Joints and Muscle Study Guide

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Flash cards from a study guide on muscles and joints for Anatomy and Physiology I


 
  
Created Apr 24, 2010
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1
How are joints classified?
 
The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification...
2
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement...
 
symphysis
3
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a _________________ joint.
 
gomphosis
4
In _________________ joints the bones are joined together by fibrous tissue and lack a joint...
 
fibrous
5
___________________ occur between bones of the skull and use very short connective tissue fibers...
 
sutures
6
In ___________________, the bones are connected by a ligament, which is a cord or band of fibrous...
 
syndesmoses
7
A _______________________ is a peg-in-socket fibrous joint.
 
gomphosis
8
In _______________________ joints, bones are joined together by cartilage and they lack a joint...
 
cartilaginous joints
9
_____________________ involve a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage uniting the bones, such as...
 
synchondroses, epiphyseal plate
10
In _____________________, such as the ________________________, the articular surfaces are...
 
symphyses
11
In ____________________ joints, the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing...
 
synovial
12
Five features that distinguish the general structure of a synovial joint
 
1. articular cartilage coveres the end of the articulating bones2. the joint (synovial) cavity...
13
______________________ classification is based on the amount of movement allowed at the joint.
 
functional
14
__________________ are immovable joints
 
synarthroses
15
_____________________ are slightly movable joints
 
amphiarthroses
16
____________________ are freely movable joints
 
diarthroses
17
What is the major role of ligaments at synovial joints?
 
The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable...
18
____________________ are cartilaginous joints.
 
synchondroses and/or symphyses
19
What factors influence the stability of synovial joints?
 
The shapes of the articular surfaces of bones found at a synovial joint determine the movements...
20
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction...
 
ligaments
21
What are menisci?
 
semilunar cartilage pads
22
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ______________ synovial joint.
 
multiaxial
23
Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as _______________
 
uniaxial rotation
24
What type of movement is allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae?
 
rotation
25
Describe gliding movements
 
one flat, or nearly flat, bone surface glides or slips over another
26
Describe angular movements
 
increase or decrease the angle between two bones
27
_________________ decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer...
 
flexion
28
_______________ increases the angle between the articulating bones
 
extension
29
_______________ decreases the angle between the top of the foot and the anterior surface of...
 
dorsiflexion
30
_______________________ decreases the angle between the sole of the foot and the posterior...
 
plantar flexion
31
_______________________ is the movement of a limb (or fingers) away from the midline body (or...
 
abduction
32
_____________________ is the movement of a limb (or fingers) toward the midline of the body...
 
adduction
33
_____________________ is moving a limb so that it describes a cone in the are
 
circumduction
34
_____________________ is the turning of a bone along its own long axis.
 
rotation
35
____________________ is the rotating the forearm laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly...
 
supination
36
___________________ is rotating the arm medially so that the palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly
 
pronation
37
___________________ turns the sole of the foot so that it faces medially
 
inversion
38
__________________ turns the sole of the foot so that it faces laterally
 
eversion
39
___________________ moves the mandible anteriorly, juts the jaw forward
 
protraction
40
_________________ returns the mandible to its original position
 
retraction
41
__________________ means lifting a body part superiorly
 
elevation
42
__________________ means to move an elevated body inferiorly
 
depression
43
_________________ occurs when you touch your thumb to the fingers on the same hand
 
opposition
44
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the _____________________
 
feet
45
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ______________ joint.
 
plane
46
___________________ have flat articular surfaces and allow gliding and transitional movements
 
plane joints
47
location of plane joints
 
carpometacarpal, digits 2-5, intercarpal, acromioclavicular, vertebrocostal, etc.
48
______________________ consist of a cylindrical projection that nests in a trough-shaped structure,...
 
hinge joints
49
location of hinge joints
 
elbow, fingers, toes, knee
50
_____________________ consist of a rounded structure that protrudes into a sleeve or ring,...
 
pivot joints
51
location of pivot joints
 
provimal and distal radioulnar also atlanoaxial
52
_________________, or ______________ joints consist of an oval articular surface that nests...
 
condyloid, or ellipsoid
53
location of condyloid joints
 
metatarsophalangeal, metacarpophalangeal
54
_____________________ consist of each articular surface bearing complementary concave and convex...
 
saddle joints
55
location of saddle joints
 
thumb
56
_______________________________ consist of a spherical or hemispherical structure that articulates...
 
ball-and-socket joints
57
location of ball-and-socket joints
 
shoulder and hip
58
____________________ muscle is associated with the bony skeleton, and consists or large cells...
 
skeletal muscle
59
___________________ muscle occurs only in the heart, and consists of small cells that are striated...
 
cardiac muscle
60
___________________ muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs, and consists of small elongated...
 
smooth muscle
61
________________________ is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment
 
the force of muscle contraction
62
peristalsis is characteristic of _________________ muscle.
 
smooth
63
____________________ smooth muscle is found in the intestines.
 
single-unit
64
A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called ____________________.
 
isometric
65
isometric contraction:
 
no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed loadThe load is greater than the...
66
Isotonic contraction:
 
muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds the loadMuscle changes in length and moves the...
67
Concentric contractions
 
the muscle shortens and doesn't work
68
Eccentric contractions
 
the muscle contracts as it lengthens
69
Functions of the muscular system
 
1) movement of bones or fluids (e.g., blood)2) maintaining posture and body position3) stabilizing...
70
What is the role of tropomyosin in skeletal muscles
 
tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin...
71
What controls the force of muscle contraction?
 
multimotor unit
72
What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?
 
sarcoplasmic reticulum
73
What causes a resting potential?
 
A difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell.
74
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?
 
actin filaments
75
Describe three ways in which ATP is generated during muscle contraction.
 
Direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate (CP)Anaerobic pathway (glycolysis)At 70%...
76
Why does rigor mortis occur?
 
rigor mortis occurs because no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
77
What is the broadest muscle of the back?
 
lattissimus dorsi
78
The ___________________ is the main chewing muscle
 
masseter
79
First class lever system
 
fulcrum between load and effort
80
Second class lever system
 
load between fulcrum and effort
81
Third class lever system
 
effort applied between fulcrum and load
82
What is the major factor controlling how levers work?
 
the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
83
What muscle is responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking?
 
fibularis tertius
84
A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a
 
synergist
85
What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?
 
the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
86
What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called?
 
an agonist
87
When the terms levator, biceps, triceps, or quadriceps form part of a muscle's name, what does...
 
The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region. The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively
88
What are the muscles that are found at the openings of the body collectively called
 
circular muscles
89
What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common?
 
they all act on the tongue
90
____________________ is a powerful forearm extensor
 
triceps brachii
91
The ______________ is known as the boxer muscle
 
serratus anterior
92
The ________________ runs deep to the external oblique
 
internal oblique
93
The ___________________ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing
 
buccinators
94
The ___________________ draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror
 
platysma

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