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Side ASide B
How are joints classified?
The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a __________________.
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a _________________ joint.
In _________________ joints the bones are joined together by fibrous tissue and lack a joint cavity.
___________________ occur between bones of the skull and use very short connective tissue fibers to hold the bones together
In ___________________, the bones are connected by a ligament, which is a cord or band of fibrous tissue
A _______________________ is a peg-in-socket fibrous joint.
In _______________________ joints, bones are joined together by cartilage and they lack a joint cavity.
_____________________ involve a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage uniting the bones, such as the ________________________
synchondroses, epiphyseal plate
In _____________________, such as the ________________________, the articular surfaces are covered with articular cartilage that is then fused to an intervening pad or plate of fibrocartilage.
In ____________________ joints, the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
Five features that distinguish the general structure of a synovial joint
1. articular cartilage coveres the end of the articulating bones2. the joint (synovial) cavity is a space that is filled with synovial fluid.3. the two-layered articular capsule encloses...
______________________ classification is based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint.
__________________ are immovable joints
_____________________ are slightly movable joints
____________________ are freely movable joints
What is the major role of ligaments at synovial joints?
The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable movement
____________________ are cartilaginous joints.
synchondroses and/or symphyses
What factors influence the stability of synovial joints?
The shapes of the articular surfaces of bones found at a synovial joint determine the movements that occur at the joint, but play a minimal role in stabilizing the joint.Ligaments at...
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ___________________.
What are menisci?
semilunar cartilage pads
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ______________ synovial joint.
Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as _______________
What type of movement is allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae?
Describe gliding movements
one flat, or nearly flat, bone surface glides or slips over another
Describe angular movements
increase or decrease the angle between two bones
_________________ decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together
_______________ increases the angle between the articulating bones
_______________ decreases the angle between the top of the foot and the anterior surface of the tibia
_______________________ decreases the angle between the sole of the foot and the posterior side of the tibia
_______________________ is the movement of a limb (or fingers) away from the midline body (or of the hand).
_____________________ is the movement of a limb (or fingers) toward the midline of the body (or the hand).
_____________________ is moving a limb so that it describes a cone in the are
_____________________ is the turning of a bone along its own long axis.
____________________ is the rotating the forearm laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly
___________________ is rotating the arm medially so that the palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly
___________________ turns the sole of the foot so that it faces medially
__________________ turns the sole of the foot so that it faces laterally
___________________ moves the mandible anteriorly, juts the jaw forward
_________________ returns the mandible to its original position
__________________ means lifting a body part superiorly
__________________ means to move an elevated body inferiorly
_________________ occurs when you touch your thumb to the fingers on the same hand
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the _____________________
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ______________ joint.
___________________ have flat articular surfaces and allow gliding and transitional movements
location of plane joints
carpometacarpal, digits 2-5, intercarpal, acromioclavicular, vertebrocostal, etc.
______________________ consist of a cylindrical projection that nests in a trough-shaped structure, and allow movement along a single plane
location of hinge joints
elbow, fingers, toes, knee
_____________________ consist of a rounded structure that protrudes into a sleeve or ring, and allow uniaxial rotation of a bone around the long axis
location of pivot joints
provimal and distal radioulnar also atlanoaxial
_________________, or ______________ joints consist of an oval articular surface that nests in a complementary depression, and permit all angular movements
condyloid, or ellipsoid
location of condyloid joints
_____________________ consist of each articular surface bearing complementary concave and convex areas, and allow more freedom of movement than condyloid joints.
location of saddle joints
_______________________________ consist of a spherical or hemispherical structure that articulates with a cuplike structure. They are the most freely moving joints and allow multiaxial...
location of ball-and-socket joints
shoulder and hip
____________________ muscle is associated with the bony skeleton, and consists or large cells that bear striations and are controlled voluntarily.
___________________ muscle occurs only in the heart, and consists of small cells that are striated and under involuntary control
___________________ muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs, and consists of small elongated cells that are not striated and are under involuntary control
________________________ is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment
the force of muscle contraction
peristalsis is characteristic of _________________ muscle.
____________________ smooth muscle is found in the intestines.
A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called ____________________.
no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed loadThe load is greater than the tension the muscle is able to developTension increases to the muscle's capacity, but the...
muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds the loadMuscle changes in length and moves the loadIsotonic contractions are either concentric or eccentri
the muscle shortens and doesn't work
the muscle contracts as it lengthens
Functions of the muscular system
1) movement of bones or fluids (e.g., blood)2) maintaining posture and body position3) stabilizing joints4) heat generation (especially skeletal muscle)
What is the role of tropomyosin in skeletal muscles
tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules
What controls the force of muscle contraction?
What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?
What causes a resting potential?
A difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell.
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?
Describe three ways in which ATP is generated during muscle contraction.
Direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate (CP)Anaerobic pathway (glycolysis)At 70% of maximum contractile activity:-Bulging muscles compress blood vessels-Oxygen delivery...
Why does rigor mortis occur?
rigor mortis occurs because no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
What is the broadest muscle of the back?
The ___________________ is the main chewing muscle
First class lever system
fulcrum between load and effort
Second class lever system
load between fulcrum and effort
Third class lever system
effort applied between fulcrum and load
What is the major factor controlling how levers work?
the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
What muscle is responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking?
A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a
What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?
the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called?
When the terms levator, biceps, triceps, or quadriceps form part of a muscle's name, what does it tell you about the muscle?
The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region. The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively
What are the muscles that are found at the openings of the body collectively called
What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common?
they all act on the tongue
____________________ is a powerful forearm extensor
The ______________ is known as the boxer muscle
The ________________ runs deep to the external oblique
The ___________________ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing
The ___________________ draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror