ISSA (CFT): UNIT 3: Muscle Anatomy & Physiology

International Sports Sciences Association At Www.issaonline.comVocabulary Words Taken From Certified Fitness Trainer (CFT) 8th Edition 
  
Created Oct 25, 2011
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Musculoskeletal system
Body system that consists of the bones, joints, connective tissue,...
Axial skeleton
Bones consisting of the skull, spine, ribs and sternum.
Appendicular skeleton
Bones consisting of the upper and lower extremities, including...
Musculotendinous
Of, relating to, or affecting muscular and tendinous tissue.
Joint
Point where two bones connect.
Synovial fluid
 A fluid that lubricates the smooth cartilage in joints.
Collagen
 Fibrous protein that forms tough connective tissue.
Feedback loop
Section of a control system that serves as a regulatory mechanism;...
Elastin
Elastic fibrous protein found in connective tissue.
Cartilage
A firm, elastic, flexible, white material found at the ends of...
Ballistic movements
High-impact, rapid, jerking movements.
Anterior
In front or in the front part
Anteroinferior
In front and below
Anterolateral
In front and to the side, especially the outside
Anteromedial
In front and toward the inner side or midline
Anteroposterior
Relating to both front and rear
Caudal
Below in relation to another structure; inferior
Cephalic
Above in relation to another structure; higher, superior
Contralateral
Pertaining or relating to the opposite side
Deep
Beneath or below the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of...
Distal
Situated away from the center or midline of the body, or away from the point...
Dorsal
Relating to the back; posterior
Inferior (infra)
Below in relation to another structure;caudal
Ipsilateral
On the same side
Lateral
On or to the side; outside, farther from the median or midsagittal plane
Medial
Relating to the middle or center; nearer to the medial or midsagittal plan
Posterior
Behind, in back, or in the rear
Posteroinferior
Behind and below; in back and below
Posterolateral
Behind and to one side, specifically to the outside
Posteromedial
Behind and to the inner side
Posterosuperior
Behind and at the upper part
Prone
The body lying face downward; stomach lying
Proximal
Nearest the trunk or the point of origin
Superficial
Near the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of muscles or tissue
Superior
(supra) above in relation to another structure; higher, cephalic
Supine
Lying on the back; face upward position of the body
Ventral
Relating to the belly or abdomen
Volar
Relation to palm of the hand or sole of the foot
Origin
The proximal attachment; generally considered the least moveable...
Insertion
The distal attachment; generally considered the most moveable part...
Myofilaments
The elements of the muscle that actually shorten upon contraction;...
Myosin
Short, thick contractile filaments.
Actin
Long, think contractile filaments.
Voluntary muscles tissues
Receives nerve fibers from the somatic nervous system that can...
Involuntary muscle tissues
Receive nerve fibers from the autonomic nervous system and cannot...
Muscle spindles
Special sense organs that measure the strain in the...
Myofibrils
Tiny fibrils that make up a single muscle fiber.
Sarcoplasm
Jelly-like intracellular fluid found in the muscle fiber.
Sliding filament theory
Theory stating that a myofibril contracts by the actin and myosin...
Isometric
A contraction in which the muscle develops tension but does not...
Isotonic
A contraction in which the muscle shortens but retains constant...
Concentric
A contraction in which a muscle shortens and overcomes a resistance.
Eccentric
A contraction in which a muscle lengthens and is overcome by a...
Lactic acid
A byproduct of glucose and glycogen metabolism (glycolysis) in...
Fast-twitch
Muscle fiber type that contracts quickly and is used most in intensive,...
Slow-twitch
A muscle fiber characterized by its slow speed of contraction and...
Type I
A slow-twitch muscle fiber that generates ATP predominantly through...
Type IIa
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by a fast shortening...
Type IIb
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by the most rapid...
Type IIc
A fast-twitch fiber that results from the ‘fusion’ of Type...
Size Principle of Fiber Recruitment
Principle stating that fibers with a high level of reliability...
All-or-none reaction
Concept stating that a unit is either completely relaxed or fully...
Stretch reflex
A built-in protective function of the neuromuscular system in the...
Proprioceptor
Specialized sensory receptors located in tendons and muscles sensitive...
Anatomy
The science of the structure of the human body.
Physiology
The science concerned with the normal vital processes of animal...
ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
An energy-storing compound found in cells, which release energy...
CP: Creatine phosphate
A high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can...
Creatine
Organic acid generally found in the muscle as phosphocreatine (creatine...
Hypertrophy
An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response...
Capillarization
An increase in size and number of tiny blood vessels surrounding...
Hyperplasia
An increase in number of cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor...


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