Juvenile Justice Test 1

41 cards

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Created Jul 19, 2010
by
rotc1

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
"miniature adults" vs. dependent
 
shift caused by social and structural change
2
miniature adults
 
miniature versions of their parents, similar reponsibilities, could do everyuthing that adults...
3
dependent
 
came about in the last half of the 19th century. children were viewed as innocent and needed...
4
adolescence (10-11) and adulthood (17/18)
 
did not exist before the industrial revolution. constructed around the same time as childhood...
5
3 big laws brought about by progressives
 
compulsory school attendance laws, child labor laws, and the juvenile court
6
compulsory school attendance laws
 
mainly and economic motivation. children required to go to school for a set period of time...
7
child labor laws
 
age limits, hour limit, and they have to be paid a certain wage. childeren before this law...
8
First juvenile court
 
Cook county, Illinois in 1899
9
Consensus model
 
law is a visible symbol of societies collective conscience (based on shared values).
10
3 key juvenile institutions in order
 
1) Houses of refuge 2) reform schools 3) Juvenile courts
11
Houses of refuge
 
formal beginning of juvenile justice system. Child Savers didn't want to lock up kids with...
12
Reform schools
 
used in rural settings as opposed to the city. Designed to be like a house with a mom and dad...
13
Juvenile Justice Court
 
Daniel O'Brien case- kid simpily sent to a house of refuge in chicago just for being poor,...
14
Edifice complex
 
view that the solution to human problems is a new institution. Cycles through, instead of looking...
15
Establishment of training school and juvenile court in Memphis, Tenn
 
Shelby County Industrial and Training School for Kids (example of child saving designed by...
16
New York Childrens Aid Society's Placing Out Plan
 
Started orphan trains that took kids from NY and sent themout west to be raised by American...
17
Founder of NY Childrens Aid Society
 
Charles Loring Brace: Yale man and minister
18
2 enduring implications of Child Savers Progressive Reform
 
1) politicalization of childhood 2) Differentiation of deserving and undeserving poor (parents-undeserving-...
19
Key Court cases associated with the 3rd wave of juvenile justice reform.
 
1) Kent vs U.S. (1966) 2) In re Gault (1967) 3) In re Winship (1970) 4) McKeiver v Pennsylvania...
20
Kent vs U.S. (1966)
 
gave some procedural safeguards to juveniles facing waiver hearings (ex. could have a lawyer...
21
In re Gault (1967)
 
Right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, right o have advanced notice of what their charges...
22
In re Winship (1970)
 
"burden of proof" became beyond a reasonable doubt.
23
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania (1971)
 
ruled that kids now have rights to a jury
24
Roper vs Simmons (2005)
 
outlawed the death penalty for ppl under 18
25
Criticisms of the first wave of juvenile justice reform
 
was the turn of the century juvenile court movement. Progressives established juvenile courts...
26
2nd wave of juvenile justice reform
 
WWII through late 1950s. Started by American Law Institute which wanted to change the juvenile...
27
3rd wave of juvenile justice reform
 
biggest influence was the civil rights movement. "Great migration" (large black population...
28
key factors of "get tough" justice
 
a shift to retribution, crack cocaine raised crime, most ppl on welfare are white (thus creating...
29
social disorganization theory (1942)
 
Causes were immigration, urbanization, industrialization, and a spike in crime because of great...
30
Merton's Theory of Anomie (1957)
 
People naturally want to conform but are pushed to commit crime. There are 2 requisites for...
31
Rational choice theory
 
From classical criminology, emerged in enlightenment. Key Reports: 1) humans are sensual/hedonistic...
32
Agnew's General Strain Theory (1992)
 
3 main causes of strain (negative relationships): 1) someone from preventing you from obtaining...
33
Gottfredsons and Hirschi's Self Control Theory (1990)- what it is and 6 components
 
Asserts that self control is primary mechanism blocking anti-social behavior; and inner trait...
34
Self Control Theory Continued- What produces it
 
Self control is the product of effective parenting, 3 key aspects: 1) Monitor kids behavior 2)...
35
Self Control Theory- What it explains
 
Low self control is teh chief cause of not only crime and delinquency  but also os "analogous...
36
Self Control Theory- when it develops
 
Level of self control is established early in life, and remains stable over the life course. **established...
37
Kep propositions of Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
 
1) Delinquency is learned like any other behavior 2) it describes the content of what is learned,...
38
Theoretical model (Sampson and Laub's Age graded theory  of Informal Social Control)
 
Delinquency is affected by a lack of family, scool, and peers. Socioeconomic, disadvantage,...
39
Trait Theory Reports
 
1) delinquents are a distinct type by brith 2) the differences predispose these individuals...
40
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory- Cause of delinquency
 
humans are selfish (pursue balance of pleasure over pain without regards to others; do what...
41
Social Bonds Theory- What prevents crime
 
4 key elements: 1) Attachment (relationships with others involving warmth, caring, sensitivity...

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