Karst Processes and Landscapes

46 cards

Lecture 14��� ������ 


 
  
Created Apr 5, 2009
by
rubelt12

 

 
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1
What is groundwater and how does it accumulate?
 
2nd largest potential source of freshwater (22%) and it accumulates by percolation
2
How is percolation controlled?
 
By a rocks porosity: the percentage of the total volume of a rock or soil that consists or...
3
What is permeability and what is it controlled by?
 
The capacity of a material to transmit fluids or how well fluids move through it.   Controlled...
4
What is the Zone of Aeration?
 
The Zone of aeration is a permeable layer and has a permeability rate of > .01m/day...water...
5
What is the Zone of Saturation?
 
The zone of saturation is where water collects. This zone is above and impermeable layer...
6
What is an Aquifer?
 
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or...
7
What are the three types of impermeable layers?
 
1)aquitard 2)aquiclude 3)aquifuge  
8
What is the Water Table?
 
The water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation.
9
What is an Unconfined Aquifer?
 
An Unconfined Aquifer is the zone of saturation. It has a permeable layer above and an impermeable...
10
What is a Confined Aquifer?
 
A Confined Aquifer has an impermeable layer above and below it, and is recharged in select...
11
What is an Artesian Well?
 
A flow of water onto the surface under pressure from a confined aquifer. (fig 13.10 pg 348)
12
What is a spring?
 
a surface flow of water that emerges from underground...not under pressure from an unconfined...
13
What is a stream?
 
water flowing on the surface, in a watercourse, where the water table is above the surface:...
14
What is a thermal Spring and Geysers?
 
Water heated to high temperatures usually associated with recent volcanic activity (fig 13.11...
15
What is Ground Subsidence?
 
If groundwater is removed in large quantities, surface may react by sinking to fill in the...
16
What is salt water encroachment?
 
reach in book pgs. 365-67
17
What is Karst?
 
a type of landascape associated with the chemical erosion of soluble limestone (caco3) or dolomite...
18
What are the key ingredients in Karst and where does in occur?
 
Water is a key ingredient, without water there is no Karst. May occur at the surface or below...
19
What is the basic process of Carbonation?
 
Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water or an aqueous solution. This process...
20
What are the basic steps (including the formulas) to create carbonation?
 
1) Water combines with carbon diozide to form carbonic acid CO2 + H2O >>> H2CO3 5) The...
21
What affects the process of carbonation?
 
the amount of CO2 in the water affects the strength of the cabronic acid, which affects the...
22
describe how temperature affects Karst
 
*Cold water can hold more CO2 *There is not as much Karst in colder areas because there is...
23
describe how the mixing effect affects Karst
 
*When water of differing solution strengths mix they yield a new solution which is unsaturated...
24
describe the flow-rate effect
 
Slow moving or still water will reach saturation sooner than faster moving water.
25
describe climate controls in terms of Karst production
 
*cold regions yield little karst development: sparse rainfall and vegetation leads to little...
26
what is the key factor is Karst?
 
The amount of CO2 in the water. Most CO2 comes from the soil.    atmosphere = .03% by...
27
What are some seasonal differences of CO2 levels?
 
*seasonal soil Temp differences: increase soil temp = increased soil CO2 *Seasonal water flow...
28
Karst Landforms
 
different references and researches have different categories or classification schemes: EX:...
29
Doline Karst
 
Areas of numerals dolines or sinkholes *most widely distributed type of karst landscape *various...
30
What is a doline?
 
a small usually shallow circular to oval shaped closed depression created by remains of material...
31
What is a uvala?
 
2 or more dolines which have coalesced into one.
32
What is cockpit Karst?
 
area of depressions surrounded by S towers or cones, forming a star shaped pattern. Found in...
33
What is Cone and Tower Karst?
 
Similar to cockpit karst, but with steeper-sided towers, smaller depressions, and usually not...
34
What is FluvioKarst?
 
A landscape of deranged drainage, blind valleys, large springs, or most any running...
35
What is a Polje Karst?
 
Large flat floured closed depression often filled with alluvium floors and susceptible to flooding....
36
What is a Labyrinth Karst?
 
Intersecting solution corridors and canyons . can be several km in extent. Ex. Nahanni  River...
37
what are common underground Karst Landforms and Features?
 
caves
38
What is a cave?
 
caves: a natural openning in the earth large enough to admit a human being, usaully with an...
39
Where are caves found?
 
*found in karst areas, one created by the dissolution of bedrock, primarily limestone, by circulating...
40
How big are caves? what are their components and shapes?
 
Cabes vary from a few meters to hundreds of km. longest known cave: mammoth cave (flint system),...
41
What are some cave features?
 
Speleothems, Stalagmite, stalactite, column, and tufa
42
What is a speleothems in a cave?
 
A secondary fchemical crystallization/depositional feature of caves, the general term for all...
43
What is a stalagmite in a cave?
 
Depositional feature which builds up from the floor
44
What is a stalactite in a cave?
 
depositional feature which grows downward from the ceiling
45
What is a column in a cave?
 
Reaches from the floor to the ceiling, may be a stalagmite and stalactite that have joined...
46
What is a tufa in a cave?
 
Precipitate which forms along a wall, on rocks, and other surfaces.


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