Kidney (Urinary System)

Kidney (Urinary System) A&P II
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af-
 
to
cort
 
covering, rind
cyst-
 
bladder
glom-
 
little ball
juxta-
 
near to
mict-
 
to pass urine
nephr-
 
pertaining to the kidney
prox-
 
nearest
ren-
 
kidney
functions of urinary system
 
remove substances from bloodform urineregulate metabolic processescollect urine convey urine outside the body
functions of kidney
 
regulate volume, composition, and pH of body fluidsremove wastes and excrete themcontrol rate of RBC production control blood pressure by secreting reninregulate absorption of Ca ions by activating Vit D
organs of urinary system
 
two kidneystwo uretersbladderurethra
kidney are located
 
behind parietal peritoneum (retroperitoneal) against the deep muscles of back on either side of spinal column between the 12th thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebrae
overall function of kidney
 
regulate the volume, composition, pH of body fluids
specific function of the kidneys are to
 
remove nitrogenous and sulfur waste products regulate volume and composition of body fluidscontrol rate of RBC productionregulate blood pressure by secreting reninabsorption of calcium ions by activating vit D
renal arteries arise from
 
abdominal aorta
renal arteries carry from ____% to _____% of cardiac output at rest by several ____arteries
 
15 30interlobar
interlobar arteries pass between
 
renal pyramids
when interlobar arteries reach the junction between the____and ____, they branch to form a series of ____
 
medullacortexincomplete arteries
final branches of interlobular arteries are
 
afferent arterioles
afferent arterioles lead to
 
nephrons
venous blood is returned through
 
a series of veins that generally correspond to arterial pathways and that join the renal vein, which joins the inferior vena cava
efferent arteriole is _______than afferent arteriole
 
smaller than
________is important in regulating the secretion of renin
 
juxtaglomerular apparatus
functional unit of kidney
 
nephron
each nephron consists of ______and _____
 
renal corpuscle renal tubule
renal corpuscle is ________unit of nephron
 
filtering
renal corpuscle consists of
 
cluster of capillaries (gloemrulus)surrounding glomerular capsule
cluster of capillaries in renal corpuscle
 
glomerulus
afferent arterioles give rise to
 
glomerulus
glomerulus leads to
 
efferent arterioles
first step in urine formation
 
filtration of renal corpuscle
glomerular capsule is an ______at the end of renal tubule and receives _____
 
expansionglomerular filtrate
renal tubule consists of
 
two layers of squamous epithelial cells1. visceral layer2. outer parietal layer
visceral layer of renal tubule
 
covers glomerulus
outer parietal layer of renal tubule
 
continuous with visceral layer and with wall of renal tubule
renal tubule leads away from
 
glomerular capsule and becomes very coiled, forming proximal convoluted tubule.
renal tubule becomes
 
proximal convoluted tubule
following convoluted tubule is
 
nephron loop (loop of Henle)
after nephron loop of henle is
 
distal convoluted tubule and ascending limb of tubule
distal convoluted tubule is ____and ______than proximal tubule and converges with other tubules in the renal cortex to become _______
 
shorter straighter collecting duct
____is formed by tightly packed epithelial cells in the region where tubule passes between afferent and efferent arterioles
 
macula densa
juxtaglomerular cells
 
large vascular smooth muscle cells
juxtaglomerular cells form _____along the cells of macula densa
 
juxtaglomerular apparatus
juxtaglomerular apparatus is important in
 
regulation of renin secretion
Glomerulonephritis
 
immune reaction triggered by antigens of beta hemolytic streptococcus
body reacts to beta hemolytic streptococcus antigens by
 
forming antibodies that join with the antigens to form insoluble complex that block the glomerulus.white cells respond by increasing capillaries permeability and allowing WBC and RBC into the urine
most patients of glomerulonephritis
 
regain normal function some renal function fails and dialysis is required
afferent arteriole is ______than efferent arteriole which causes increased ________to blood flow in efferent arteriole
 
larger resistance
increased resistance to blood flow in the efferent arteriole causes blood to
 
back up into the glomerulus
back up of blood in glomerulus results in
 
relatively higher pressure in the glomerulus capillaries than in nonglomerular capillaries
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