MCAT Biology

89 cards

Kaplan 2010-2011 Biology .


 
  
Created May 20, 2011
by
dheartfield

 

 
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1
Biology involves processes within cells or ____ cells. 
The Cell theory: 1. All...
 
between
cells
pre-existing
DNA
daughter
2
Centrifugation is used to separate cells or mixtures without _____ them in the process. ...
 
destroying
type
densities
3
Prokaryotes include bacteria and _____ (blue, green algae. These are ____ organisms. The...
 
cyanobacteria; unicellular  nucleoid  plasmids nucleus
multicellular; fungi;...
4
The cytosol is the ____ of the cytoplasm and contains nutrients, solutes and proteins.
The...
 
fluid
microtubules; intermediate filaments
support; motility
5
The cell membrane surrounds the cell and is made up of the  ____ bilayer. Phospholipids...
 
phospholipid; hydrophilic; hydrophobic; exterior; interior
regulate; selective; prohibited;...
6
The nucleus controls the ____ of the cell; ex: cell division. It is surrounded by a nuclear...
 
activities; cytoplasm
cytoplasm
rRNA
protein; subunits; cytosol; ER
7
The rough ER is composed of ____ on its outer membrane surface---this is the location of protein...
 
ribosomes; transport; lipid
transport
RER; cisternae; modification; SER; vesicles;...
8
The Golgi Apparatus consists of a stack of membrane enclosed sacs. The Golgi Apparatus' role...
 
distribute 
smooth; repackages
vesicle
hydrolytic; acidic
9
Peroxisomes contain ____ enzymes and break down fats into smaller molecules. 
Gloxysomes...
 
oxidative
sugars
aerobic; DNA; proteins
animal; protects
10
Movement into and out of a cell can either be passive or active
Simple...
 
down; passive
Water high, lower
in; out
in; in 
11
Facilitated diffusion is movement ____ the concentration gradient and  requires a ____...
 
down; carrier; passive
against; ATP
12
Summary of Movement Across the Cell Membrane
Diffusion 1. High...
 
passive; non-polar
energy; water
membrane protein; energy; non-polar
against;...
13
Endocytosis is a process in which the cell membrane turns inward (_____), forming a vesicle. ...
 
invaginates
fluids; large
membrane
14
Tissues
Epithelial Tissue covers the ____ of the body and lines...
 
surfaces; protecting
support
neurons
movement; skeletal
15
Viruses are composed of ____ acid enclosed by a protein coat called a ____. The nucleic acid...
 
nucleic; capsid
inside
16
Process of Virus Reproduction
1. A virus attaches to a ____ cell. 2....
 
host injects replicates virion
bacteriophages
17
Enzymes are protein _____ that seed up the rate of the reaction by lowering the ____. Enzymes...
 
catalysts; activation energy; equilibrium; reversible


substrate; active

complementary

flexibility;...
18
Cofactors are non-protein molecules that enable ____ activity in enzymes. They either aid in...
 
catalytic; active

inactive; active; prosthetic

organic; vitamin; impairs
19
The rate of a catalyzed reaction depends on concentration, _____, and pH.
Concentration
At...
 
temperature

low; linear;  vmax

rate; low; Vmax; high

double;...
20
Regulation of Enzyme Activity: Allosteric RegulationAllosteric Regulation involves the...
 
distinct
regulatory or allosteric

stabilize
21
Enzymatic Activity Interference
Enzyme inhibitors reduce the ____ of the enzyme for its...
 
affinity; right
inhibitor; conformational; overproduction

competes; inhibits; reversible...
22
Cellular metabolism is the ____ of all chemical reactions taking place in a cell. These reactions...
 
sum; organic; anabolic; break down; catabolic; catabolic; anabolic


anabolic; anabolism

oxidation
23
ATP is the cell's main ____ currency. It is synthesized during _____. The molecule is made...
 
energy; glycolysis; adenosine


glycolysis; FAD; hydride; mitochondrial; transport

oxidizing;lose...
24
Glucose Catabolism:

The degradative oxidation of glucose occurs in two stages: glycolysis...
 
respiration

cytoplasm; pyruvate; ATP
substrate

NAD+; lactic

mitochondrial;...
25
In the mitochondria high energy electrons are transferred from NADH and ____ to carrier proteins...
 
FADH2; Electron transport chain (ETC); reduced; oxidized; oxygen; water

3;...
26
Alternate energy sources are used when ____ is low. These alternate sources are converted to...
 
glucose; glycolytic hydrolyzed; TCA ATP; storage
27
Reproduction involves three topics: Cell ____, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.

Cell...
 
division

cytoplasm

reproduction; replacement

binary fission; membrane;...
28
The Cell Cycle (Eukaryotes)

The first  and longest part of the Cell Cycle is called...
 
interphase; divisions; visible; chromatin

mitotic; division; cytokinesis
29
The Cell Cycle: INTERPHASE

A. G1 Phase...
 
metabolic;organelles; divide

replicated; sister; centromeres; teleomeres; diploid; DNA

division;...
30
The Cell Cycle: MITOTIC PHASE

1. MITOSIS
A. Prophase: During prophase the DNA _____...
 
condenses; kinetechores; break down


align

shorten; elongate; separates

decondense;...
31
In asexual reproduction the offspring are formed by _____ of a single parent cell. Offspring...
 
division; identical

membrane; smaller; yeast

regrowth

unfertilized
32
Summary of Meiosis: 
Meiosis is the process whereby ____ are produced....
 
gametes ; halved sperm; egg; diploid
2; separation; gametes
interphase; identical
33
Meiosis I: Production of 2 intermediate daughter cells
During Prophase...
 
disappear; condenses (coils); spindle; homologous synapsis; crossing over; identical; trait
equator;...
34
Meiosis II: Separation of sister chromatids (occurs in each intermediate daughter...
 
spindle
divide; chromatids; bind/attach
opposite
reform; cytokinesis;...
35
Mitosis vs. Meiosis  
twice
half
crossing...
36
Male Reproductive Anatomy  
scrotum
sperm; testosterone 
37
Spermatogenesis: Sperm production
Diploid cells called spermatogonia...
 
mitosis; spermatocyte
meiosis I; meiosis II
maturation
38
Female Reproductive Anatomy
Ovaries produce eggs, called ____ and secrete...
 
ova; progesterone
follicles; nourishes; estrogen
fallopian 
uterus;...
39
Oogenesis: Production of female gametes
After menarche, one primary ____...
 
oocyte; ovulation; fertilization
corona; zona; penetrated
40
Fertilization
Sperm are viable ____ days following intercourse. An egg...
 
1-2; ovulation;  vaginal; ovum
corona; acrosome; membrane; acrosomal; fuses;...
41
Multiple Births
Monozygotic (Identical) Twins result when a single zygote...
 
embryos; separate;  one; genetically
Siamese
ovarian; different
42

Embryology is the study of the development of a _____ zygote into a complete ____ organism....

 

unicellular; multicellular

division; morphogenesis

 

cleavage;...

43

Embryology

 

Implantation of embryo into wall of uterus

 

Implantation...

 

fertilization; proliferation; endometrium ; proteolytic

 

glastula;...

44

Embryology

 

Neurulation: Development of the nervous system

 

By...

 
neurulation
45
Embryology
Fetal Respiration 
After 8 weeks of gestation...
 
fetus; placenta
chorion; amnion ; fetus
respiration; immunological; alcohol;...
46
Embryology
Fetal Circulation 
Since fetal lungs are...
 
placenta; vein
liver; lungs
organs; brain
elongate; active
47

Musculoskeletal System

 

Muscles and bones work together...

 

movement

 

support

exo; endo

 

vertebral;...

48

Musculoskeletal System

 

Bone-Macroscopic Structure

Bone...

 

stress

compact;  cavities; marrow; blood

 

appendages;...

49

Musculoskeletal System

 

Bone-Microscopic Structure

 

Compact...

 

glyco

calcium

strength

 

osteons

lamellae

lacunae;...

50

Musculoskeletal System

 

Bone Formation and Remodeling

 

Bone...

 

cartilege

 

embryonic

 

absorbed

degradation;...

51

Musculoskeletal...

 
voluntary; somaticmultinucleated
myofibrils; sacroplasmicsacroplasm; sacrolemmapotential;...
52

Musculoskeletal...

 
myglobinaerobicrigorous
less; anaerobiccontraction
53

Musculoskeletal...

 
actin; myosintropomyosin
boundaries centermyosinactinmyosinreduced
54

Musculoskeletal...

 
receptorsactionsynchronization
Ca2+shiftconformation
crossreduced
sacroplasmicbindsdissociation
55

Musculoskeletal...

 
thresholdstimulus contracts
briefonsetunresponsive
relaxsummationtetaus
56

Musculoskeletal...

 
involuntary; autonomic 
digestive
nucleus
slower


57

Musculoskeletal...

 
creatine
oxygen; releasesanaerobiclactic
supportpacking
collagenousbonejoints

58

Musculoskeletal...

 
origin
proximal
59
DigestionDigestion consists of the _____of large molecules into smaller molecules...
 
degradation; cells
vesicles; lumen
chemicalmasticationenzymaticoralhydrolizes
esophagusepiglottis
pharynx;...
60
DigestionThe...
 
digestsgastricbrain
protectpepsinogendissolves
gastrincontractionschymechyme
61
DigestionThe...
 
smallduodenum; absorptive
pancreatic; neutralize
basic
mouthsalivary; maltosesmallintestinal;...
62
Digestion
 
stomachGastric; stomach; peptidepancreas chymotrypsinpancreascarboxylintestinal; aminoaminotrypsin
smallliver;...
63
DigestionAbsorptive...
 
jejunum activeVitaminsfatssimple
water; diarrheaconstipationfeces
bilebileendocrineexocrine
64
Respiration
Anatomy: The respiratory airwayAir enters the respiratory...
 
nostrilsfilteredlarynxtracheafilter
bronchiolesalveoli
65
Respiration
 
carbon dioxidelungsdiaphragm
contractsincreaseexpand
medulla oblongota contract
66
Respiration
 
vitaltidalremainscollapsingexhaled
into; hemoglovinfrom 
67
CirculationThere are two parts to the circulatory systems: the cardiovascular system...
 
respiratory; excess
four; blood vessels
right; arteriesleft; veinscapillaries
arteries;...
68
Circulation

The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
The...
 
deoxygenated; oxygenated
ventricles; systemic
atrium; oxygenatedsystemic
atria; oxygenated;...
69
Circulation
The Cardiovascular System: The Heart 
contract; relaxation
myogenicimpulses
rate
contractionsdecrease increase
70
Circulation
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

The three types of blood vessels...
 
veins

elastic; away
deoxygenated

inelastic
to
oxygenated

diffuse

area
drops
71
Circulation
The Cardiovascular System: Blood
Blood transports nutrients and ____ to...
 
oxygen; carbon dioxide
plasma

oxygen; capillaries
bone marrow
anaerobic
glycolysis

protective
increases
lymphocytes
pathogens
bacteria;...
72
Circulation
The Cardiovascular System: Blood

Blood Antigens
Erythrocytes have...
 
antigens
host

B
A
recipient
donor
73
Circulation
Functions of the Circulatory System: Transport of Gases

Erythrocytes...
 
hemoglobin
heme
affinity

Bohr
decreases
enhances

hepatic
capillaries

out
into
blood
particles
74
Circulation
Functions of the Circulatory System: Immunological Reactions

Humoral...
 
antibodies
bind
leukocytes; clump

antigen

B; bone marrow; spleen
proliferate;...
75
Circulation
Functions of the Circulatory System: Immunological Reactions

Cell Mediated...
 
T; thymus
infected

effector
directly
macrophages
decrease
excess
fat
filter
76
HomeostasisHomeostasis is the process by which a stable internal environment within...
 
maintainedosmoregulationexcretionthermoregulationliverskin
77
HomeostasisThe Kidneys: OsmoregulationThe kidneys are composed of ____ and regulate...
 
nephrons; urine
glomerulus
secretion
Bowman's capsulefiltratecirculatory glomerulus
reabsorbedhypertonic
78
HomeostasisThe Kidneys: OsmoregulationThe kidneys function to eliminate ____...
 
wastesreabsorbedwater
increasedirectlyindirectly
reabsorbedbladderurethraglucose
79
HomeostasisThe LiverThe liver helps regulate blood ____ levels and produces urea....
 
glucosehepaticglycogen
80
The Endocrine systemThe endocrine system acts as a ____ system coordinating the activities...
 
communication
hormonestransported
81
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the Head Area1.  The anterior ____...
 
pituitaryendocrine
bonemilk
cortexthyroidovulation; testosterone follicle; spermatogenesis 
pituitary;...
82
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the Neck1.  The ____ gland is located...
 
thyroid; TSHmetabolicdecreases
increases
ACTHglucose; proteinreabsorption
adrenalineincrease
glycogendecreasessuppresses
83
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the GonadsThe interstitial cells of the...
 
LH; testosterone
estrogen; endometrium
follicular; ovulationburstsleutal; lininginhibiteddecreaserise
osmoregulationT
84
The Nervous SystemNeuronsStructureA neuron converts stimuli into _____...
 
electrochemical 
dendrites
nucleusreceivesynaptic synapticdendrites
85
The Nervous SystemNeuronsFunctionNeurons are specialized to receive signals...
 
dendrites; voltagechanges
maintained activeNa+ K+ outside; inside
positivepositive;...
86
The Nervous SystemNeuronsFunction2. Action PotentialA nerve impulse begins...
 
Na+ opendepolarizeactionrepolarizes
87
The Nervous SystemOrganization of the Vertebrate Nervous SystemAfferent neurons carry...
 
to; sensory
from; motor
88
The Nervous System 
central; peripheral
interpret
integratesspinal cordhungerendocrine
auditorybalancecerebellumrespiration
stem
89
 
brainstemmusclesreflexes
skeletal; reflexone
internalsmooth; pressurerespirationflight;...

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