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a model that outlines the 4 factors that influence an employee's voluntary behavior & resulting performance
Elements of the MARS Model
motivation, ability, role perceptions, & situational factors
the forces w/in a person that affect his or her direction, intensity & persistence of voluntary behavior.
consist of both the natural aptitudes & learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task/
they understand the specifics, importance, & preferred behaviors of the tasks.
includes conditions beyond the employee's immediate control that constrain/facilitate his behavior & performance.
Motivating Employees Process
(1)drives & needs, (2) goals, expectations, & feedback, (3) extrinsic & intrinsic rewards
instinctive tendencies to seek particlar goas/maintain internal stability.
Mostly conscious deficiencies that energize/trigger behaviors to satisy those needs.
Maslow's needs hierarchy theory
a motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby pple are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified.
the need for self-fulfillment in reaching one's potential.
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy
physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
work hours, nourishment, air quality, temperature
job security, employee benefits, safe workplace
human interaction, being accepted as team member
job status, recognition, mastering the job
challenging tasks, freedom to try new ideas
Management Implications of maslow's Theory
E have diff needs @ diff times, E have sev interdependent needs, E want to achieve their full P, E needs are influenced by V & norms.
Learned Needs Theory
need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power
Four-Drive Theory of Motivation
drive to acquire, drive to bond, drive to learn, and drive to defend
Drive to acquire
this the drive to seek, take, control, & retain ojbects & personal experiences.
Drive to bond
drive to form social relationships & develop mutual caring commitments w/others.
Drive to learn
this is the drive to satisfy our curiosity, to know & understand ourselves & the environment around us.
Drive to defend
creates a fight or flight response in the face of personal danger. realationships, acquisitions, and belief system.
Need for achievement
a want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals through their own efforts.
Need for affiliation
a desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes & expectations, & avoid conflict & confrontation.
Need for power
a want to exercise control over others & are concerned about maintaining their leadership positions.
Management Implications of 4 Drive Theory
ensure that individual jobs & workplaces provide a balance opportunity to fulfill the drives to acquire, bond, learn, & defend
The process of motivation employees & clarifying their role perceptions by est. performance objectives.
Elements of Goal Setting
precise & measureable, specify a time period, important objectives, challenging yet realistic
a motivation theory, work effort is directed toward behaviors that pple believe will lead to desired outcomes.
Elements of Expectancy Theory
E-to-P expactancy, P-to-0 expectancy, outcome valences
refers to the individual's perception that his effort will result in a particular level of performance.
perceived probability that a specific behavior/performance level will lead to particular outcomes.
is the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome.
anything received from another person that the recipient values & is contingent on his behavior /results.
a positive emotional experience resulting directly & naturally from the individual's behavior/results.
should be precise & measurable, timely, sufficiently frequent, and credible
Types of Extrinsic Rewards
membership/seniority-based rewards, job status-based rewards, competency-based rewards, performance-based rewards
represent the largest part of most paychecks, attract job applicants, and reduce turnover, but do not motivate job performance.
Job Status-based Rewards
used to rate the worth/status of ea. job, w/higher pay rates going to jobs that require more skill/effort, creates competition.
pay increase based on how well employees meet the job's skill and knowledge requirements. Improves workforce flexibility by motivating.
pay increases w/ sales volume.
Peice Rate System
systems that reward employees based on the number of units produced.
a systematic process of evaluating an employee's performance.
a reward system in which team members earn bonuses for reducing costs and increasing labor efficiency in their work process.
a reward system that pays bonuses to employees based on the pervious year's level of corporate profits.
a reward system that gives employees the right to purchase company stock at a future date at a predetermined price.
Employee Stock Ownership Plans
reward systems that encourage employees to buy company stock.
a reward system that pays bonuses for improved results on a composite of financial, customer, internal process, & emplyee factors.
performance feedback received from a full circle of pple around an employee.
a theory that explains how pple develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution/exchange of resources.
occurs when pple realize they are paid less than others w/the same inputs.
occurs when pple realize they are paid more than others w/ the same inputs or recieved the similar outcomes w/lower inputs.
occurs when a pple realize they are paid equal to others with the same inputs.
Example of Non-Financial Rewards
promotions, recognition, office w/ a window
Ways to change Inequity Feelings
change inputs, change outcomes, change perceptions, leave the situation
Job Characteristic Model
a job design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal & organizational consequences of those properties
a job design practices in which employees are given more responsibilty for scheduling, coordinating, & planning their own work.
a psychological concept represented by 4 diminsions: self-determination, meaning, competence, & impact of the individual's role in the org.
feeling of freedom, independence, and disecretion over their work activities.
employees care about their work and believe that what they do is important.
confident about their ability to perform the work well and have a capacity to grow w/new challenges.
employees view themselves as active participants in the org.