Management Ch 3

Management Ch 3 Management Ch 3
  
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Programmed Decisions
 
Decisions encountered and made before, having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using simple rules, policies, or numerical computations
Nonprogrammed Decisions
 
New, novel, complex decisions having to proven answers
Certainty
 
The state exists when decision makers have accurate and comprehensive information
Uncertainty
 
The state that exists when decisions makers have insufficient information
Risk
 
The state that exists when the probability of success is less than 100 percent and losses may occur
Conflict
 
Opposing pressures from different sources, occurring on the level of psychological conflict or of conflict between individuals or groups
Ready-made solutions
 
Ideas that have been seen or tried before
Custom-made solutions
 
New, creative solutions designed specifically for the problem
Contingency plans
 
Alternative courses of action that can be implemented based on how the future unfolds
Maximizing
 
A decision realizing the best possible outcome
Satisficing
 
Choosing an options that is acceptable, although not necessarily the best or perfect
Optimizing
 
Achieving the best possible balance among several goals
Vigilance
 
A process in which a decision maker carefully executes all stages of decision making
Illusion of control
 
People's belief that they can influence events, even when they have no control over what will happen
Framing effects
 
A decision bias influences by the way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or presented
Discounting the future
 
A bias weighing short-term costs and benefits more heavily than longer-term costs and benefits
Groupthink
 
A phenomenon that occurs in decision making when group members avoid disagreement as they strive for consensus
Goal Displacement
 
A condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses sight of its original goal and a new, less important goal emerges
Cognitive Conflict
 
Issue-bases differences in perspectives or judgments
Affective conflict
 
Emotional disagreement directed toward other people
Devil's Advocate
 
A person who has the job of criticizing ideas to ensure that their downsides are fully explored
Dialectic
 
A structured debate comparing two conflicting courses of action
Brainstorming
 
A process in which group members generate as many ideas about a problem as they can; criticism is withheld until all ideas have been proposed
Bounded Rationality
 
A less-than-perfect form of rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly rational because decisions are complex and complete information is unavailable or cannot be fully processed
Incremental moder
 
Model of organizational decision making in which major solutions arise through a series of smaller decisions
Coalitional model
 
Model of organizational decision making in which groups with differing preferences use power and negotiations to influence decisions
Garbage can model
 
Model of organizational decision making depicting a chaotic process and seemingly random decisions

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