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Medical Speech Pathology Exam Part II

What Is Cerebral Palsy?   How Is It Treated?   Various Types Of Cerebral Palsy And Their Characteristics.  
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Side ASide B
Explain what CP is, using terms like nonprogressive, immature, cerebral, and palsy. [387-388]
a developmental non-progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by damage to the immature brain centers.Cerebral- brain centered, Palsy- lack of muscle control, Non-progressive- disease ...
About how many children per thousand live births have CP? [388]
Prevalence:  2-2.5 per 1000, about ½ born prematurely
Which conditions cause the neurological damage of Cerebral Palsy? [388-389]
About 40% of CP cases are unknown causes. Prenatal: Include radiation exposure, or an intrauterine infection, teratogenic drugs (drug-induced), and chromosomal abnormalities•In later...
Which neurologic system(s) get damaged in CP? [389]
-The white matter (the wiring) of the brain in the pathways used for motor control ( Upper Motor Neuron system), and thus deficient neural connections (gray matter, the connections...
What are positive and negative signs in CP diagnosis? [389]
Positive: Refer to the presence of atypical neuromotor features, such as increased or decreased muscle tone, atypical reflex patterns, and involuntary movements. Negative:Absent or...
Explain spasticity and the ATNR.[389-391]
Spasticity: A group of neuromotor signs that are seen in association with disturbances in the pyramidal component of the motor control system.  - If the UMN doesn’t inhibit...
Briefly, what are chorea, athetosis, dystonia, and ataxia? [391]
Dyskinesia: Involuntary movements – rapid, random and jerky (called chorea) or slow and writhing (called athetosis) extra mvmts –Extra paramatel damage: voluntary mvmts.Chorea –...
What are hemiplegia, paraplegia, and quadriplegia? [393]
Hemiplegia: One side of the body is more affected than the other; usually, the arm is more affected than the leg. Paraplegia: Both legs are damagedQuadriplegia: all four limbs and usually...
How many of the people with CP have intellectual impairment? seizures? speech, language, or hearing impairments? [395]
Intellectual Impairment: About 50%Seizures: About 40%Hearing, Speech, and Language Impairments: About 30%
Discuss the perceptual disturbances common in CP, such as hyperirritable attention, perceptual rigidity, dissociation, object use, and initiatory delay.
Hyperirritable attention: unable to refrain from reacting to various stimuli; short attention span, restlessness, impulsivityPerceptual Rigidity: desire to have environment and schedule...
Discuss the emotional disturbances common in CP such as lability, attitudes, fears, and motivation.
lability- autonomic response compromised of flushing incongruous laughing, gagging etc.attitudes- unrealisticfears-excessivemotivation-lack of
About what percent of people with CP become self-supporting? in sheltered workshops? partially independent & at home? fully dependent? [405]
Self Supporting-10%In Sheltered workshops-40%Partially independent & at home-35%Fully dependent-15%
Nowadays, what helpful thing can drugs do for a person with CP (regarding spasticity, and how it works)? [401]
Muscle Relaxation- Valium( Used to tone down CNS and indirect muscle relaxation)Baclofen and dantrium- reduce spasticity by acting on muscle fibers and neuromuscular junction*Some ...
What is a neurolytic procedure and how do they work to help people with CP? [400-401]
Block muscle impulses in stretch relex arc by injecting chemicals (such as botox) at the entry of the nerve to the muscle. They target spasticity in particular muscle groups. ...
How can surgery help people with CP? [402-403]
Orthopedic- disconnects, lengthens or transfers affected muscleNeurologic- have tried ventrolateral thalamotomy  or electrode-stimulator implants but not with much success-Improves...
What can braces do to help people with CP? [397]
What is NDT and what does it try to do? [396]
Neurodevelopment therapy: Employed by both occupational and physical therapists, provides the child with sensorimotor experiences that enhance the development of more typical movement...
What problems with breathing occur in (some) people with CP?
  • -Breathing...
Which laryngeal problems with occur in (some) people with CP?
-Lack of integration between breathing and trying to use voice (dysprosody)
  • -Hypo-nasality...
Which articulation problems are associated with spasticity? with athetosis?
-Sometimes the jaw deviates laterally, or the tongue can't be elevated, or tongue movement is inaccurate or slow.  Athetosis: Movement is slow and labored, difficult to move tongue,...
What could the physical therapist (PT) and the occupational therapist (OT) do to help  a person with CP? [396-398]
PT (physical therapist)
  • optimal...
Discuss both the benefits and the limitations of using an augmentative/alternative communication system.  
The client struggles with spoken language - So you provide them with augmentative communication systems, which simplifies their language -OR-You provide them with an alternative - ...


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