Lymphatic System 2


Lymphatic System
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proteins that protect from pathogens
 
antibodies
recognizes and acts against particular foreign substances
 
antigen specific
what is it called when the defense is not restricted to the initial infection
 
systemic
recognizes and mounts a stronger attack on previously encountered pathogens
 
memory
haptens
 
incomplete antigens (e.g. poison ivy)
chemicals released by sensitized T cells, macrophages, and certain other cells; substances that are secreted by specific cells of the immune system which carry signals locally between cells
 
cytokines
soluble proteins secreted by activated B cells or by their plasma-cell offspring in response to an antigen
 
immunoglobulins (antibodies)
antibody-mediated immunity is called
 
humoral immunity
cell-mediated immunity is called
 
cellular immunity
virus-infected cells, cancer cells, and cells of foreign grafts are targeted by (type of immunity)
 
cellular immunity
any substance capable of exciting the immune system and provoking an immune response
 
antigen (nonself)
which type of common antigen is the strongest (response)
 
foreign proteins
_____ are when small molecules (haptens) are not antigenic, but link up with our own proteins and the immune system may recognize/respond to the protein/hapten combination
 
allergies
cells of adaptive defense system include
 
B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages (help lymphocytes)
____ refers to when a cell becomes capable of responding to a specific antigen by binding to it
 
immunocompetent
_____ originate from hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow
 
lymphocytes
_____ become immunocompetent in the bone marrow
 
B cells (B lymphocytes)
_____ become immunocompetent in the thymus
 
T cells
____ arise from monocytes
 
macrophages
______ become widely distributed in lymphoid organs
 
macrophages
macrophages secrete ______
 
cytokines
macrophages tend to remain fixed in the ___________
 
lymphoid organs
what activates B cells to undergo clonal selection
 
binding of B cell (with specific receptors) to a specific antigen
most B cells become _____
 
plasma cells
______ occurs when B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies
 
active immunity
_____ occurs when antibodies are obtained from someone else
 
passive immunity
______ are capable of binding specifically to an antigen
 
antibodies (Igs)
2 identical amino acid chains are linked to form a heavy chain; the other 2 identical chains are light chains = four amino acid chains linked by a disulfide bond which creates _____
 
antibody
5 major immunoglobulin classes
 
MADGE = IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE
___ can fix complement
 
IgM
found mainly in mucus
 
IgA
important in activation of B cell
 
IgD
can cross the placental barrier and fix complement, most abundant
 
IgG
involved in allergies
 
IgE
4 ways that antibodies inactivate antigens
 
complement fixation, neutralization, agglutination, precipitation
____ specialize in killing infected cells
 
cytotoxic/killer T cells
____recruit other cells to fight the invaders
 
helper T cells
____ insert a toxic chemical (perforin)
 
killer T cells
___ interact directly with B cells
 
helper T cells
____ release chemicals to suppress the activity of T and B cells; stop immune response to prevent uncontrolled activity
 
regulatory T cells
grafts: tissue transplanted from one site to another on the same person
 
autografts
grafts: tissue grafts from an identical person
 
isografts
grafts: tissue taken from unrelated person
 
allografts
grafts: tissue taken from a different animal species
 
xenografts
the ideal donors/grafts are
 
autografts and isografts
___grafts are never successful
 
xenografts
triggered by release of histamine from IgE binding to mast cells; reactions begin within seconds of contact with allergen
 
immediate hypersensitivity
______ is a dangerous, systemic response; blood vessels dilate
 
anaphylactic shock
_____ triggered by the release of lymphokines from activated helpter T cells; symptoms usually appear 1-3 days after contact with antigen
 
delayed hypersensitivity
_____ refers to production/function of immune cells or complement is abnormal
 
immunodeficiencies
the body produces antibodies and sensitized T lymphocytes that attack its own tissues
 
autoimmune disease
autoimmune diseases: white matter of brain and spinal cord are destroyed
 
multiple sclerosis
autoimmune diseases: impairs communication between nerves and skeletal muscles
 
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune diseases: destroys pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin
 
Type I diabetes mellitus
an inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with an irritating substance
 
contact dermatitis
a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts (lymphatics are clogged or removed)
 
elephantiasis
autoimmune diseases: destroys joints
 
rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune diseases: affects kidney, heart, lung and skin
 
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
autoimmune diseases: impairment of renal function
 
glomerulonephritis
since newborn has no functioning lymphocytes at birth, where does her/his immunity come from
 
passive immunity from mother
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