Management Ch.13 Motivation

Management Ch.13 Motivation Intro To Management And Organizational Behavior, Ch. 13 Motivation
  
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Employee Engagement
 
i
MARS Model
 
a model that outlines the 4 factors that influence an employee's voluntary behavior & resulting performance
Elements of the MARS Model
 
motivation, ability, role perceptions, & situational factors
Motivation
 
the forces w/in a person that affect his or her direction, intensity & persistence of voluntary behavior.
Ability
 
consist of both the natural aptitudes & learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task/
Role Perceptions
 
they understand the specifics, importance, & preferred behaviors of the tasks.
Situational Factors
 
includes conditions beyond the employee's immediate control that constrain/facilitate his behavior & performance.
Motivating Employees Process
 
(1)drives & needs, (2) goals, expectations, & feedback, (3) extrinsic & intrinsic rewards
Drives
 
instinctive tendencies to seek particlar goas/maintain internal stability.
Needs
 
Mostly conscious deficiencies that energize/trigger behaviors to satisy those needs.
Maslow's needs hierarchy theory
 
a motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby pple are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified.
Self-actualization
 
the need for self-fulfillment in reaching one's potential.
Maslow's Needs Hierarchy
 
physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
Physiological
 
work hours, nourishment, air quality, temperature
Safety
 
job security, employee benefits, safe workplace
Belongingness
 
human interaction, being accepted as team member
Esteem
 
job status, recognition, mastering the job
Self-Actualization
 
challenging tasks, freedom to try new ideas
Management Implications of maslow's Theory
 
E have diff needs @ diff times, E have sev interdependent needs, E want to achieve their full P, E needs are influenced by V & norms.
Learned Needs Theory
 
need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power
Four-Drive Theory of Motivation
 
drive to acquire, drive to bond, drive to learn, and drive to defend
Drive to acquire
 
this the drive to seek, take, control, & retain ojbects & personal experiences.
Drive to bond
 
drive to form social relationships & develop mutual caring commitments w/others.
Drive to learn
 
this is the drive to satisfy our curiosity, to know & understand ourselves & the environment around us.
Drive to defend
 
creates a fight or flight response in the face of personal danger. realationships, acquisitions, and belief system.
Need for achievement
 
a want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals through their own efforts.
Need for affiliation
 
a desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes & expectations, & avoid conflict & confrontation.
Need for power
 
a want to exercise control over others & are concerned about maintaining their leadership positions.
Management Implications of 4 Drive Theory
 
ensure that individual jobs & workplaces provide a balance opportunity to fulfill the drives to acquire, bond, learn, & defend
Goal Setting
 
The process of motivation employees & clarifying their role perceptions by est. performance objectives.
Elements of Goal Setting
 
precise & measureable, specify a time period, important objectives, challenging yet realistic
Expectancy Theory
 
a motivation theory, work effort is directed toward behaviors that pple believe will lead to desired outcomes.
Elements of Expectancy Theory
 
E-to-P expactancy, P-to-0 expectancy, outcome valences
E-to-P expectancy
 
refers to the individual's perception that his effort will result in a particular level of performance.
P-to-O expectancy
 
perceived probability that a specific behavior/performance level will lead to particular outcomes.
Outcome valences
 
is the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome.
Extrinsic Reward
 
anything received from another person that the recipient values & is contingent on his behavior /results.
Intrinsic Reward
 
a positive emotional experience resulting directly & naturally from the individual's behavior/results.
Feedback
 
should be precise & measurable, timely, sufficiently frequent, and credible
Types of Extrinsic Rewards
 
membership/seniority-based rewards, job status-based rewards, competency-based rewards, performance-based rewards
Membership/Seniority-bases Rewards
 
represent the largest part of most paychecks, attract job applicants, and reduce turnover, but do not motivate job performance.
Job Status-based Rewards
 
used to rate the worth/status of ea. job, w/higher pay rates going to jobs that require more skill/effort, creates competition.
Comptency-based Rewards
 
pay increase based on how well employees meet the job's skill and knowledge requirements. Improves workforce flexibility by motivating.
Performance-based Rewards
 
pay increases w/ sales volume.
Peice Rate System
 
systems that reward employees based on the number of units produced.
Performance Appraisal
 
a systematic process of evaluating an employee's performance.
Gainsharing Plan
 
a reward system in which team members earn bonuses for reducing costs and increasing labor efficiency in their work process.
Profit-Sharing Plan
 
a reward system that pays bonuses to employees based on the pervious year's level of corporate profits.
Stock Options
 
a reward system that gives employees the right to purchase company stock at a future date at a predetermined price.
Employee Stock Ownership Plans
 
reward systems that encourage employees to buy company stock.
Balanced Scorecard
 
a reward system that pays bonuses for improved results on a composite of financial, customer, internal process, & emplyee factors.
360-Degree Feedback
 
performance feedback received from a full circle of pple around an employee.
Equity Theory
 
a theory that explains how pple develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution/exchange of resources.
Underreward
 
occurs when pple realize they are paid less than others w/the same inputs.
Overrewared
 
occurs when pple realize they are paid more than others w/ the same inputs or recieved the similar outcomes w/lower inputs.
Appropriate Reward
 
occurs when a pple realize they are paid equal to others with the same inputs.
Example of Non-Financial Rewards
 
promotions, recognition, office w/ a window
Ways to change Inequity Feelings
 
change inputs, change outcomes, change perceptions, leave the situation
Job Characteristic Model
 
a job design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal & organizational consequences of those properties
Job Enrichment
 
a job design practices in which employees are given more responsibilty for scheduling, coordinating, & planning their own work.
Empowerment
 
a psychological concept represented by 4 diminsions: self-determination, meaning, competence, & impact of the individual's role in the org.
Self-determination
 
feeling of freedom, independence, and disecretion over their work activities.
Meaning
 
employees care about their work and believe that what they do is important.
Comptence
 
confident about their ability to perform the work well and have a capacity to grow w/new challenges.
Impact
 
employees view themselves as active participants in the org.

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