharoplasty (lid lift)
blephar/o; -plasty
 

the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing excess fat, skin, & muscle
eyelid; surgical repair
bulla
 
a large blister that is usually more than 0.5 cm in diameter
carbuncle
 
a cluster of connected furuncles (boils)
cellulitis
 
an acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissues that is characterized by malaise, swelling, warmth, & red streaks
chloasma (melasma or mask of pregnancy)
 
a pigmentation disorder characterized by brownish spots on the face
cicatrix
 
a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound
debridement
 
the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing

dermatitis
dermat; -itis
 

an inflammation of the skin
skin; inflammation

diaphoresis
dia-; phor; -esis
 

profuse sweating; a normal condition brought on by heat or exertion
through or complete; movement; abnorm condition
dysplastic nevi
 
atypical moles that can develop into skin cancer

ecchymosis (bruise)
ecchym; -osis
 

a large, irregular area of purplish discoloration due to bleeding under the skin
pouring out of juice; abnormal condition
eczema
 
persistent or recurring dermatitis that is usually characterized by redness, itching, & dryness, with possible blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding

erythema
erythem; -a
 

redness of the skin due to capillary dilation
flushed; noun ending

erythroderma
erythr/o; -derma
 

is abnormal redness of the entire skin surface
red; skin
exfoliative dermatitis
 
a condition in which there is widespread scaling of the skin, often with pruritus, erythroderma, and hair loss

folliculitis
follicul
-itis
 

an inflammation of the hair follicles
hair follicul
inflammation
furuncles (boils)
 
large, tender, swollen areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands

granuloma
granul; -oma
 

a general term used to describe small, knot-like swellings of granulation tissue in the epidermis
granular; tumor

hematoma
hemat; -oma
 

usually caused by an injury, is a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues
blood; tumor

hirsutism
hirsut
 

the presence of excessive body and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern
hairy

ichthyosis
ichthy; -osis
 

a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dry, thickened, and scaly skin
dry or scaly; abnormal condition
impetigo
 
a highly contagious bacterial skin infection that commonly occurs in children; characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted & rupture

keloid
kel; -oid
 

an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the incision
growth or tumor; resembling

keratosis
kerat; -osis
 

any skin growth, such as a wart or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thicking of the skin
hard or horny; abnormal conditioning

koilonychia (spoon nail)
koil
 
a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon; koil = hollow or concave

lipedema (painful fat syndrome)
lip; -edema
 
a chronic abnormal condition that is characterized by the accumulation of fat and fluid in the tissues just under the skin of the hips & legs. fat; swelling

lipoma
lip; -oma
 

a benign, slow-growing fatty tumor located between the skin and the muscle layer
fatty; tumor
lupus erythematosus (lupus)
 
a autoimmune disorder characterized by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk; also attacks the connective tissue in other systems, esp. joints
macule (macula)
 

a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter
freckle or flat moles are examples

malignant melanoma (melanoma)
melan; -oma
 

a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes
black; tumor
miliaria (also known as heat rash and prickly heat)
 

an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells
caution: don't confuse with malaria

necrotizing fasciitis
necrotizing; fasciitis
 

a severe infection caused by Group A strep bacteria (known as flesh-eating bacteria)
tissue death; inflammation of fascia

onychocryptosis (ingrown toenail)
onych/o; crypt; -osis
 

the edges of a toenail, usually on the big toe, curve inward and cut into the skin
fingernail/toenail; hidden; abnormal condition

onychomycosis
onych/o; myc; -osis
 

a fungal infection of the nail
fingernail or toenail; fungus; abnormal condition

papilloma
papill; -oma
 
a benign, superficial wart-like growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as in the bladder. resembling a nipple; tumor
papule
 

a small, raised red lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter and does not contain pus
small pimples and insect bites are types of papules

paronychia
par-; onych; -ia
 

an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail
near; fingernail or toenail; condition

pediculosis
pedicul; -osis
 

an infestation with lice
lice; abnormal condition
petechiae
 
are very small, pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter, sometimes result from high fevers

pruritus (itching)
prurit; -us
 

is associated with most form of dermatitis
itching; singular noun ending
psoriasis
 
a common skin disorder characterized by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back or buttocks

purpura
purpur; -a
 

the appearance of multiple purple discolorations on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin
purple; a noun ending
purulent
 
producing or containing pus

rhytidectomy (facelift)
rhytid; -ectomy
 
the surgical removal of excess skin and fat around the face to eliminate wrinkles
rosacea (adult acne)
 
tiny red pimples and broken blood vessels; usually develops in people with fair skin, 30 - 60 yrs old
scabies
 
a skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite, which causes small, itchy bumps and blisters due to tiny mites that burrow into skin

scleroderma
scler/o; -derma
 
an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened, causing skin to become hard & swollen. hard; skin
seborrhea
 
an overactivity of the sebaceous glands that results in the production of an excessive amount of sebum
squamous cell carcinoma
 
originates as a malignant tumor of the scaly squamous cells of the epithelium, it can quickly spread to other body systems

strawberry hemangioma
hem; angi/o; -oma
 

a soft, raised, dark-reddish-purple birthmark
benign tumor made of newly formed blood vessels
blood; blood or lymph vessels; tumor
tinea (ringworm)
 
a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails

urticaria (hives)
urtic; -aria
 

are itchy wheals caused by an allergic reaction
rash; connected with
verrucae (warts)
 
are small, hard skin lesions cause dby the human papilloma virus
vitiligo
 
a skin condition resulting from the destruction of the melanocytes due to unknown causes; characterized by irregular patches of white skin
wheal (welt)
 

a small bump that itches
can appear as a symptom of an allergic reaction

xeroderma (xerosis
xer/o; -derma
 

excessively dry skin
dry; skin

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