MCAT Biology

Kaplan 2010-2011 Biology .
  
Created May 20, 2011
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dheartfield
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Side ASide B
Biology involves processes within cells or ____ cells.  The Cell theory: 1. All living...
between cells pre-existing DNA daughter
Centrifugation is used to separate cells or mixtures without _____ them in the process. ...
destroying type densities
Prokaryotes include bacteria and _____ (blue, green algae. These are ____ organisms. The...
cyanobacteria; unicellular  nucleoid  plasmids nucleus multicellular; fungi;...
The cytosol is the ____ of the cytoplasm and contains nutrients, solutes and proteins. The...
fluid microtubules; intermediate filaments support; motility
The cell membrane surrounds the cell and is made up of the  ____ bilayer. Phospholipids...
phospholipid; hydrophilic; hydrophobic; exterior; interior regulate; selective; prohibited;...
The nucleus controls the ____ of the cell; ex: cell division. It is surrounded by a nuclear...
activities; cytoplasm cytoplasm rRNA protein; subunits; cytosol; ER
The rough ER is composed of ____ on its outer membrane surface---this is the location of protein...
ribosomes; transport; lipid transport RER; cisternae; modification; SER; vesicles;...
The Golgi Apparatus consists of a stack of membrane enclosed sacs. The Golgi Apparatus' role...
distribute  smooth; repackages vesicle hydrolytic; acidic
Peroxisomes contain ____ enzymes and break down fats into smaller molecules.  Gloxysomes...
oxidative sugars aerobic; DNA; proteins animal; protects
Movement into and out of a cell can either be passive or active.  Simple diffusion...
down; passive Water high, lower in; out in; in 
Facilitated diffusion is movement ____ the concentration gradient and  requires a ____...
down; carrier; passive against; ATP
Summary of Movement Across the Cell Membrane Diffusion 1. High to...
passive; non-polar energy; water membrane protein; energy; non-polar against; membrane...
Endocytosis is a process in which the cell membrane turns inward (_____), forming a vesicle. ...
invaginates fluids; large membrane
Tissues Epithelial Tissue covers the ____ of the body and lines the...
surfaces; protecting support neurons movement; skeletal
Viruses are composed of ____ acid enclosed by a protein coat called a ____. The nucleic acid...
nucleic; capsid inside
Process of Virus Reproduction 1. A virus attaches to a ____ cell. 2. The...
host injects replicates virion bacteriophages
Enzymes are protein _____ that seed up the rate of the reaction by lowering the ____. Enzymes...
catalysts; activation energy; equilibrium; reversiblesubstrate; activecomplementaryflexibility;...
Cofactors are non-protein molecules that enable ____ activity in enzymes. They either aid in...
catalytic; activeinactive; active; prostheticorganic; vitamin; impairs
The rate of a catalyzed reaction depends on concentration, _____, and pH.ConcentrationAt low...
temperaturelow; linear;  vmaxrate; low; Vmax; highdouble; denaturationacidic;...
Regulation of Enzyme Activity: Allosteric RegulationAllosteric Regulation involves the...
distinctregulatory or allostericstabilize
Enzymatic Activity InterferenceEnzyme inhibitors reduce the ____ of the enzyme for its substrate....
affinity; rightinhibitor; conformational; overproductioncompetes; inhibits; reversible Vmax ;increasesallosteric;...
Cellular metabolism is the ____ of all chemical reactions taking place in a cell. These reactions...
sum; organic; anabolic; break down; catabolic; catabolic; anabolicanabolic; anabolismoxidation
ATP is the cell's main ____ currency. It is synthesized during _____. The molecule is made...
energy; glycolysis; adenosineglycolysis; FAD; hydride; mitochondrial; transportoxidizing;lose...
Glucose Catabolism:The degradative oxidation of glucose occurs in two stages: glycolysis and...
respirationcytoplasm; pyruvate; ATPsubstrateNAD+; lacticmitochondrial; acetyl; oxaloacetate;...
In the mitochondria high energy electrons are transferred from NADH and ____ to carrier proteins...
FADH2; Electron transport chain (ETC); reduced; oxidized; oxygen; water3; 2; oxidative;...
Alternate energy sources are used when ____ is low. These alternate sources are converted to...
glucose; glycolytic hydrolyzed; TCA ATP; storage
Reproduction involves three topics: Cell ____, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.Cell...
divisioncytoplasmreproduction; replacementbinary fission; membrane; daughter
The Cell Cycle (Eukaryotes)The first  and longest part of the Cell Cycle is called _____....
interphase; divisions; visible; chromatinmitotic; division; cytokinesis
The Cell Cycle: INTERPHASEA. G1 Phase (Growth1...
metabolic;organelles; dividereplicated; sister; centromeres; teleomeres; diploid; DNAdivision;...
The Cell Cycle: MITOTIC PHASE1. MITOSISA. Prophase: During prophase the DNA _____ (coils) forming...
condenses; kinetechores; break downalignshorten; elongate; separatesdecondense; chromosomescleavage;...
In asexual reproduction the offspring are formed by _____ of a single parent cell. Offspring...
division; identicalmembrane; smaller; yeastregrowthunfertilized
Summary of Meiosis:  Meiosis is the process whereby ____ are produced. The...
gametes ; halved sperm; egg; diploid 2; separation; gametes interphase; identical
Meiosis I: Production of 2 intermediate daughter cells During Prophase...
disappear; condenses (coils); spindle; homologous synapsis; crossing over; identical; trait equator;...
Meiosis II: Separation of sister chromatids (occurs in each intermediate daughter...
spindle divide; chromatids; bind/attach opposite reform; cytokinesis; 4 variability;...
Mitosis vs. Meiosis twice half crossing over
Male Reproductive Anatomy scrotum sperm; testosterone  seminiferous; mature; vas; ejaculatory semen; lubricates energy;...
Spermatogenesis: Sperm production Diploid cells called spermatogonia divide...
mitosis; spermatocyte meiosis I; meiosis II maturation
Female Reproductive Anatomy Ovaries produce eggs, called ____ and secrete...
ova; progesterone follicles; nourishes; estrogen fallopian  uterus; cervix;...
Oogenesis: Production of female gametes After menarche, one primary ____...
oocyte; ovulation; fertilization corona; zona; penetrated
Fertilization Sperm are viable ____ days following intercourse. An egg can...
1-2; ovulation;  vaginal; ovum corona; acrosome; membrane; acrosomal; fuses; cytoplasm multiple;...
Multiple Births Monozygotic (Identical) Twins result when a single zygote...
embryos; separate;  one; genetically Siamese ovarian; different
Embryology is the study of the development of a _____ zygote into a complete ____ organism....
unicellular; multicellular division; morphogenesis   cleavage; cytoplasm; exchange   32;...
Embryology   Implantation of embryo into wall of uterus   Implantation...
fertilization; proliferation; endometrium ; proteolytic   glastula; ectoderm; endoderm   mesoderm;...
Embryology   Neurulation: Development of the nervous system   By the...
neurulation
Embryology Fetal Respiration  After 8 weeks of gestation the...
fetus; placenta chorion; amnion ; fetus respiration; immunological; alcohol; progesterone
Embryology Fetal Circulation  Since fetal lungs are non functional...
placenta; vein liver; lungs organs; brain elongate; active
Musculoskeletal System   Muscles and bones work together to produce...
movement   support exo; endo   vertebral; pelvic   protects   flexible;...
Musculoskeletal System   Bone-Macroscopic Structure Bone is mineralized...
stress compact;  cavities; marrow; blood   appendages; shaft; dialated epiphyses  growth  muscle
Musculoskeletal System   Bone-Microscopic Structure   Compact...
glyco calcium strength   osteons lamellae lacunae; osteocytes interconnect; nutrients synthesize;...
Musculoskeletal System   Bone Formation and Remodeling   Bone...
cartilege   embryonic   absorbed degradation; released resorption   bones immovable movable
Musculoskeletal System The 3 types of muscle...
voluntary; somaticmultinucleatedmyofibrils; sacroplasmicsacroplasm; sacrolemmapotential; channels
Musculoskeletal System  myglobinaerobicrigorousless; anaerobiccontraction
Musculoskeletal System Muscular System-Skeletal...
actin; myosintropomyosinboundaries centermyosinactinmyosinreduced
Musculoskeletal System  receptorsactionsynchronizationCa2+shiftconformationcrossreducedsacroplasmicbindsdissociation
Musculoskeletal System  thresholdstimulus contractsbriefonsetunresponsiverelaxsummationtetaus
Musculoskeletal System  involuntary; autonomic digestivenucleusslower
Musculoskeletal System  creatineoxygen; releasesanaerobiclacticsupportpackingcollagenousbonejoints
Musculoskeletal System  originproximal
DigestionDigestion consists of the _____of large molecules into smaller molecules...
degradation; cellsvesicles; lumenchemicalmasticationenzymaticoralhydrolizesesophagusepiglottispharynx;...
DigestionThe...
digestsgastricbrainprotectpepsinogendissolvesgastrincontractionschymechyme
DigestionThe...
smallduodenum; absorptivepancreatic; neutralizebasicmouthsalivary; maltosesmallintestinal;...
Digestion
stomachGastric; stomach; peptidepancreas chymotrypsinpancreascarboxylintestinal; aminoaminotrypsinsmallliver;...
DigestionAbsorptive...
jejunum activeVitaminsfatssimplewater; diarrheaconstipationfecesbilebileendocrineexocrine
RespirationAnatomy: The respiratory airwayAir enters the respiratory tract...
nostrilsfilteredlarynxtracheafilterbronchiolesalveoli
Respiration
carbon dioxidelungsdiaphragmcontractsincreaseexpandmedulla oblongota contract
Respiration
vitaltidalremainscollapsingexhaledinto; hemoglovinfrom 
CirculationThere are two parts to the circulatory systems: the cardiovascular system...
respiratory; excessfour; blood vesselsright; arteriesleft; veinscapillariesarteries; veinsportalliver;...
CirculationThe Cardiovascular System: The HeartThe right side of...
deoxygenated; oxygenatedventricles; systemicatrium; oxygenatedsystemicatria; oxygenated; systemic
CirculationThe Cardiovascular System: The Heart contract; relaxationmyogenicimpulsesratecontractionsdecrease increase
CirculationThe Cardiovascular System: Blood VesselsThe three types of blood vessels are arteries,...
veinselastic; awaydeoxygenatedinelastictooxygenateddiffuseareadrops
Circulation The Cardiovascular System: Blood Blood transports nutrients and ____ to tissues...
oxygen; carbon dioxideplasmaoxygen; capillariesbone marrowanaerobicglycolysisprotectiveincreaseslymphocytespathogensbacteria;...
Circulation The Cardiovascular System: BloodBlood AntigensErythrocytes have characteristic...
antigenshostBArecipientdonor
CirculationFunctions of the Circulatory System: Transport of GasesErythrocytes contain ____....
hemoglobinhemeaffinityBohrdecreasesenhanceshepaticcapillariesoutintobloodparticles
CirculationFunctions of the Circulatory System: Immunological ReactionsHumoral Immunity (specific...
antibodies bind leukocytes; clumpantigenB; bone marrow; spleenproliferate; memory; primaryantibodiesimmediate;...
Circulation Functions of the Circulatory System: Immunological ReactionsCell Mediated Immunity...
T; thymusinfectedeffectordirectlymacrophagesdecreaseexcessfatfilter
HomeostasisHomeostasis is the process by which a stable internal environment within...
maintainedosmoregulationexcretionthermoregulationliverskin
HomeostasisThe Kidneys: OsmoregulationThe kidneys are composed of ____ and regulate...
nephrons; urineglomerulussecretionBowman's capsulefiltratecirculatory glomerulusreabsorbedhypertonic
HomeostasisThe Kidneys: OsmoregulationThe kidneys function to eliminate ____...
wastesreabsorbedwaterincreasedirectlyindirectlyreabsorbedbladderurethraglucose
HomeostasisThe LiverThe liver helps regulate blood ____ levels and produces urea....
glucosehepaticglycogen
The Endocrine systemThe endocrine system acts as a ____ system coordinating the activities...
communicationhormonestransported
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the Head Area1.  The anterior ____...
pituitaryendocrinebonemilkcortexthyroidovulation; testosterone follicle; spermatogenesis pituitary;...
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the Neck1.  The ____ gland is located...
thyroid; TSHmetabolicdecreasesincreasesACTHglucose; proteinreabsorptionadrenalineincreaseglycogendecreasessuppresses
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the GonadsThe interstitial cells of the...
LH; testosteroneestrogen; endometriumfollicular; ovulationburstsleutal; lininginhibiteddecreaseriseosmoregulationT
The Nervous SystemNeuronsStructureA neuron converts stimuli into _____...
electrochemical dendritesnucleusreceivesynaptic synapticdendrites
The Nervous SystemNeuronsFunctionNeurons are specialized to receive signals...
dendrites; voltagechangesmaintained activeNa+ K+ outside; insidepositivepositive;...
The Nervous SystemNeuronsFunction2. Action PotentialA nerve impulse begins...
Na+ opendepolarizeactionrepolarizes
The Nervous SystemOrganization of the Vertebrate Nervous SystemAfferent neurons carry...
to; sensoryfrom; motor
The Nervous System central; peripheralinterpretintegratesspinal cordhungerendocrineauditorybalancecerebellumrespirationstem
brainstemmusclesreflexesskeletal; reflexoneinternalsmooth; pressurerespirationflight; fightconserve

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