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Intro To Sociology Basic Terms


Sociology Basics For My Intro To Sociology Course At College
  
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Sociology Definition?
 
systemic study of human society
Sociological Perspective Definition
 
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
sociologcal imagination stuff?
 
"enables us to grasp the connection between history and biography"
C. Wright Mills
 
"Sociological Imagination is a tool to study our world"-The point of Sociology is to understand the relationship between individuals and the society in which they live
Private Troubles
 
occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relations with others
Public Issues
 
Have to do with matters that transcend the local environments of the individual they have to do with the organization of many institutions and organizations, and the way that society is structured
Social Structure
 
the organization of society that shapes the individual social behavior, groups choices, opportunities, experiences, and social attitudes
Positivism
 
the viewpoint that is possible to know for sure by subjection them to empirical testing and demonstrating the cause and effect at work
Theory
 
general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
Karl Marx
 
-Engine of human history is class conflict--bourgeoisie vs proletariat"It's all about the economy"
Max Weber
 
-Capitalism was more likely to flourish in Protestant countries"social life is complex"
Emile Durkheim
 
"It's all about the solidarity"how society holds together through dramatic changes in the division of labor-identified social integration, worked on suicide
Jane Addams
 
Founded Hull House (community center for poor)regarded as a social worker
W.E.B Dubois
 
-analyzed the social stratification among Philly's black population- worked on civil rights
Robert Park
 
Founded Chicago School- school for sociologists
Public Sociology
 
Sociology being used for the public good
Fuctionalism
 
society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together
Conflict Theory
 
society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
Symbolic Interactionism
 
symbols are the way we understand and view the world and communicate with one another
Empirical Evidence
 
derives its data by means of direct observation or experiment
Qualitative vs Quantitative Methods
 
Qualitative- not in numeric formQuantitative- in numeric form
Correlation vs Causation
 
Correlation- when one variable is studied next to another, an effect is likely to happenCausation- two variables directly affect each other
Participant Observation
 
When researcher participates in the research he is observing-The Humphrey's Research!!--about annoynmous gay bathroom sex--Good example of this, almost unethical because he didn't tell subjects
Material vs Non-Material Culture
 
Material-material objects that distinguish a group of peopleNon-Material- groups ways of thinking and doing
Ethnocentrism
 
use your culture as a yardstick for judging other's cultures (often negatively)
Cultural Relativism
 
Not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
 
language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
Values
 
standards by which people define what is desireable
Norms
 
expectations or rules of behavior
Sanctions
 
Expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them.
Folkways/mores
 
folkways-norms that are not strictly enforcedmores- norms that are taken seriously
Cultural Universals
 
value, norm, cultural trait that is found in every group
Subcultures
 
World within the larger world of the dominant culture
Socialization
 
Process by which people learn the characteristics of their group
Agents of Socialization
 
Individuals or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
Media (Agent of Soc.)
 
-one of the biggest socializing elements because of the most access to it-One way communication
Peers (Agent of Soc.)
 
-demand conformity-help resists other Agents of Socialization (parents+school)-end result can be to follow or break social norms
Religon (Agent of Soc.)
 
way of understanding world
Family (Agent of Soc.)
 
-first group with impact-may or may not have primary purpose of socializing but they always do it
Gender Socialization
 
-learning the gender map (blue for boys, pink for girls)- gender messages in mass media
Gender Roles
 
Boys do X and not Y, Girls do Y and not X
Social Inequality
 
individuals in a society do not have equal social status, some things are given to one social class but not the other
Life Chances
 
the likelihood of individual outcomes based on social position and access to resources
Hegemony
 
the dominance or leadership of one social group or nation over others
Resocialization
 
the process of mentally and emotionally "re-training" a person so that he or she can operate in an environment other than that which he or she is accustomed to.
Looking Glass Self
 
a person's self grows out of society's interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others
Generalized Other
 
a person has the common expectations that others have about actions and thoughts within a particular society
Status
 
a recognizable social position that an individual occupies
Status set
 
all the positions you occupy
Master status
 
A status that stands out over all others
Role
 
expected behaviors for a status you hold
Role Conflict
 
Occurs when two or more roles are partially or wholly incompatible
Ascribed Status
 
Status you are born into
Achieved Status
 
Status gained voluntarily
Social Construction
 
considers how social phenomena or objects of consciousness develop in social contexts
Dramaturgical Theory
 
Life is essentially a theatrical performance complete with roles/scripts/costumes/stage
Front Stage/Back Stage
 
Front Stage- place where you give performanceBack Stage- place to rest--let our hair down
Impression Management
 
people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event
Social Integration
 
movement of minority groups into the mainstream society (giving them all rights of the mainstream society)
Mechanical Solidarity
 
unity people feel when doing the same task
Organic Solidarity
 
interdependence that results from division of labor--specialization
Division of Labor
 
Splitting of groups tasks into specialties
Social Control
 
control exerted (actively or passively) by group action
Labeling Theory
 
the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others perception of them
Social Institutions
 
the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs
Social Class
 
Weber- large group of people who are similar in terms of propert, power, prestige.Marx- either capitalist who owns means of production or workers who sell their labor
Social Status
 
the honor or prestige attached to one's position in society
Economy (Social Institution)
 
Organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Education
 
is a social institution
ASK HOW
Latent Function
 
unintended consequences of the social systemIn a School: patience, sharing, following instructions
Manifest Function
 
intended purpose of the social systemIn a School: reading, writing, math
Hidden Curriculum
 
values that aren't explicitly taught In a School: democracy, patriotism, justice

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