MCAT Biology

Kaplan 2010-2011 Biology .
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Biology involves processes within cells or ____ cells.
The Cell theory: 1. All living things are composed of ____. 2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life. 3. All cells come from _____ cells. 4. Cells carry genetic information in the form of ____. This genetic information is passed from parent cell to ____ cell.
Centrifugation is used to separate cells or mixtures without _____ them in the process.
At low speeds, cells or mixture are separated into layers on the basis of cell ____.
At high speeds the cell mixtures will separate on the basis of ____. (High-density at the bottom, low density at top)
Prokaryotes include bacteria and _____ (blue, green algae. These are ____ organisms. The DNA is located in the ____ region. Small rings of circular DNA are called _____ and consist of just a few genes. A cell wall is present in all prokaryotes, however they do not have a _____ or membrane bound organelles.
All non-bacteria unicellular organisms and all _____ organisms are composed of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes include protists, ____, plants and ____. Eukaryotes are bounded by the cell ____ and contains cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains the ____. Linear strands of DNA are organized into ____ and located in the nucleus.
cyanobacteria; unicellular nucleoid plasmids nucleus
multicellular; fungi; animals
membrane; organelles
The cytosol is the ____ of the cytoplasm and contains nutrients, solutes and proteins.
The cytoskeleton is inside the cytosol and is made up of _____ (thick-tubulin), microfilaments (thin--actin) and ______. The cytoskeleton provides mechanical ____, shape and _____.
microtubules; intermediate filaments
support; motility
The cell membrane surrounds the cell and is made up of the ____ bilayer. Phospholipids have a phospholipid head, which is _____, and fatty acid tails that are _____. (Amphipathic molecule). The hydrophilic regions (phospholipid head) make up the _____ of the cell membrane and the hydrophobic tails make up the _____.
The structure of the phospholipid bilayer allows the cell membrane to _____ the passage of materials in both directions. It exhibits _____ permeability which means that some molecules may pass through freely, whereas others are _____ or regulated. Small, ______ (hydrophobic) molecules may pass freely whereas ions and larger molecules, such as proteins and carbohydrates require ____ proteins.
Cholesterol is embedded in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane contributing to its ____. Lipids move freely throughout the membrane.
Proteins in the bilayer:
1.Cell Adhesion Molecules are proteins that are _____ or completely embedded in the bilayer---one or both ends extend beyond the membrane on the other side contributing to cell ____ and adhesion.
2. Transport proteins are membrane-_____ proteins that allow certain ions/____ molecules to pass through the bilayer.
3. Receptors are types of complex/glycoproteins embedded in the membrane with sites that ____ to specific molecules in the cell's ____ environment. The receptor may carry the molecule from the external environment into the cell via _____ or another messenger.
phospholipid; hydrophilic; hydrophobic; exterior; interior
regulate; selective; prohibited; non-polar; carrier
partially; recognition
spanning; polar
bind; external; pinocytosis
The nucleus controls the ____ of the cell; ex: cell division. It is surrounded by a nuclear envelope/membrane which maintain an environment distinct from the _____.
The nuclear pores allow for selective two-way exchange of materials between the nucleus and the ____.
The nucleus contains the DNA and the nucleolus is the site for _____ synthesis.
Ribosomes are the site for ____ synthesis. They are composed of both large and small ____, each composed of rRNA and proteins. Free ribosomes are located in the _____ and bound ribosomes are located on the outer membrane of the _____.
activities; cytoplasm
protein; subunits; cytosol; ER
The rough ER is composed of ____ on its outer membrane surface---this is the location of protein synthesis for secretion and intracellular ____. The smooth ER is the location for ____ synthesis and detoxification. .
The ER is involved in _____---especially of materials destined for export out of the cell.
Method: 1. Protein synthesis on the ____; 2. Cross into the ____ of the RER; 3. Chemical ____ of the protein. 4. Cross into the _____. 5. Secreted into cytoplasmic _____. 6. Transported to the _____ _____.
ribosomes; transport; lipid
RER; cisternae; modification; SER; vesicles; Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi Apparatus consists of a stack of membrane enclosed sacs. The Golgi Apparatus' role is to _____ newly synthesized materials to a cell surface.
Method: It receives vesicles and its contents from the _____ ER, modifies the contents, ____ them into vesicles and distributes.
A membrane-bound sac involved in the transport/storage of materials is called a _____ or vacuole (plants).
A lysosome is a vesicle that contains ____ enzymes involved in intracellular digestion. These enzymes are maximally effective in an ____ environment (within the lysosome).
smooth; repackages
hydrolytic; acidic
Peroxisomes contain ____ enzymes and break down fats into smaller molecules.
Gloxysomes break down fats into ____.
Mitochondria is the site of _____ respiration, hence the supplier of energy. Mitochondria contain their own ____ (circular) and ribosomes enabling them to produce their own _____ (via ribosomes) and self replicate (due to DNA) via binary fission. Believed to be first prokaryotes.
The Cell wall is not found in _____ cells. This structure ____ the cell wall from external stimuli and desiccation.
aerobic; DNA; proteins
animal; protects
Movement into and out of a cell can either be passive or active.
Simple diffusion is the net movement of dissolved particles ____a concentration gradient---from a higher concentration to lower concentration. This movement does not require energy and is considered _____.
Osmosis is the simple diffusion of _____. Movement of water travels from an environment with a _____ concentration of water to a ____ concentration of water.
In a hypertonic cell, there is more water concentration ____ the cell, thus the direction of osmosis is ____ of the cell causing shrinkage.
In a hypotonic cell, there is less water concentration _____ the cell, thus the drection of osmosis is ____ the cell causing swelling and eventually lysis.
down; passive
Water high, lower
in; out
in; in
Facilitated diffusion is movement ____ the concentration gradient and requires a ____ but no energy and is considered _____ transport.
Active transport is the net movement of dissolved particles ____ their concentration gradient. This movement requires _____ and the use of carrier molecules.
down; carrier; passive
against; ATP
Summary of Movement Across the Cell Membrane
Diffusion 1. High to low concentration (down gradient) 2. No membrane protein required (carrier). 3. No energy required because it is a ____ process. 4. Types of molecules transported: small, ____ molecules such as O2, CO2, etc. (diffuse across membrane freely)
Osmosis 1. High to low concentration (down gradient) 2. No membrane protein required (carrier). 3. This is a passive process thus no ____ is required. 4. Molecule transported is ____.
Facilitated Diffusion 1. High to low concentration (down gradient) 2. A ____ _____ (carrier) is required to facilitate the movement. 3. This is a passive process thus no ____ is required. 4. Molecules transported are large ____ molecules such as glucose.
Active Transport 1. Low to high concentration ( ____gradient) 2. A ____ _____ (carrier) is required to facilitate the movement. 3. This is an active process thus ____ is required. 4. Molecules transported are ____ molecules or ions such as Na+, Cl-, K+, etc.
passive; non-polar
energy; water
membrane protein; energy; non-polar
against; membrane protein; energy; polar
Endocytosis is a process in which the cell membrane turns inward (_____), forming a vesicle.
Pinocytosis is the ingestion of ____/small molecules. Phagocytosis is the engulfing of _____ particles.
In exocytosis a vesicle within the cell fuses with the cell ____ and releases contents to the outside.
fluids; large
Epithelial Tissue covers the ____ of the body and lines the cavities, ____ them against injury, invasion, and desiccation.
Connective tissue is involved in body ____and other functions. Ex: bone, cartilage, ligaments.
Nervous Tissue is composed of specialized cells called ____ which are involved in the perception, processing and storage of information.
Muscle tissue is involved in body _____. Three types of muscle tissue: cardiac, ____, and smooth.
surfaces; protecting
movement; skeletal
Viruses are composed of ____ acid enclosed by a protein coat called a ____. The nucleic acid may be circular or linear as well as single or double stranded DNA or RNA.
Viruses are called obligate intracellular parasites because they can only express and reproduce ____ a living host.
nucleic; capsid
Process of Virus Reproduction
1. A virus attaches to a ____ cell. 2. The virus ____ its nucleic acid into the host cell. 3. The viral genome ____ itself many times producing new protein coats. 4. New ____ is assembled. 5. New virion leaves host in search of new hosts.
Viruses that exclusively infect bacteria are called _____.
host injects replicates virion
Enzymes are protein _____ that seed up the rate of the reaction by lowering the ____. Enzymes are neither consumed or changed and do not have any effect on the ΔG nor the _____. Most enzyme reactions are _____.

Enzymes are specific: The molecule upon which an enzyme acts is called the _____. Each enzyme has an ____ site upon which the substrate binds, forming the enzyme-substrate complex.

2 models describe formation of enzyme-substrate complex:

1. Lock and Key Theory: Active site is exactly _____ to the spatial structure of its substrate (key)

2. Induced fit: Active site has _____ of shape. When the appropriate substrate and active site come into contact this induces a _____ change.
catalysts; activation energy; equilibrium; reversible

substrate; active


flexibility; conformational
Cofactors are non-protein molecules that enable ____ activity in enzymes. They either aid in binding the enzyme to the substrate or stabilizing an enzyme in an ____ conformation.

An apoenzyme is an enzyme that is catalytically ____, thus it is devoid of a co-factor. A haloenzyme is catalytically ____, thus it is covalently or non-covalently bound to an enzyme. Tightly bound cofactors are called _____ groups.

A coenzyme is an ____ cofactor, not synthesized by the body but is obtained as ______ derivatives. If these vitamins are not consumed it ____ the corresponding enzyme and can lead to disease.
catalytic; active

inactive; active; prosthetic

organic; vitamin; impairs
The rate of a catalyzed reaction depends on concentration, _____, and pH.
At low [S] the reaction rate is ____ because most of the active sites of the enzyme are unoccupied. Increasing the [S] leads to proportional or ____ increase in the rate. Once most of the active sites on the enzyme are occupied, the rate levels off at ____.

When the reaction rate = 1/2 Vmax (graph), Km = [S]; half of the enzymes active sites are occupied. When the [S]< Km changes in the [S] greatly affect the ____ of the reaction, there is also ____ affinity of the enzyme for the substrate. When [S]>Km V approaches ____ and there is ____ affinity of the enzyme for the substrate.
For every 10°C increase, rates of a reaction _____ until optimal temperature is reached. After the optimal temperature is reached, increase in temperature leads to _____ of the enzyme. *Optimal temp for the human body is 37°C.
Maximal activity of any human enzymes occur between 7.35 and 7.45. Pepsin works best in ___ condition (pH =2) and pancreatic enzymes work best in ____ conditions (pH= 8.5).

low; linear; vmax

rate; low; Vmax; high

double; denaturation

acidic; alkaline
Regulation of Enzyme Activity: Allosteric RegulationAllosteric Regulation involves the binding of molecules to particular sites on on an enzyme that are _____ from he active site.
An allosteric enzyme has at least one active/catalytic site and one ____ site, thus, it oscillates between an active and inactive conformation.

A regulator molecule can bind to an enzyme and can ____ either the active or inactive configuration of the enzyme. This molecule is different from the substrate.

regulatory or allosteric

Enzymatic Activity Interference
Enzyme inhibitors reduce the ____ of the enzyme for its substrate. A decrease in affinity shifts the enzyme kinetics curve to the ____.
Feedback Inhibition: The end product of a sequence becomes an allosteric _____ of one of the preceding enzymes in a sequence. When the end product binds to the allosteric site, the enzyme undergoes a ____ change and can no longer react with its substrate. This allows for organisms to avoid _____ of metabolites.

Competitive Inhibition: A molecule similar to the substrate ____ with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme. If it binds to the enzyme's active site it ____ the enzyme. This process is ____/can be overcome by increasing the concentration of the substrate. Competitive inhibitors reduce V but have no effect on ____. Competitive inhibitors ____ Km.

Noncompetitive inhibitors bind at an ____ site, not an active site and cannot be displaced by an increase in ____. Noncompetitive inhibitors ____ Vmax, but have no effect on Km.
affinity; right
inhibitor; conformational; overproduction

competes; inhibits; reversible Vmax ;increases

allosteric; substrate; decrease
Cellular metabolism is the ____ of all chemical reactions taking place in a cell. These reactions can either be energy requiring, ivolving the biosynthesis of ____ compounds into smaller molecules~ ____ process; or they can be processes that release energy as they ____ _____ complex organic molecules into smaller molecules~ _____ process. These reactions are ususally coupled so that _____ reactions can fuel _____ reactions.

Photosynthesis is an _____ reaction, also referred to as glucose ______. The net reaction is :
6CO2 + 6H2O + energy ----> C6H12O6 + O2

Glycolysis is also called glucose catabolism or _____. The net equation is the reversal of photosynthesis:
C6H12O6 + O2 ------->6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
sum; organic; anabolic; break down; catabolic; catabolic; anabolic

anabolic; anabolism

ATP is the cell's main ____ currency. It is synthesized during _____. The molecule is made of the nitrogenous base _____, a ribose sugar and three phoshate groups. The energy is stored in the covalent bonds linking the phosphates.

High potential electrons are removed during _____ and accepted by the coenzymes NAD+, ______ and NADP+. The high energy electrons are transferred as _____ ions and transported to carrier molecules on the inner _____ membrane also known as the electron ____ chain.

NAD+, NADP+, and FAD are _____ agents because they cause other molecules to _____ their electrons resulting in their _____ to NADH, NADPH, and FADH2. This is a ____ process. These coenzymes then behave as _____ agents by transferring their electrons to another acceptor (the first carrier in the _____ _____ _____) resulting in their oxidation (anabolic process).
energy; glycolysis; adenosine

glycolysis; FAD; hydride; mitochondrial; transport

oxidizing;lose ; reduction; catabolic; reducing; electron transport chain
Glucose Catabolism:

The degradative oxidation of glucose occurs in two stages: glycolysis and cellular _____.

1. Glycolysis occurs in the ____ and leads to the oxidative break down of glucose into 2 _____, the production of ____ and the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. The 2 ATP produced during glycolysis are via _____-level phosporylation, which is the production of ATP without the participation of an intermediate such as NAD+.The net reaction for glycolyisis:
Glucose + 2ADP + 2pi + 2 NAD+-----> 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 H2O.

2. Cellular Respiration
a.) Anaerobic- For glycolysis to continue in the absence of oxygen, _____ must be produced. Pyruvate is reduced into either ethanol or _____ acid which produces 2 ATP.
b.) Aerobic
-Pyruvate Decarboxylation: The 2 pyruvate produced from glycolysis are transported into the _____ matrix from the cytoplasm. There they are decarboxylated forming ____-CoA. During the formation of acetyl-CoA CO2 is produced and NADH is formed.
-Cirtic Acid Cycle: Next the acetyl protion of acetyl-CoA combines with ____(4carbon) forming citrate (6-carbon) and relinquishes CoA (carrier molecule). During the cycle 2 CO2 are released and oxaloacetate is _____ for another turn in the cycle. *Because there are 2 pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis the Kreb's cycle must complete ____ circuits/turns to completely break down the pyruvate molecules.* For each turn 1 ATP is produced, 2 CO2, 3 NADH and 1 FADH, thus for one cycle ___ ATP are produced, ___ CO2, ___ NADH and ____ FADH.

cytoplasm; pyruvate; ATP

NAD+; lactic

mitochondrial; acetyl; oxaloacetate; regenerated
2; 2;4; 6; 2
In the mitochondria high energy electrons are transferred from NADH and ____ to carrier proteins (large protein complexes. The electrons move from cytochrome to cytochrome through the ____ . Each carrier is _____ as it accepts the electrons and then ____ when it passes them to the next carrier. The last carrier is cytochrome a3 and the final electron acceptor is ____ ---when it accepts the electrons _____ is formed as a byproduct.

Energy loss occurs as electrons are transferred from one complex to the next: electrons from NADH travel through all three complexes, thus ____ ATPs are produced per NADH molecule. Electrons fom FADH2 bypass the first complex, thus ___ ATP are produced per molecule. This type of ATP production must be coupled to the phosphorylation of ADP and is termed ____ phosphorylation. The coupling of these two processes are called a proton ____. As NADH passes its electrons to the ETC free H+ ions (protons) are released and carried across the membrane. These protons accumulate in the _____ space at each complex resulting in the environment eventually becoming acidic and the ____ ____ force drives H+ back across the membrane through the ____-synthase carrier. The movement of the protons derive enough energy to allow _____ of ADP to form ATP (oxidative phosphorylation).
FADH2; Electron transport chain (ETC); reduced; oxidized; oxygen; water

3; 2; oxidative; gradient; inner-membrane; proton motive; ATP; phosphorylation
Alternate energy sources are used when ____ is low. These alternate sources are converted to glucose or other glucose intermediate and degraded in the ____ pathway or TCA cycle. 1. Carbohydrates are ____ into monosaccharides which are then converted into glucose intermediates that enter glycolysis and the ____ cycle. 2. Fats yield the greatest number of ____ per gram which makes them extremely efficient energy ____ molecules. 3. Proteins
glucose; glycolytic hydrolyzed; TCA ATP; storage
Reproduction involves three topics: Cell ____, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.

Cell division is the process by which a cell doubles its organelles and _____; replicates its DNA and divides in 2.

For prokarytotes cell division is a method of _____, whereas for eukaryotes cell division is a method of growth, development and ____ of worn-out cells.

Prokaryotes divide by a process called _____ _____. In this process, as the cell grows, the DNA is replicated on sites attached to the cell ______. The 2 copies of DNA are separated due to the growth of the cell; the cell membrane pinches inward and each _____ cell receives a complete copy of the original chromosome.


reproduction; replacement

binary fission; membrane; daughter
The Cell Cycle (Eukaryotes)

The first and longest part of the Cell Cycle is called _____. Interphase occurs between cell _____. Includes G1, S, and G2 phase. During interphase the nucleus is membrane bound and clearly _____ but individual chromosomes are not visible under light microscopes. The DNA is granular and called ______.

The second part of the Cell Cycle is the ____ stage which is when actual cell ____ occurs; as well as the division of the cytoplasm (_____).
interphase; divisions; visible; chromatin

mitotic; division; cytokinesis
The Cell Cycle: INTERPHASE

A. G1 Phase (Growth1 phase: This stage is one of intense ____ and biochemical activity. New _____ are produced and the G1 check point controls whether the cell will _____, delay division, or enter a resting stage.

B. S (Synthesis) Phase: During this stage DNA is _____. The chromosomes contain 2 _____ chromatids held together at the _____. The ends of the chromatids are called ______. After DNA replication the cell still contains the ____ number (2N) of chromosomes, however cells entering the G2 phase have twice as much ____ as in G1 cells.

C. G2 Phase: During this phase the cell continues to grow and prepares for cell ______. The G2 checkpoint assesses whether DNA replication has been _____.
metabolic;organelles; divide

replicated; sister; centromeres; teleomeres; diploid; DNA

division; successful

A. Prophase: During prophase the DNA _____ (coils) forming chromosomes; the mitotic spindle attaches to _____ on each chromosome. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus _____ ______.

B. Metaphase: The chromosomes _____ at the metaphase plate.

C. Anaphase: Microtubles (mitotic spindle fibers) attached to chromosomes _____ and unattached fibers _____; this ____ the sister chromatids and they each containing their own centromere.

D. Telophase: The chromosomes ______ (uncoil/relax) returning to their interphase form; the nuclear membrane forms around each set of ______ and the nucleoli reappear.

During cytokinesis a ____ furrow (in animal cells) forms at the center of either cell pinching through until the original cell is divided into 2 _____ cells.
condenses; kinetechores; break down


shorten; elongate; separates

decondense; chromosomes

cleavage; daughter
In asexual reproduction the offspring are formed by _____ of a single parent cell. Offspring are genetically ____ to the parent cell.

Types of Asexual reproduction:
1. Binary Fission
2. Budding: In budding the cell ______ pinches inward forming a new cell that is _____ but genetically identical. This type of asexual production is seen ____.
3. Regeneration: The _____ of a lost or injured body part. Replacement of cells occur by mitosis. Ex; Starfish.
4. Parthogenesis: The development of an ____ egg into an adult organism.
division; identical

membrane; smaller; yeast


Summary of Meiosis:
Meiosis is the process whereby ____ are produced. The diploid # of the cell is ____. The gametes produced are ____ and ____ cells. During fertilization the haploid cells fuse to form a ____ offspring.
Meiosis I produces ____ intermediate daughter cells.(2N----> 1N) Meiosis II is the ____ of sister chromatids resulting in 4 haploid ____(1N--> 1N).
Like mitosis, meiosis is preceded by an _____(G1, S, and G2)----during this time DNA replicates and each chromosome becomes doubled consisting of 2 ____ strands (identical chromatids).
gametes ; halved sperm; egg; diploid
2; separation; gametes
interphase; identical
Meiosis I: Production of 2 intermediate daughter cells
During Prophase I the nuclear envelope and nucleoli ____; DNA ____ and chromosomes become visible under a light microscope. The ____ apparatus forms and ____ chromosomes line up next to each other in a process known as ____ and exchange DNA between adjacent homologous chromatids. This process is called ____ ____ and afterwards, sister chromatids are no longer _____. *Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes that code for the same _____. One is inherited from each parent.
During Metaphase I homologous pairs line up on the ____ of the cell and each pair attaches to a ____ fiber by its kinetechore. Orientation on the equator is random, this is known _____ assortment.
During Anaphase I microtubules of the spindle fiber shorten, _____ the homologous pairs. This is known as _____. Each new cell will have one member of the homologous pairs.
During telophase I the nuclear membrane ____ around the daughter nucleus and _____ occurs resulting in 2 intermediate daughter cells that have ____ the number of chromosomes compared to the original cell.
disappear; condenses (coils); spindle; homologous synapsis; crossing over; identical; trait
equator; spindle; independent
separating; disjunction
reforms; cytokinesis; half
Meiosis II: Separation of sister chromatids (occurs in each intermediate daughter cell)
In prophase II the nuclear envelope breaks down and new ____ apparatus forms.
In metaphase II the chromosomes line up on the equator and centromeres ____ separating chromosomes into individual sister _____. Spindle fibers ____ to both sides of the centromeres.
In anaphase II the spindle fibers shorten and sister chromatids are pulled to ____ poles of the cell.
In telophase II the nuclear envelopes _____ around the sets of chromosomes and ____ takes place resulting in the ____ haploid gametes.
Sexual reproduction produces genetic _____ in offspring. The possibility of so many genetic combinations is believed to increase the capability of a species to _____ and adapt to a changing environment.
divide; chromatids; bind/attach
reform; cytokinesis; 4
variability; evolve
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis Meiosis_____ 1 parent 2 parents Identical Genetic Genetically unique offspring offspring Somatic Cells Germ-line cells
The number of cells produced by meiosis is ____ the number of cells produced by mitosis.
The number of chromosomes in daughter cells produced by meiosis is ____ the number of chromosomes in daughter cells.
The process unique to meiosis is called ____ ____.
crossing over
Male Reproductive Anatomy
The testes are located in the ____ an external pouch which maintains temperature 2-4° C below body temperature (37° C) for sperm survival.
The testes serve 2 functions: 1. Production of ____ in the seminiferous tubules; 2. secrete _____ and other androgens (male sex hormones) from interstitial cells.
Pathway of Sperm: SEVEN UP
Sperm are produced in the _____ tubules and pass from there to the epididymus. There they acquire motility, ____ and are stored until ejaculation. During ejaculation the sperm travel through the ___ deferens to the ____ duct and then to the urethra exiting the penis.
As sperm travels through the reproductive tract it mixes with seminal fluid producing ____. Seminal fluid ____ the passageway through which sperm travel.
Seminal fluid is produced by 3 glands: 1. The seminal vesicle produces a fructose fluid which provides ____ for the highly active sperm. 2. The prostate gland produces an alkaline, milky fluid that protects the sperm from ____ conditions. 3. The bulbourethral gland secretes ______ fluid.
sperm; testosterone
seminiferous; mature; vas; ejaculatory
semen; lubricates
energy; acidic; pre-ejaculatory
Spermatogenesis: Sperm production
Diploid cells called spermatogonia divide by ____ forming 2 diploid daughter cells: Primary _____ and Spermatogonium. The primary spermatocyte divides by ____ forming haploid secondary spermatocytes The secondary spermatocytes undergo _____ forming 4 haploid spermatids. The spermatids undergo changes( ____) leading to the formation of spermatazoa, mature sperm.
mitosis; spermatocyte
meiosis I; meiosis II
Female Reproductive Anatomy
Ovaries produce eggs, called ____ and secrete the hormones estrogen and ______.
Ovaries consist of thousands of _____ (multi-layered sacs of cells that contains, _____, and protects the immature ovum). Follicle cells produce the hormone _____.
Once a month an immature ovum is released from the ovary and taken into the _____ tube. The Fallopian tube opens into the _____ (the site for fetal development). The narrow end of the fetus is called the ____ which connects with the vaginal canal. The vaginal canal is the site for sperm _____ during intercourse and passageway through which a baby is _____.
ova; progesterone
follicles; nourishes; estrogen
uterus; cervix; deposition; expelled
Oogenesis: Production of female gametes
After menarche, one primary ____ per month completes meiosis I yielding a secondary oocyte and polar body. The secondary oocyte is expelled from the follicle during _____. Meiosis II does not occur until _____.
The oocyte has 2 layers:
The outer layer is called the _____ radiata. The inner layer is called the _____ pellucida. Meiosis II is triggered when the layers are _____ by sperm yielding 2 haploid cells--a mature ovum and polar body (eventually dies). The mature ovum contains a lot of cytoplasm, organelles, RNA and nutrients.
oocyte; ovulation; fertilization
corona; zona; penetrated
Sperm are viable ____ days following intercourse. An egg can be fertilized the 12-24 hours after _____. Sperm must travel through the ____ canal, cervix and uterus into the fallopian tubes to reach the ____.
Sperm must first break through the outer layer of the oocyte---the ____ radiata. Enzymes secreted by the _____ (caplike structure on the head of the sperm) aid in the penetration of the layer allowing sperm to come into direct contact with ovum's cell ____. Once in contact with the ovum's cell membrane, the sperm forms a tubelike structure called the _____ process which ____ the sperm's cell membrane to the ovum's. The sperm's nucleus enters the ovum's ____. At this stage of fertilization the ovum completes meiosis II.
The fertilization membrane (hard layer) is formed and prevents _____ fertilizations. The sperm's nucleus fuses with the ovum's nucleus forming a ____ zygote.
1-2; ovulation; vaginal; ovum
corona; acrosome; membrane; acrosomal; fuses; cytoplasm
multiple; diploid
Multiple Births
Monozygotic (Identical) Twins result when a single zygote splits into two ____. If the splitting occurs at the two-cell stage of development, the embryos will have _____ chorions and placentas. If it occurs at the blastula stage then the embryos will have ____ chorionic sac and share a placenta. Monozygotic twins are _____ identical, are of the same sex, blood type, etc.
If the division is incomplete this results in the birth of _____ twins.
Dizygotic (fraternal) twins result when two ova are released in one ____ cycle and are fertilized by two ____ sperm. Each develops its own placenta, amnion and chorion.
embryos; separate; one; genetically
ovarian; different

Embryology is the study of the development of a _____ zygote into a complete ____ organism. Over the course of 9 months, the unicellular zygote undergoes cell ____, cell differentiation (cell specialization) and ____ (specific structural features) in preparation for life outside of the uterus.
Cleavage-Division of cells and formation of blastula
Early embryonic development is characterized by a series of rapid mitotic divisions called _____. Clevage leads to an increase in cell number however the ____ volume remains the same. Clevage also increases the surface-volume ratio improving gas and nutrient _____.
The first clevage occurs ___hours after fertilization. The second clevage occurs ____ hours after fertilization. The third clevage occurs ____ hours after fertilization---at this point the 8-celled embryo has reached the ____. During these cell divisions a solid ball of embryonic cells forms, this is called the _____.
Blastulation begins when morula forms a fluid-filled cavity called the _____. By the fourth day the blastocel becomes a hollow sphere of cells called the ____---in mammals this is called the blastocyst. The blastocyst is made up of the inner cell mass which protrudes ____ the blastocel and the trophoblast which surrounds the blastocel.

unicellular; multicellular
division; morphogenesis
cleavage; cytoplasm; exchange
32; 60; 72; uterus; morula
blastocel; blastulat; into;

Implantation of embryo into wall of uterus
Implantation of the embryo occurs during blastulation, 5-8 days after _____. Progersterone prepares the uterus for implantation by causing glandular _____ in the mucosal lining of the uterus( the ____). Embryonic cells secrete ____ enzymes capable of digesting tissue and allowing the embryo to implant itself in the endometrium.
Gastrulation: Fromation of germ layers
Once implanted, cell migrations transform the single-cell layer of the blastula into a three-layered structure called the _____. The elimination of the blastocel results in a 2-layer cup: the outer cellular layer is called the _____ and the inner cellular layer is called the _____.
The three primary germ layers ectodem, endoderm and _____ are responsible for the differential development of the tissues, ____ and systems of the body at later stages of growth.
Ectoderm: Epidermis, hair, nails, ____ system, etc.
Endoderm: epithelial linings of the ____ and respiratory tract, parts of the liver, pancreas, thyroid, etc.
Mesoderm: Excretory system, circulatory system, and _____ system; gonads, connective tissue, protion of digestive and respiratory organs.
Most of this differentiation is accomplished via selective ____ of the genome.
Induction is the ____ of a specific group of cells on the _____ of another group of cells.

fertilization; proliferation; endometrium ; proteolytic
glastula; ectoderm; endoderm
mesoderm; organs
nervous; digestive; musculoskeletal

Neurulation: Development of the nervous system
By the end of gastrulation regions of the germ layers begin to develop a rudimentary nevous system; this process is known as _____.
Fetal Respiration
After 8 weeks of gestation the embryo is referred to as the _____. The fetus receives oxygen directly from its mother through a specialized circulatory system consisted of the ____ and umbilical cord.
The placenta and umbilical cord are formed from the extra-embryonic membranes: the amnion, ____, allantois and yolk sac. Placenta formation begins with the chorion, a membrane that completely surrounds the _____. The umbilical cord is the initial connection between the placenta and the ____.
Gas exchange in the fetus occurs across the placenta and fetal lungs are not functional until birth. The placenta is the site of nutrition, ____ and waste disposal for the fetus. The placenta also offers the fetus some _____ protection by preventing the diffusion of foreign matter into fetal blood. However, the placenta is permeable to viruses, _____ and many drugs and toxins. The placenta also acts as an endocrine gland producing the hormones estrogen, _____ and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
fetus; placenta
chorion; amnion ; fetus
respiration; immunological; alcohol; progesterone
Fetal Circulation
Since fetal lungs are non functional prior to birth, blood is oxygenated in the _____. (In adult circulation blood is oxygenated in the lungs) The umbilical ____ carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus.
Ductus venosus shunts blood from the fetal ____. Ductus arteriorsus and foramen ovale shunts blood from the _____.
By the end of the first trimester (8 weeks) most of the ____ have formed and the _____ is fairly developed. At the end of the third month the fetus is 9 cm long.
During the second trimester the face appears human and toes and fingers _____.
During the third trimester further brain development occurs and fetus becomes less ____ as it has less movement to move around.
placenta; vein
liver; lungs
organs; brain
elongate; active

Musculoskeletal System

Muscles and bones work together to produce voluntary ____.

Skeletal System
The skeleton is the physical ____ of an organism.
-External or ____ skeletons are found in arthropods and internal or ____skeletons are found in vertabrates.
The mamalian skeleton is divided into the axial skeleton which includes the skull, ___ column and rib cage; and the appendicular skeleton which includes the limb bones and the ____ and pectoral girdles.
The skeleton surrounds and ____ delicate organs such as the brain and spinal cord.
Cartilege is a soft and ____ connective tissue made of chondin (secreted by chondrocytes). Most cartiliege contains no blood or lymph, this is called ____.

exo; endo
vertebral; pelvic
flexible; avascular

Musculoskeletal System
Bone-Macroscopic Structure
Bone is mineralized connective tissue that has the ability to withstand physical ____. The 2 types of bone are ____ bone and spongy/cancellous bone.
-Compact bone is dense and does not have ____. Songy/Cancellous bone is less dense and has cavities filled with yellow and/or red bone ____. Yellow marrow is inactive and red marrow is involved in ___ cell formation.
The long bones are the bones of the ____. The diaphysis is the ___ and is made of compact bone. The epiphyses are the ___ ends of the long bone made of spongy bone. The epiphyseal plate separates the diaphysis from the _____ and is the site for longitudinal ____. The periosteum is the site of attachment to ____ tissue (surrounds the long bone)

compact; cavities; marrow; blood
appendages; shaft; dialated

Musculoskeletal System
Bone-Microscopic Structure
Compact bone is a bone matrux made up of both oragnic ( collagen and ___proteins) and inorganic (___ phosphate and hydroxide) substances. The inorganic compounds combine to form hydroxyapatite crystals. The association of hydroxapatite crystals with collagen gives bone its characteristic ____.
The bony matrix is deposited in structural units called ____, known as the Haversian systems. Each osteon consists of a central microscopic channel called a Haversian canal, surrounded by a number of concentric circles of bony matrix called ____. Spaces interspersed within the matrix, called ____, have mature bone cells called ____---these cells are involved in bone maintenance. Canals called canaliculi _____ with the Haversian canals allowing for exchange of ____. Osteoblasts secrete and ____ the organic constituents of the bone matrix. Osteo clasts ___ ___ bone (called bone resorption). These two processes are in ____.

lacunae; osteocytes
interconnect; nutrients
synthesize; break down

Musculoskeletal System
Bone Formation and Remodeling
Bone formation occurs by either endochondral ossification or by intramembranous ossification.
In endochondral ossification existing ____ is replaced by bone---long bones arise via endochondral ossification.
In intramembranous ossification, mesenchymal (____, undifferentiated) connective tissue is transformed into and replaced by bone.
During bone reformation, inorganic ions are ____ from the blood for use in bone formation. In the process of bone resorption/_____, these ions are ____ into the blood. Bone reformation and bone resorption are collectively known as bone ____.
Joints are connective tisue structures that join ____ together. Bones that do not move relative to each other, such as skull bones are held in place by _____ joints. Bones that do move relative to one another are held together by ____ joints and are additionally supported and strengthened by ligaments.

degradation; released
Musculoskeletal System The 3 types of muscle in mammals: skeletal, smooth and cardiac.
Muscular System-Skeletal System
Skeletal muscle is responsible for _____ movements and is innervated by the ____ nervous system. Each parallel fiber that makes up the skeletal muscle is _____----nuclei are usually found at the periphery of the cell.
Embedded in the fibers are filaments called ____, which are further divided into contractile units called sacromeres. Myofibrils are enveloped in a modified ER called the _____ reticulum which stores calcium ions. The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called the _____ and the cell membrane is called the _____. The sacrolemma is capable of propagating an action ____ and is connected to a system of transverse tubules (T-system) which provides _____ for ion flow throughout the muscle fibers and can also propagate an action potential.
voluntary; somaticmultinucleated
myofibrils; sacroplasmicsacroplasm; sacrolemmapotential; channels
Musculoskeletal System Muscular System-Skeletal Muscle
There are 2 types of muscle fibers:1. Red Fibers (slow twitch fibers): High ____ (protein similar to hemoglobin) content and many mitochondria, thus derive their energy from _____ respiration---this makes them capable of sustained and _____ activity.
2. White fibers (fast twitch) contain ____ myoglobin and fewer mitochondria thus are ____---there is a greater rate of _____, however more easily fatigued.
less; anaerobiccontraction
Musculoskeletal System Muscular System-Skeletal Muscle: The Sacromere (Contractile Units)

The sacromere is composed of thin (____) and thick (_____) filaments. The thick filaments are chains of globular actin associated with troponin and _____.
The organization of the Sacromere:
The Z-line defines the _____ of a single sacromere. The M-line runs down the _____ of a sacromere. The H-Zone consists of _____ only; the I-band consists of ____ only and the A-zone/band consists of the entire _____ fiber including any overlapping actin filaments. During a contraction the size of the "H" and "I" zones are _____.

actin; myosintropomyosin
boundaries centermyosinactinmyosinreduced
Musculoskeletal System Muscular System--Skeletal Muscle: Contraction1. Initiation: Muscle contraction is initiated when enough ______ on the sacrolemma (cell membrane of the muscle) are stimulated by neurotransmitters generating an _____ potential. The action potential quickly spreads through the tansverse tubules to contract sequentially the entire muscle with spontaneous _____.
2. Shortening of the Sacromere: The action potential causes the sacroplasmic reticulum to release _____ into the sacroplasm. The Ca2+binds the troponin resulting in tropomyosin to _____, exposing the myosin binding sites on the actin filaments. *In the presence of Ca2+troponin changes its _____ and moves tropomyosin away from its guard position thereby allowing myosin to bind to actin.
The binding of the myosin to the actin binding sites forms actin-myosin _____ bridges which causes myosin to pull on the actin molecules. The H and I bands are _____, sacromere is shortened.
3. RelaxationWhen the sacrolemmic receptors are no longer stimulated the calcium is pumped back into the ______ reticulum The products of ATP hydrolysis are relased from the myosin head and a new ATP ____ to the head resulting in the ____ of the myosin from the actin----the sacromere returns to its original width.
Musculoskeletal System Muscular System--Skeletal Muscle: Stimulus and Muscle Response
Individual muscle fibers exhibit an all-or-none response; only a stimulus above the ____ value can elicit contraction. The strength of the contraction can increase as _____ strength increases by involving more fibers. A maximal response is reached when all of the fibers have reached the threshold value and the muscle _____ as a whole.
Tonous- low grade contractions of muscle.
A simple twitch is the response of a single muscle fiber to a ____ stimulus at or above the threshold stimulus. 1. The latent period is the time between stimulation and the ____ of contraction.2. The The contraction period3. The relaxation period is brief. During this time, the muscle is _____ to a stimulus.
Summation and Tetanus
When the fibers of a muscle are exposed to very frequent stimuli, the muscle cannot fully _____. The contractions begin to combine becoming stronger and more prolonged, this is known as frequency _____. When the contractions become so frequent that the muscle cannot relax this is called _____.
thresholdstimulus contracts
Musculoskeletal System Muscular System--Smooth Muscle
Smooth muscle is responsible for _____ actions and is innervated by the _____ nervous system. Smooth muscle is found in the _____ tract, bladder, uterus and blood vessel walls. Smooth muscle cells possess one centrally located _____ and lack striations.
Smooth Muscle contractions are _____ and are capable of being sustained longer than skeletal muscle contractions. Myogenic.
Cardiac Muscle

involuntary; autonomic

Musculoskeletal System Muscular System--Energy ReservesEnergy can be temporarily stored in a high-energy compound called _____ phosphate which is produced during resting periods.
Myolobin has high affinity for _____. When muscle cells rapidly run out of available oxygen, myoglobin ____ its Oxygen. When myoglobin runs out of oxygen, the muscle obtains additional energy via _____ respiration resulting in the build up of ______ acid.
Connective tissueThe major function of connective issue is to bind and _____ other tissue. 1. Loose connective tissue binds epithelium to underlying tissues and is _____ material that holds organs in place. 2. Dense connective tissue contains a very high proportion of ______ fibers. These tissues form tendons which attach muscle to _____ and ligaments which hold bones together at the _____.
oxygen; releasesanaerobiclactic

Musculoskeletal System Muscle-Bone Interaction
Locomotion is dependent on interactions between the skeletal and muscular systems.
If a given muscle is attached to two bones contraction of a muscle will cause only one of the two bones to move. The end of the muscle attached to the stationary bone is called the ______. The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves during contraction is called the _____ end.
Often muscles work in antagonistic pairs.
DigestionDigestion consists of the _____of large molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed in the bloodstream and used directly by _____.
Intracellular digestion occurs within cells---usually in membrane bound _____. Extracellular digestion occurs outside the cell----usually in the ___ or tract.
The Oral CavityThe oral cavity is the site for both mechanical and ____ digestion of food. Mechanical Digestion is the break down of large food particles into smaller particles via chewing and biting ( ______). Chemical Digestion is the _____ breakdown of macromolecules into smaller molecules. Chemical Digestion begins in the ____ cavity when the salivary gland secretes saliva, which contains salivary amylase. This enzyme _____ starch and sugars.
The PharynxThe Pharynx is the passageway to the ______ and trachea. During swallowing the opening of the trachea is covered by a flap called the _____, which prevents food from entering the lungs.
The esophagusThe esophagus is the muscular tube leading from the _____ to the ______. Food is moved down the esophagus via involuntary muscle contractions called ____. Once a wave of peristalsis spreads, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)/cardiac sphincter----muscle in lower esophagus---- _____ to let food enter the stomach. After the wave ceases, this muscle returns to its original state, preventing _____.
degradation; cells
vesicles; lumen
pharynx; stomachperistalsisopensregurgitation
DigestionThe StomachThe stomach stores and partially _____ food. The walls of the stomach are lined with _____ mucosa which contains gastric and pyloric glands. 1. Gastric glands are stimulated by nervous impulses in the _____ and are composed of : a.) Mucous cells that secrete mucous which _____ the lining from acidic juices present in the stomach. b.)Chief cells secrete ______, the zymogen (inactive form) of the enzyme pepsin. c.) Parietal cells secrete HCl which kills bacteria, ____ the intracellular glue holding food tissues together and facilitates the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin.
2. Pyloric glands secrete the hormone _____ in response to the presence of certain substances in food. Gastrin stimulates the gastric glands to secrete more HCl and stimulates muscle_____ of the stomach, which churn food. This churning produces an acidic semifluid mixture of partially digested food called _____.
At the junction of the stomach and the small intestine is the muscular pyloric sphincter which regulates the passage of ______ from the stomach into the small intestine via alternating contractions and relaxations.
DigestionThe Small IntestineChemical digestion is completed n the ____ intestine. The small intestine is divided into three sections: the _____ (digestive function), the jejunum and the ileum (_____ functions).
Digestive FunctionsThe hormone secretin is released by the duodenum in response to the acidity of chyme, stimulating the pancreas to create ______ juice, an alkaline fluid that helps _____ the acidity of chyme.
The enzymes of the small intestine function optimally at slightly _____ pH.
Digestive Enzymes1. Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____. -Salivary amylase secreted by the _____ glands in the mouth hydrolyzes starch to _____ . - Pancreatic amylase secreted by the pancreas in the ____ intestine hydrolyzes starch to maltose. -Maltase secreted by the _____ glands in the small intestine hydrolyzes maltose into 2 _____ molecules. -Sucrase secreted by the _____ glands in the small intestine hydrolyzes _____ to glucose and fructose. -Lactase secreted by the inestinal glands in the small intestine hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and _____.
smallduodenum; absorptive
pancreatic; neutralize
mouthsalivary; maltosesmallintestinal; glucoseintestinal; sucrosegalactose
DigestionDigestive Enzymes2. Proteins digestion begins in the _____. -Pepsin, secreted as pepsinogen by the ____ glands in the ____ hydrolyzes specific _____ bonds. -Trypsin, secreted as trypsinogen from the _____ in the small intestine hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds and converts the zymogen of _____ to the active form. -Chymotrypsin, secreted as chymotripsinogen from the ______ in the small intestine hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds. -Carboxypeptidase secreted by the pancreas in the small intestine hydrolyzes terminal peptide bond at _____ end. -Aminopeptidase secreted by the _____ glands in the small intestine hydrolyzes terminal peptide bond at _____ end. -Dipeptidases secreted by intestinal glands in the small intestine hydrolyzes pairs of ______ acids. -Entero kinase secreted by the intestinal glands in the small intestine converts trypsinogen to ______.
3. Lipids digestion begins in the _____ intestine. - Bile, secreted from the ____ in the small intestine when CCK enters the bloodstream, emulsifies ____. - Lipase secreted from the _____ in the small intestine, hydrolyzes lipids.
stomachGastric; stomach; peptidepancreas chymotrypsinpancreascarboxylintestinal; aminoaminotrypsin
smallliver; fatspancreas
DigestionAbsorptive Functions The majority of absorption occurs across the walls of the ____ and ileum. Monosaccharides are absorbed into intestinal capillaries via ____ transport and facilitated diffusion and enter portal circulation. ____ are absorbed in the small intestine. The fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) are absorbed along with ____ and most water-soluble vitamins (B and C) are absorbed via _____ diffusion into the circulatory system.
Large IntestineThe colon functions in the absorption of salts and any _____ not absorbed by the small intestine. If digested matter moves through the colon too quickly, too little water is absorbed causing _____ and dehydration. Alternatively, if movement is too slow, too much water is absorbed, causing ______. The rectum stores _____.
Accessory OrgansThe liver produces and secretes ____ into the GI tract to emulsify fats. The gall bladder stores and secretes excess _____. The pancreas produces insulin as an ______ function and secretes digestive enzymes as an ______ function.
jejunum activeVitaminsfatssimple
water; diarrheaconstipationfeces
Anatomy: The respiratory airwayAir enters the respiratory tract through the external nares (the ____) and then travels through the nasal cavities where it is _____ by mucous and nasal hairs. It then passes through the pharynx and into a second chamber called the _____ (covered by the epiglottis during swallowing). Air passes from the larynx into the ____ which divides into 2 bronchi, one entering the right lung, the other entering the left lung. Ciliated epitheilial cells line the trachea and bronchi to ____ and trap particles that have been inhaled along with air.
Bronchi branch into smaller bronchi. Terminal bronchi, called _____, are surrounded by clusters of small air sacs called ____. Gas exchange between the lings and the circulatory system occurs across the very thin walls of the alveoli.
Ventilation (Breathing)The purpose of ventilation is to take in oxygen from the atmosphere and eliminate _____ _____ from the body. The ventilating mechanism is dependent upon the pressure changes in the thoracic cavity, the body cavity that contains the heart and ____. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by a muscle known as the _____.
Stages of Inhalation: 1. The diaphragm ____ and flattens.2. The external intercostal muscles contract causing the thoracic cavity to ____ in volume which reduces the intrapleural pressure causing the lungs to fill with air and _____. Remember that pressure and volume are inversely related.
Exhalation is a passive process.
Control of Ventilation:Neurons located in the _____ ______ regulate ventilation. The medulla oblongota's rhythmic discharges stimulate intercostal mucles and /or the diaphragm to _____.
carbon dioxidelungsdiaphragm
medulla oblongota contract
Lung Capacities and Volumes
The maximum amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled and exhaled from lungs is called the ____ capacity. The amount of air normally inhaled and exhaled with each breath is called the ____ volume. The residual volume is the amount of air that always _____ in the lungs, preventing the alveoli from _____. The expiratory reserve volume is the volume of air that can still be forcibly _____ following a normal exhalation. The sum of the vital capacity and the residual volume is called the total lung capacity.
Gas Exchange
O2 in the alveoli flows down its partial pressure gradient from the alveoli ____ the pulmonary capillaries where it can bind to ______ for transport. CO2 flows down its partial pressure gradient ____ the capillaries into the alveoli for expiration.
into; hemoglovinfrom
CirculationThere are two parts to the circulatory systems: the cardiovascular system transports ____ gases, nutrients and wastes to and from cells. The lymphatic system collects ____ body fluids and returns them to the cardiovascular circulation.
The Cardiovascular SystemThe key components of the cardiovascular system are the ____ chambered heart, the blood and blood _____.
The _____ side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs via the pulmonary ____. Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the ____ side of the heart via pulmonary ____ and pumped into the aorta. The aorta branches into arteries, which branch into arterioles, which branch into microscopic _____. Exchange of gases, nutrients and cellular waste products occurs via diffusion across capillary walls.
Oxygenated blood is supplied to the heart muscle by the coronary ____. Deoxygenated blood returns to the right side of the heart via the coronary ____ and coronary sinus.
In systemic circulation there are three special circulatory routes referred to as _____ systems: in the _____(hepatic portal circulation), in the kidneys (osmoregulation) and in the _____ (hypophyseal portal circulation).
respiratory; excess
four; blood vessels
right; arteriesleft; veinscapillaries
arteries; veinsportalliver; brain

The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
The right side of the heart pumps _____ blood to the lungs into pulmonary circulation. The left side of the heart pumps ______ blood into systemic circulation.
The upper chambers of the heart are called atria(thin) and the lower chambers are called ____. The left ventricle is more muscular than the right because it propels _____ circulation and pumps against higher resistance.
Blood Flow:Deoxygenated blood flows from the interior vena cavae to the right ____ to the right ventricle, to the pulmonary artery and into the lungs where blood is _____. The now oxygenated blood goes through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium and ventricle to the aorta where blood enters _____ circulation.
Valves : The atrioventricular valves prevent backflow of blood into the atria.
deoxygenated; oxygenated
ventricles; systemic
atrium; oxygenatedsystemic
atria; oxygenated; systemic
The Cardiovascular System: The HeartContraction:The heart's pumping cycle is divided into two alternating phases: systole, which is the period during which the ventricles _____ and diastole is the period of cardiac _____ during which blood flows into all 4 chambers.
Cardiac output = total volume of blood the left ventricle pumps out per minute = heart rate/beats per minute x stroke volume (volume of blood L ventricle pumps out per contraction)
Cardiac muscle has the ability to contract without stimulation from the nervous system like smooth muscle making it _____.
An ordinary cardiac contraction begins in the sinoatrial (SA) node or pacemaker and spreads ____ through both atria stimulating them to contract simultaneously.
The autonomic nervous system modifies the rate of heart _____. The parasympathetic system causes a _____ in heart rate and the sympathetic system and adrenal medulla cause an ____ in rate.
contract; relaxation
contractionsdecrease increase
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

The three types of blood vessels are arteries, ____ and capillaries.

Arteries are thick, ____ muscular vessels that transport oxygenated blood ____ from the heart. *Pulmonary ateries transport _____ blood from the heart to the lungs.

Veins are ____ vessels that transport deoxygenated blood _____ the heart. *Pulmonary veins carry ____ blood from the lungs to the heart.

Capillaries have very thin walls across which respiratory gases, nutrients, enzymes, hormones and wastes can readily ____.

Blood Pressure is the force per ____ that blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels. Blood pressure gradually ____ as blood flows through the circulatory system (from artery, to vein, to capillary).

elastic; away



The Cardiovascular System: Blood
Blood transports nutrients and ____ to tissues and transports wastes and ____ out of tissues. Blood is composed of _____ (liquid portion--55%) and cellular components (erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets--45%)

1. Erythrocytes (RBCs) are the ____ carrying components of blood. They have great flexibility for movement through _____. RBCs are formed from stem cells in ____ _____ where they lose their nuclei, mitochondria and membrane bound organelles. Since erythrocytes lack mitochondria, they are _____ and obtain their ATP via _____ only (no TCA cycle).

2. Leukocytes (WBCs) are larger than erythrocytes and have a ____ function. The number of WBCs ____ when the body battles infection. The 3 types of leukocytes are: granular leukocytes, _____, and monocytes.
-Granular leukocytes attack general invading _____ such as bacteria/parasites. Neutrophiles fight ____; Eosinophils fight ____ infection and Basophiles are responsible for allergies and allergens.
-Lymphocytes play an important role in the ____ response. Lymphocytes produce _____ and are involved in the specific immune response against invading pathogens. The two types of lymphocytes are B&T lymphocytes.
-Monocytes are involved in the _____ immune response. They ____ foreign matter and organisms. Some monocytes migrate from the blood to tissue where they mature into stationary cells called _____. *Macrophages have better phagocytic capability than monocytes.

3. Platelets are cell fragments that lack ____ and function in ____ formation (involved in injury repair).
oxygen; carbon dioxide

oxygen; capillaries
bone marrow

bacteria; parasitic



The Cardiovascular System: Blood

Blood Antigens
Erythrocytes have characteristic cell surface proteins called ____. Antigens are macromolecules that are foreign to the ____ organism and trigger immune response. The two major groups of RBC antigens are the ABO group and the Rh factor.

For Blood type A, the antigen on the red blood cell is A and it produces anti-____. For Blood type B, the antigen on the red blood cell is B and it produces anti-___. Blood type AB has both A and B antigens and does not produce any antibodies thus making it the universal _____. Blood type O has no antigen and produces both anti-A and anti-B thus making it the universal ____.

Functions of the Circulatory System: Transport of Gases

Erythrocytes contain ____. Hemoglobin is composed of 4 polypeptide chains, each containing a prosthetic ___ group (a tightly bound cofactor--a non protein molecule that allows catalytic activity). Each heme group binds one molecule of oxygen. The binding of O2 at the first heme group increases ____ at other heme groups (allosteric effect).

Hemoglobin also binds to CO2. There is an allosteric relationship among the concentrations of CO2, H+, and O2 known as the ____ effect. According to the Bohr effect, increasing the concentrations of H+(a decrease in pH) and CO2 in the blood ____ hemoglobin's affinity. Thus, the presence of high concentratoions of H+ and CO2 in metabollically active tissue, such as muscle, ____ the release of O2.
Functions of the Circulatory System: Transport of Nutrients and Wastes

Amino acids and sugars are absorbed into the blood stream via intestinal capillaries and transported to the liver via the ____ portal. Metabolic waste products diffuse into _____ from surrounding cells and are delivered to the appropriate excretory organs.

Hydrostatic pressure pushes fluid ___ of vessels while osmotic pressure pulls fluid back ____ the vessels. Hydrostatic pressure is dependent upon the ____ pressure driven by the heart. Osmotic pressure is dependent on the number of ____ dissolved in the plasma.



Functions of the Circulatory System: Immunological Reactions

Humoral Immunity (specific response) is responsible for the proliferation of ____ following exposure to antigens. Antibodies/Immunoglobulins are complex proteins that recognize and ____ to specific antigens triggering the immune system to remove them. Antibodies either attract ____ to phagocytize the antigen or cause the antigens to ____ together (agglutinate) and form large, insoluble complexes, facilitating their removal by phagocytic cells (monocytes or macrophages).

An antibody is composed of 4 polypeptide chains: 2 identical heavy and 2 identical light. Variable regions are ____--binding sites that bind to one specific antigen. The constant regions aid in the process by which foreign antigens are destroyed (MADGE).

The lymphocytes involved in the Humoral response are the ___ lymphocytes (B-cells) which originate in the ____ ____ and differentiate in the lymph nodes, ____, and other lymphatic organs. When B-cells come in contact with an antigen the B-lymphocytes ____ and differentiate into ____ and effector cells---this is called the ____ response. Effector cells produce and release specific ____ for the antigen. Memory cells remember the antigen and are long lived in the blood stream--they are able to elicit a more ____ response upon subsequent exposure to the same antigen----this is referred to as the ____ response.

Active immunity is the production of antibodies during an ____ response. Can be conferred during vaccination.

Passive immunity involves the _____ of antibodies produced by another individual or organism.
leukocytes; clump


B; bone marrow; spleen
proliferate; memory; primary
immediate; secondary

Functions of the Circulatory System: Immunological Reactions

Cell Mediated Immunity (specific response)--The lymphocytes involved in cell mediated response are ___ lymphocytes or T-cells. Like B-cells, T-cells originate in the bone marrow, however they mature in the ____. T-cells act against the body's own ____ cells.

T-cells differentiate into ____ cells.
1. Cytotoxic T-cells destroy antigens ____.
2. Helper T-cells activate other B and T cells as well as _____ by secreting lymphokines (interleukins).
3. Suppressor T cells regulate other B and T cells to ____ their activity against antigens.

The Lymphatic System
In the lymphatic system the vessels transport ____ fluid called lymph to the cardiovascular system. Lymph capillaries collect ____. Lymph nodes are swellings along lymph vessels containing phagocytic cells (leukocytes) which ____ the lymph, removing and destroying foreign particles.
T; thymus

HomeostasisHomeostasis is the process by which a stable internal environment within an organism is _____. Examples of homeostatic mechanisms include the maintenance of a water and solute balance (____), the removal of metabolic waste products (____), the regulation of blood glucose levels, and the maintenance of a constant internal body temperature (____). The primary homeostatic organs are the kidneys, the ____ , the large intestine, and the ____
HomeostasisThe Kidneys: OsmoregulationThe kidneys are composed of ____ and regulate the concentration of salt and water in the blood through the formation and excretion of ____. StructureThe kidney is divided into three regions: the cortex, medulla, and pelvis. The network of capillaries in the renal artery are called a _____. FunctionFiltration, _____, and reabsorption are the three processes that regulate salt and water balance in the blood. -FiltrationBlood pressure forces 20% of the blood plasma entering the glomerulus into the surrounding _____ capsule. The fluid and small solutes entering the nephron are called the ____, which is isotonic with blood plasma. Molecules too large to filter through the glomerulus, such as blood cells, remain in the _____ system. If blood cells or protein are found in the urine, this indicates a problem at the level of the _____. -SecretionThe nephron secretes substances into the filtrate, maintaining blood pH, K+ concentration in the blood, and nitrogenous waste concentration in the filtrate. -ReabsorptionEssential substances (glucose, salts, amino acids) and water are ______ from the filtrate and returned to the blood. This results in the formation of concentrated urine, which is _____ to blood.
nephrons; urine
Bowman's capsulefiltratecirculatory glomerulus
HomeostasisThe Kidneys: OsmoregulationThe kidneys function to eliminate ____ (urea, H+) generated by metabolic activity, while reabsorbing various important substances (glucose, amino acids, sodium) for reuse by the body. Generation of a solute concentration gradient from the cortex to medulla allows a considerable amount of water to be _____. Excretion of concentrated urine serves to limit ____ loss from the body and helps preserve blood volume. Hormonal RegulationWhile Aldosterone and ADH ultimately do the same thing (____ water reabsorption in the kidney), they have different mechanisms of action. ADH ____ increases water reabsorption from the nephron's collecting duct, while aldosterone ____ increases water reabsorption by increasing sodium reabsorption from the collecting duct. ExcretionAfter filtrate leaves the nephron, most of the water has been _____. The remaining fluid, composed of urea, uric acid, and other wastes, leaves the collecting tubule and exits the kidney via the ureter, a duct leading to the ____. Urine is stored there until it is excreted from the body through the _____. In a healthy individual, the nephron reabsorbs all of the ____ entering it, producing glucose-free urine. (This is not the case in diabetics).
HomeostasisThe LiverThe liver helps regulate blood ____ levels and produces urea. Glucose and other monosaccharides are delivered to the liver via the ____ portal vein. If the blood has a low glucose concentration, the liver converts ____ into glucose and releases it into the blood, restoring blood glucose levels to normal.

The Endocrine systemThe endocrine system acts as a ____ system coordinating the activities of the organ systems.
Endocrine glands secrete _____---which regulate the function of target organs or tissues---directly into the circulatory system. In contrast, exocrine glands such as the gall bladder secrete substances that are _____ by target organs.
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the Head Area1. The anterior ____ gland synthesizes both direct and indirect (tropic) hormones. Direct hormones target their organs and tropic hormones stimulate other _____ glands to release hormones. FLAT PiGDirect Hormones Growth hormone (GH) stimulates ____ and muscle growth. Prolactin stimulates ____ production and secretion in mammary glands.Tropic (Indirect) HormonesACTH stimulates the adrenal ____ to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids TSH stimulates the ____ to produce thyroid hormones.LH stimulates ____ in females and ____ synthesis in males. FSH stimulates ____ maturation in females and ____ in males.
2. The posterior _____ gland does not synthesize hormones but stores and ____ the hormones produced by the hypothalamus. This hormone secretion is stimulated by ____ potentials. --Oxytocin stimulates ____ contractions during labor and milk secretion during lactation. --ADH stimulates water _____ in the kidneys.
cortexthyroidovulation; testosterone follicle; spermatogenesis
pituitary; releasesaction
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the Neck1. The ____ gland is located on the surface of the trachea. It is stimulated by ____ from the anterior pituitary gland to produce thyroid hormones. --Thyroid hormones stimulate ____ activity.--Calcitonin ____the blood calcium level.
2. The parathyroid gland is embedded in the posterior of the thyroid. --PTH (parathyroid hormone) ____ the blood calcium level.
Hormones Found in the Abdomen1. The adrenal cortex is stimulated by ____ in the anterior pituitary gland to secrete glucocorticoids which increases blood ____ levels and decreases ____ synthesis.--Mineralocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex increase water _____ in the kidneys.
2. The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (____) and norepinephrine (non-adrenaline) which both ____ blood glucose level and heart rate.
3. The pancreas secretes:--Glucagon which stimulates the conversion of _____ to glucose in the liver (increasing blood glucose).--Insulin which ____ blood glucose and increases the storage of glycogen.--Somatostatin which ____ the secretion of glucagon and insulin.
thyroid; TSHmetabolicdecreases
ACTHglucose; proteinreabsorption
The Endocrine SystemHormones Found in the GonadsThe interstitial cells of the testes are stimulated by ____ in the anterior pituitary to secrete ____ which maintains male secondary characteristics.
The ovary and placenta release ____ which maintains female secondary characteristics. Progesterone is also secreted by the ovary and placenta. Its function is to promote the growth and and maintenance of the _____. The Menstrual Cycle1. During the _____ phase, follicles mature and secrete estrogen. The increase in estrogen stimulates GnRH which stimulates LH and stimulates ____.2. Midway through the cycle a mature ovarian follicle ____ and releases an ovum. This marks the commencement of ovulation.3. During the ___ phase, the ruptured follicle becomes the corpus luteum and secretes estrogen and progesterone to build up the uterine ____ in preparation for implantaion; LH and FSH are ____. 4. If fertilization does not occur, corpus leutum atrophies, progesterone and estrogen levels ____, menses occur and LH and FSH levels begin to ____ again. Hormones Found in the ChestThe heart releases the atrial natriuretic hormone which is involved in _____.
The thymus releases thymosin which stimulates ____ lymphocyte development.
LH; testosterone
estrogen; endometrium
follicular; ovulationburstsleutal; lininginhibiteddecreaserise
The Nervous SystemNeuronsStructureA neuron converts stimuli into _____ signals that are conducted through the nervous system.
The neuron consists of a cell body, ____ and an axon.
The cell body contains the ____ and controls the metabolic activity of the neuron. Dendrites ____ information and transmit it toward the cell body. Axons end as swellings known as _____ terminals. Neurotransmitters are released from these terminals into the synapse or _____ cleft which is the gap between the axon terminals of one cell (pre-synaptic cell) and the ____ of the next cell (post-synaptic cell).
nucleusreceivesynaptic synapticdendrites
The Nervous SystemNeuronsFunctionNeurons are specialized to receive signals from sensory receptors or other neurons in the body.
A nerve impulse is an electrical current that travels along ____ or axons due to ions moving through ____-gated channels in the neuron's plasma membrane.
Voltage-gated channels open and close in response to an electrical voltage; so they are affected by _____ in electrical charges around them. 1. Resting PotentialWhen at rest a neuron's charge difference is ____ between the exterior and interior of the cell (negative interior). The charge difference is maintained by ____ transport using the Na+/K+ pump (fueled by ATP). This pump exports 3 ____ and imports 2 ___; thus there is a higher concentration of Na+ on the ____ of the cell and a higher concentration of K+ on the inside of the cell.
Once exported, it is not easy for the Na+ to re-enter the cell and replace the lost ____ charge. The overall result is that the exterior now has a net ____ charge and the interior has a net ____ charge. The difference in charge between the interior and exterior of the cell is called the ____ membrane potential.
dendrites; voltagechanges
maintained activeNa+ K+ outside; inside
positivepositive; negativeresting
The Nervous SystemNeuronsFunction2. Action PotentialA nerve impulse begins when a stimulus disturbs the plasma membrane on a dendrite causing ____ channels to open allowing sodium ions to flow into the cell, lessening charge difference at that location.
If there is enough change it will cause near-by Na+ voltage gated channels to ___ as well. The flow of so many Na+ ions into the cell causes the membrane to ____ at that location (interior becomes + at that location). The depolarization moves along the membrane: this is called an ____ potential. The Na+ channel closes and K+ channel opens allowing a rapid flow of K+ out of the cell; this _____ the membrane (negative charge).
Na+ opendepolarizeactionrepolarizes
The Nervous SystemOrganization of the Vertebrate Nervous SystemAfferent neurons carry information ___ the brain or spinal cord. These are called ____ neurons.
Efferent neurons carry commands ____ the brain or spinal cord to the various parts of the body. These are called ____ neurons.
to; sensory
from; motor
The Nervous SystemOrganization of the Vertebrate Nervous System The nervous system is divided into the ____ nervous system and the ____ nervous system.
The Central Nervous SystemThe purpose of the Central Nervous System is to ____ sensory information, form motor plans, and cognitive function. 1. The BrainThe forebrain consists of the telencephalon and diencephalon. --The telencephalon contains the cerebral cortex which processes and ____ sensory input and motor responses. It is also important in memory and creative thought. --The diencephalon contains the thalamus and hypothalamus . The thalamus is an integration center for the cerebral cortex and ____ ____. The hypothalamus controls ____, water balance, blood pressure and body temperature regulation. Also plays an important role in the _____ system.
The midbrain is the relay center for visual and ____ impulses, as well as motor control.
The hindbrain consists of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. --The cerebellum plays an important role in the maintenance of _____, hand-eye coordination, and timing of rapid movement. --The pons allows communication between the ____ and cerebral cortex. --The medulla oblongota controls heart rate, ____, and GI activity.
The midbrain, pons and medulla make up the brain ____.
central; peripheral
integratesspinal cordhungerendocrine
The Nervous SystemOrganization of the Vertebrate Nervous SystemThe Central Nervous System2. Spinal CordThe spinal cord is an elongated structure continuous with the _____. Nearly all nerves that innervate the ____ below the head pass through the spinal cord and all sensory information from below the head passes through the spinal cord on the way to the brain. The spinal cord can also integrate simple motor responses such as ____.
The Peripheral Nervous System1. The somatic nervous system innervates _____ muscle and is responsible for voluntary movement and ____ action --Monosynaptic reflex pathways have ____ synapse between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron. Ex: knee-jerk reflex --In polysynaptic reflexes, sensory neurons synapse with more than one neuron.
2. The autonomic nervous system regulates they body's ____ environment without the aid of conscious control. The ANS innervates both cardiac and _____ muscle and plays an important role in blood ____ control, GI motility, excretory processes, _____, and reproductive processes. The ANS is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. --Sympathetic Nervous System is responsible for the "____ or _____" responses that ready the body for action. --Parasympathetic division acts to _____ energy and restore the body to resting activity levels following exertion.
skeletal; reflexone
internalsmooth; pressurerespirationflight; fightconserve

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