ISSA (CFT): UNIT 3: Muscle Anatomy & Physiology

72 cards

International Sports Sciences Association At Www.issaonline.comVocabulary Words Taken From Certified Fitness Trainer (CFT) 8th Edition 


 
  
Created Oct 25, 2011
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nursebfit

 

 
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1
Musculoskeletal system
 
Body system that consists of the bones, joints, connective tissue,...
2
Axial skeleton
 
Bones consisting of the skull, spine, ribs and sternum.
3
Appendicular skeleton
 
Bones consisting of the upper and lower extremities, including...
4
Musculotendinous
 
Of, relating to, or affecting muscular and tendinous tissue.
5
Joint
 
Point where two bones connect.
6
Synovial fluid
 
 A fluid that lubricates the smooth cartilage in joints.
7
Collagen
 
 Fibrous protein that forms tough connective tissue.
8
Feedback loop
 
Section of a control system that serves as a regulatory mechanism;...
9
Elastin
 
Elastic fibrous protein found in connective tissue.
10
Cartilage
 
A firm, elastic, flexible, white material found at the ends of...
11
Ballistic movements
 
High-impact, rapid, jerking movements.
12
Anterior
 
In front or in the front part
13
Anteroinferior
 
In front and below
14
Anterolateral
 
In front and to the side, especially the outside
15
Anteromedial
 
In front and toward the inner side or midline
16
Anteroposterior
 
Relating to both front and rear
17
Caudal
 
Below in relation to another structure; inferior
18
Cephalic

 
Above in relation to another structure; higher, superior
19
Contralateral
 
Pertaining or relating to the opposite side
20
Deep
 
Beneath or below the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of...
21
Distal

 
Situated away from the center or midline of the body, or away from the point...
22
Dorsal
 
Relating to the back; posterior
23
Inferior (infra)

 
Below in relation to another structure;caudal
24
Ipsilateral
 
On the same side
25
Lateral
 
On or to the side; outside, farther from the median or midsagittal plane
26
Medial
 
Relating to the middle or center; nearer to the medial or midsagittal plan
27
Posterior
 
Behind, in back, or in the rear
28
Posteroinferior
 
Behind and below; in back and below
29
Posterolateral
 
Behind and to one side, specifically to the outside
30
Posteromedial
 
Behind and to the inner side
31
Posterosuperior
 
Behind and at the upper part
32
Prone
 
The body lying face downward; stomach lying
33
Proximal
 
Nearest the trunk or the point of origin
34
Superficial
 
Near the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of muscles or tissue
35
Superior
 
(supra) above in relation to another structure; higher, cephalic
36
Supine
 
Lying on the back; face upward position of the body
37
Ventral
 
Relating to the belly or abdomen
38
Volar
 
Relation to palm of the hand or sole of the foot
39
Origin
 
The proximal attachment; generally considered the least moveable...
40
Insertion
 
The distal attachment; generally considered the most moveable part...
41
Myofilaments
 
The elements of the muscle that actually shorten upon contraction;...
42
Myosin
 
Short, thick contractile filaments.
43
Actin
 
Long, think contractile filaments.
44
Voluntary muscles tissues
 
Receives nerve fibers from the somatic nervous system that can...
45
Involuntary muscle tissues
 
Receive nerve fibers from the autonomic nervous system and cannot...
46
Muscle spindles
 
Special sense organs that measure the strain in the...
47
Myofibrils
 
Tiny fibrils that make up a single muscle fiber.
48
Sarcoplasm
 
Jelly-like intracellular fluid found in the muscle fiber.
49
Sliding filament theory
 
Theory stating that a myofibril contracts by the actin and myosin...
50
Isometric
 
A contraction in which the muscle develops tension but does not...
51
Isotonic
 
A contraction in which the muscle shortens but retains constant...
52
Concentric
 
A contraction in which a muscle shortens and overcomes a resistance.
53
Eccentric
 
A contraction in which a muscle lengthens and is overcome by a...
54
Lactic acid
 
A byproduct of glucose and glycogen metabolism (glycolysis) in...
55
Fast-twitch
 
Muscle fiber type that contracts quickly and is used most in intensive,...
56
Slow-twitch
 
A muscle fiber characterized by its slow speed of contraction and...
57
Type I
 
A slow-twitch muscle fiber that generates ATP predominantly through...
58
Type IIa
 
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by a fast shortening...
59
Type IIb
 
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by the most rapid...
60
Type IIc
 
A fast-twitch fiber that results from the ‘fusion’ of Type...
61
Size Principle of Fiber Recruitment
 
Principle stating that fibers with a high level of reliability...
62
All-or-none reaction
 
Concept stating that a unit is either completely relaxed or fully...
63
Stretch reflex
 
A built-in protective function of the neuromuscular system in the...
64
Proprioceptor
 
Specialized sensory receptors located in tendons and muscles sensitive...
65
Anatomy
 
The science of the structure of the human body.
66
Physiology
 
The science concerned with the normal vital processes of animal...
67
ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
 
An energy-storing compound found in cells, which release energy...
68
CP: Creatine phosphate
 
A high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can...
69
Creatine
 
Organic acid generally found in the muscle as phosphocreatine (creatine...
70
Hypertrophy
 
An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response...
71
Capillarization
 
An increase in size and number of tiny blood vessels surrounding...
72
Hyperplasia
 
An increase in number of cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor...


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