lymphatic system 2

60 cards

lymphatic system


 
  
Created Oct 8, 2009
by
medicinemannc

 

 
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1
proteins that protect from pathogens
 
antibodies
2
recognizes and acts against particular foreign substances
 
antigen specific
3
what is it called when the defense is not restricted to the initial infection
 
systemic
4
recognizes and mounts a stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens
 
memory
5
haptens
 
incomplete antigens (e.g. poison ivy)
6
chemicals released by sensitized T cells, macrophages, and certain other cells; substances...
 
cytokines
7
soluble proteins secreted by activated B cells or by their plasma-cell offspring in response...
 
immunoglobulins (antibodies)
8
antibody-mediated immunity is called
 
humoral immunity
9
cell-mediated immunity is called
 
cellular immunity
10
virus-infected cells, cancer cells, and cells of foreign grafts are targeted by (type of immunity)
 
cellular immunity
11
any substance capable of exciting the immune system and provoking an immune response
 
antigen (nonself)
12
which type of common antigen is the strongest (response)
 
foreign proteins
13
_____ are when small molecules (haptens) are not antigenic, but link up with our own proteins...
 
allergies
14
cells of adaptive defense  system include
 
B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages (help lymphocytes)
15
____ refers to when a cell becomes capable of responding to a specific antigen by binding to...
 
immunocompetent
16
_____ originate from hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow
 
lymphocytes
17
_____ become immunocompetent in the bone marrow
 
B cells (B lymphocytes)
18
_____ become immunocompetent in the thymus
 
T cells
19
____ arise from monocytes
 
macrophages
20
______ become widely distributed in lymphoid organs
 
macrophages
21
macrophages secrete ______
 
cytokines
22
macrophages tend to remain fixed in the ___________
 
lymphoid organs
23
what activates B cells to undergo clonal selection
 
binding of B cell (with specific receptors) to a specific antigen
24
most B cells become _____
 
plasma cells
25
______ occurs when B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies
 
active immunity
26
_____ occurs when antibodies are obtained from someone else
 
passive immunity
27
______ are capable of binding specifically to an antigen
 
antibodies (Igs)
28
2 identical amino acid chains are linked to form a heavy chain; the other 2 identical chains...
 
antibody
29
5 major immunoglobulin classes
 
MADGE = IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
30
___ can fix complement
 
IgM
31
 found mainly in mucus
 
IgA
32
important in activation of B cell
 
IgD
33
can cross the placental barrier and fix complement, most abundant
 
IgG
34
involved in allergies
 
IgE
35
4 ways that antibodies inactivate antigens
 
complement fixation, neutralization, agglutination, precipitation
36
____ specialize in killing infected cells
 
cytotoxic/killer T cells
37
____recruit other cells to fight the invaders
 
helper T cells
38
____ insert a toxic chemical (perforin)
 
killer T cells
39
___ interact directly with B cells
 
helper T cells
40
____ release chemicals to suppress the activity of T and B cells; stop immune response to prevent...
 
regulatory T cells
41
grafts: tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same person
 
autografts
42
grafts: tissue grafts from an identical person
 
isografts
43
grafts: tissue taken from unrelated person
 
allografts
44
grafts: tissue taken from a different animal species
 
xenografts 
45
the ideal donors/grafts are
 
autografts and isografts
46
___grafts are never successful
 
xenografts
47
triggered by release of histamine from IgE binding to mast cells; reactions begin within seconds...
 
immediate hypersensitivity
48
______ is a dangerous, systemic response; blood vessels dilate
 
anaphylactic shock
49
_____ triggered by the release of lymphokines from activated helpter T cells; symptoms usually...
 
delayed hypersensitivity
50
_____ refers to production/function of immune cells or complement is abnormal
 
immunodeficiencies
51
the body produces antibodies and sensitized T lymphocytes that attack its own tissues
 
autoimmune disease
52
autoimmune diseases:  white matter of brain and spinal cord are destroyed
 
multiple sclerosis
53
autoimmune diseases:  impairs communication between nerves and skeletal muscles
 
myasthenia gravis
54
autoimmune diseases:  destroys pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin
 
Type I diabetes mellitus
55
an inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritating substance
 
contact dermatitis
56
a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially...
 
elephantiasis
57
autoimmune diseases:  destroys joints
 
rheumatoid arthritis
58
autoimmune diseases:  affects kidney, heart, lung and skin
 
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
59
autoimmune diseases:  impairment of renal function
 
glomerulonephritis
60
since newborn has no functioning lymphocytes at birth, where does her/his immunity come from
 
passive immunity from mother


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