ISSA (CFT): UNIT 3: Muscle Anatomy & Physiology

ISSA (CFT): UNIT 3: Muscle Anatomy & Physiology International Sports Sciences Association At Www.issaonline.com
Vocabulary Words Taken From Certified Fitness Trainer (CFT) 8th Edition 
  
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Musculoskeletal system
 
Body system that consists of the bones, joints, connective tissue, and muscles.
Axial skeleton
 
Bones consisting of the skull, spine, ribs and sternum.
Appendicular skeleton
 
Bones consisting of the upper and lower extremities, including the pelvic and shoulder girdles.
Musculotendinous
 
Of, relating to, or affecting muscular and tendinous tissue.
Joint
 
Point where two bones connect.
Synovial fluid
 
A fluid that lubricates the smooth cartilage in joints.
Collagen
 
Fibrous protein that forms tough connective tissue.
Feedback loop
 
Section of a control system that serves as a regulatory mechanism; return input as some of the output.
Elastin
 
Elastic fibrous protein found in connective tissue.
Cartilage
 
A firm, elastic, flexible, white material found at the ends of ribs, between vertebrae (discs), at joint surfaces, and in the nose and ears.
Ballistic movements
 
High-impact, rapid, jerking movements.
Anterior
 
In front or in the front part
Anteroinferior
 
In front and below
Anterolateral
 
In front and to the side, especially the outside
Anteromedial
 
In front and toward the inner side or midline
Anteroposterior
 
Relating to both front and rear
Caudal
 
Below in relation to another structure; inferior
Cephalic

 
Above in relation to another structure; higher, superior
Contralateral
 
Pertaining or relating to the opposite side
Deep
 
Beneath or below the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of muscles or tissue
Distal

 
Situated away from the center or midline of the body, or away from the point of orgin.
Dorsal
 
Relating to the back; posterior
Inferior (infra)

 
Below in relation to another structure;caudal
Ipsilateral
 
On the same side
Lateral
 
On or to the side; outside, farther from the median or midsagittal plane
Medial
 
Relating to the middle or center; nearer to the medial or midsagittal plan
Posterior
 
Behind, in back, or in the rear
Posteroinferior
 
Behind and below; in back and below
Posterolateral
 
Behind and to one side, specifically to the outside
Posteromedial
 
Behind and to the inner side
Posterosuperior
 
Behind and at the upper part
Prone
 
The body lying face downward; stomach lying
Proximal
 
Nearest the trunk or the point of origin
Superficial
 
Near the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of muscles or tissue
Superior
 
(supra) above in relation to another structure; higher, cephalic
Supine
 
Lying on the back; face upward position of the body
Ventral
 
Relating to the belly or abdomen
Volar
 
Relation to palm of the hand or sole of the foot
Origin
 
The proximal attachment; generally considered the least moveable part or the part that attaches closest to the midline or center of the body.
Insertion
 
The distal attachment; generally considered the most moveable part or the part that attaches furthest from the midline or center of the body.
Myofilaments
 
The elements of the muscle that actually shorten upon contraction; made up mainly of two types of protein: actin and myosin.
Myosin
 
Short, thick contractile filaments.
Actin
 
Long, think contractile filaments.
Voluntary muscles tissues
 
Receives nerve fibers from the somatic nervous system that can be voluntarily controlled. (e.g., skeletal muscles)
Involuntary muscle tissues
 
Receive nerve fibers from the autonomic nervous system and cannot be voluntarily controlled, except in a few rare cases. (e.g., the heart)
Muscle spindles
 
Special sense organs that measure the strain in the muscle and can be used to pre-set the tension of muscles.
Myofibrils
 
Tiny fibrils that make up a single muscle fiber.
Sarcoplasm
 
Jelly-like intracellular fluid found in the muscle fiber.
Sliding filament theory
 
Theory stating that a myofibril contracts by the actin and myosin filaments sliding over each other.
Isometric
 
A contraction in which the muscle develops tension but does not shorten.
Isotonic
 
A contraction in which the muscle shortens but retains constant tension.
Concentric
 
A contraction in which a muscle shortens and overcomes a resistance.
Eccentric
 
A contraction in which a muscle lengthens and is overcome by a resistance.
Lactic acid
 
A byproduct of glucose and glycogen metabolism (glycolysis) in anaerobic muscle energetics.
Fast-twitch
 
Muscle fiber type that contracts quickly and is used most in intensive, short-duration exercises.
Slow-twitch
 
A muscle fiber characterized by its slow speed of contraction and a high capacity for aerobic glycolysis.
Type I
 
A slow-twitch muscle fiber that generates ATP predominantly through the aerobic system of energy transfer.
Type IIa
 
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by a fast shortening speed and well-developed capacity for energy transfer from aerobic and anaerobic sources.
Type IIb
 
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by the most rapid shortening velocity and greatest anaerobic potential.
Type IIc
 
A fast-twitch fiber that results from the ‘fusion’ of Type IIb with surrounding satellite cells.
Size Principle of Fiber Recruitment
 
Principle stating that fibers with a high level of reliability are recruited first; those with lower levels of reliability are recruited last.
All-or-none reaction
 
Concept stating that a unit is either completely relaxed or fully contracted; it is never partly contracted.
Stretch reflex
 
A built-in protective function of the neuromuscular system in the muscle spindle.
Proprioceptor
 
Specialized sensory receptors located in tendons and muscles sensitive to stretch, tension, and pressure.
Anatomy
 
The science of the structure of the human body.
Physiology
 
The science concerned with the normal vital processes of animal and vegetable organisms.
ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
 
An energy-storing compound found in cells, which release energy when needed by the body.
CP: Creatine phosphate
 
A high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to immediately resynthesize ATP.
Creatine
 
Organic acid generally found in the muscle as phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate) that supplies energy for muscle contraction.
Hypertrophy
 
An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to strength training.
Capillarization
 
An increase in size and number of tiny blood vessels surrounding cells.
Hyperplasia
 
An increase in number of cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby bulk of the part or organ may be increased.

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