Joints And Muscle Study Guide

Flash Cards From A Study Guide On Muscles And Joints For Anatomy And Physiology I
Created Apr 24, 2010
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Side ASide B
How are joints classified?
The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification...
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement...
symphysis
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a _________________ joint.
gomphosis
In _________________ joints the bones are joined together by fibrous tissue and lack a joint...
fibrous
___________________ occur between bones of the skull and use very short connective tissue fibers...
sutures
In ___________________, the bones are connected by a ligament, which is a cord or band of fibrous...
syndesmoses
A _______________________ is a peg-in-socket fibrous joint.
gomphosis
In _______________________ joints, bones are joined together by cartilage and they lack a joint...
cartilaginous joints
_____________________ involve a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage uniting the bones, such as...
synchondroses, epiphyseal plate
In _____________________, such as the ________________________, the articular surfaces are...
symphyses
In ____________________ joints, the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing...
synovial
Five features that distinguish the general structure of a synovial joint
1. articular cartilage coveres the end of the articulating bones2. the joint (synovial) cavity...
______________________ classification is based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint.
functional
__________________ are immovable joints
synarthroses
_____________________ are slightly movable joints
amphiarthroses
____________________ are freely movable joints
diarthroses
What is the major role of ligaments at synovial joints?
The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable...
____________________ are cartilaginous joints.
synchondroses and/or symphyses
What factors influence the stability of synovial joints?
The shapes of the articular surfaces of bones found at a synovial joint determine the movements...
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction...
ligaments
What are menisci?
semilunar cartilage pads
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ______________ synovial joint.
multiaxial
Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as _______________
uniaxial rotation
What type of movement is allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae?
rotation
Describe gliding movements
one flat, or nearly flat, bone surface glides or slips over another
Describe angular movements
increase or decrease the angle between two bones
_________________ decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer...
flexion
_______________ increases the angle between the articulating bones
extension
_______________ decreases the angle between the top of the foot and the anterior surface of...
dorsiflexion
_______________________ decreases the angle between the sole of the foot and the posterior...
plantar flexion
_______________________ is the movement of a limb (or fingers) away from the midline body (or...
abduction
_____________________ is the movement of a limb (or fingers) toward the midline of the body...
adduction
_____________________ is moving a limb so that it describes a cone in the are
circumduction
_____________________ is the turning of a bone along its own long axis.
rotation
____________________ is the rotating the forearm laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly...
supination
___________________ is rotating the arm medially so that the palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly
pronation
___________________ turns the sole of the foot so that it faces medially
inversion
__________________ turns the sole of the foot so that it faces laterally
eversion
___________________ moves the mandible anteriorly, juts the jaw forward
protraction
_________________ returns the mandible to its original position
retraction
__________________ means lifting a body part superiorly
elevation
__________________ means to move an elevated body inferiorly
depression
_________________ occurs when you touch your thumb to the fingers on the same hand
opposition
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the _____________________
feet
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ______________ joint.
plane
___________________ have flat articular surfaces and allow gliding and transitional movements
plane joints
location of plane joints
carpometacarpal, digits 2-5, intercarpal, acromioclavicular, vertebrocostal, etc.
______________________ consist of a cylindrical projection that nests in a trough-shaped structure,...
hinge joints
location of hinge joints
elbow, fingers, toes, knee
_____________________ consist of a rounded structure that protrudes into a sleeve or ring,...
pivot joints
location of pivot joints
provimal and distal radioulnar also atlanoaxial
_________________, or ______________ joints consist of an oval articular surface that nests...
condyloid, or ellipsoid
location of condyloid joints
metatarsophalangeal, metacarpophalangeal
_____________________ consist of each articular surface bearing complementary concave and convex...
saddle joints
location of saddle joints
thumb
_______________________________ consist of a spherical or hemispherical structure that articulates...
ball-and-socket joints
location of ball-and-socket joints
shoulder and hip
____________________ muscle is associated with the bony skeleton, and consists or large cells...
skeletal muscle
___________________ muscle occurs only in the heart, and consists of small cells that are striated...
cardiac muscle
___________________ muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs, and consists of small elongated...
smooth muscle
________________________ is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment
the force of muscle contraction
peristalsis is characteristic of _________________ muscle.
smooth
____________________ smooth muscle is found in the intestines.
single-unit
A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called ____________________.
isometric
isometric contraction:
no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed loadThe load is greater than the...
Isotonic contraction:
muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds the loadMuscle changes in length and moves the...
Concentric contractions
the muscle shortens and doesn't work
Eccentric contractions
the muscle contracts as it lengthens
Functions of the muscular system
1) movement of bones or fluids (e.g., blood)2) maintaining posture and body position3) stabilizing...
What is the role of tropomyosin in skeletal muscles
tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin...
What controls the force of muscle contraction?
multimotor unit
What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?
sarcoplasmic reticulum
What causes a resting potential?
A difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell.
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?
actin filaments
Describe three ways in which ATP is generated during muscle contraction.
Direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate (CP)Anaerobic pathway (glycolysis)At 70%...
Why does rigor mortis occur?
rigor mortis occurs because no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
What is the broadest muscle of the back?
lattissimus dorsi
The ___________________ is the main chewing muscle
masseter
First class lever system
fulcrum between load and effort
Second class lever system
load between fulcrum and effort
Third class lever system
effort applied between fulcrum and load
What is the major factor controlling how levers work?
the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
What muscle is responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking?
fibularis tertius
A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a
synergist
What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?
the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called?
an agonist
When the terms levator, biceps, triceps, or quadriceps form part of a muscle's name, what does...
The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region. The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively
What are the muscles that are found at the openings of the body collectively called
circular muscles
What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common?
they all act on the tongue
____________________ is a powerful forearm extensor
triceps brachii
The ______________ is known as the boxer muscle
serratus anterior
The ________________ runs deep to the external oblique
internal oblique
The ___________________ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing
buccinators
The ___________________ draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror
platysma


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