Management Ch 3

Management Ch 3

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Side ASide B
Programmed Decisions
Decisions encountered and made before, having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using simple rules, policies, or numerical computations
Nonprogrammed Decisions
New, novel, complex decisions having to proven answers
The state exists when decision makers have accurate and comprehensive information
The state that exists when decisions makers have insufficient information
The state that exists when the probability of success is less than 100 percent and losses may occur
Opposing pressures from different sources, occurring on the level of psychological conflict or of conflict between individuals or groups
Ready-made solutions
Ideas that have been seen or tried before
Custom-made solutions
New, creative solutions designed specifically for the problem
Contingency plans
Alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds
A decision realizing the best possible outcome
Choosing an options that is acceptable, although not necessarily the best or perfect
Achieving the best possible balance among several goals
A process in which a decision maker carefully executes all stages of decision making
Illusion of control
People's belief that they can influence events, even when they have no control over what will happen
Framing effects
A decision bias influences by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or presented
Discounting the future
A bias weighing short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits
A phenomenon that occurs in decision making when group members avoid disagreement as they strive for consensus
Goal Displacement
A condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses sight of its original goal and a new, less important goal emerges
Cognitive Conflict
Issue-bases differences in perspectives or judgments
Affective conflict
Emotional disagreement directed toward other people
Devil's Advocate
A person who has the job of criticizing ideas to ensure that their downsides are fully explored
A structured debate comparing two conflicting courses of action
A process in which group members generate as many ideas about a problem as they can; criticism is withheld until all ideas have been proposed
Bounded Rationality
A less-than-perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex and complete information is unavailable or cannot be fully...
Incremental moder
Model of organizational decision making in which major solutions arise through a series of smaller decisions
Coalitional model
Model of organizational decision making in which groups with differing preferences use power and negotiations to influence decisions
Garbage can model
Model of organizational decision making depicting a chaotic process and seemingly random decisions

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