Intro to Oceanography Midterm 1

51 cards

Basic Oceanography information


 
  
Created Sep 27, 2009
by
ak5193a

 

 
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1
Physical Resources
 
Result from the deposition, precipitation, or accumulation of useful substances in the ocean...
2
Biological Resources
 
Living animals and plants collected for human use
3
Nonextractive Resource
 
Uses of the ocean in place--transportation of people and commodities by sea recreation and...
4
Renewable Resources
 
Natrually replaced by the growth of marine organisms or by other natural physical processes
5
Nonrenewable Physical Resources
 
-Most physical resources are mineral deposits (from non living processes) I.E. Petroleum and...
6
Destillation
 
(from Freshwater) Heat water, condense steam, Salt remains
7
Reverse Osmosis
 
Water forced through a semi-permeable membrane
8
Why is it difficult to study the ocean? Why has the ocean remained largely unexplored?
 
-Extreme pressure/access -Extreme tempreture -Size -Movement (life) -Water Movements -Funding...
9
Direct Measurements
 
Length/Weight using a ruler
10
Proxy Measurements
 
The agency, function, or office of a deputy who acts as a subsite for another. Comparing it...
11
Eulerian
 
1st way to measure current. Fixed point.
12
Lagrangian
 
2nd way to measure current. I.E. rubber duckies see where they go (satellite attached to them).
13
Latitude
 
North/South Position
14
Longitude
 
East/West Position
15
Euphoric Zone
 
Enough light for photosynthesis. 1% light. 1m-100m
16
-Photic Zone
 
Light zone (top layer of light in the ocean)
17
Disphotic
 
Enough light to see .1% light. 100-200m
18
Aphotic Zone
 
No light. 200m and below
19
Eppelogic
 
Depth Zone 1. sunlight Zone 0-200m
20
Mesopelagic
 
Depth Zone 2. 200-1000 m.
21
Bathypelagic
 
Depth Zone 3. 1000-4000 m. 
22
Abyssopelogic
 
Depth Zone 4. Most of the ocean is in this zone 4000-6000 meters.
23
Hadalpelogic
 
Depth Zone 5. Deepest part 6,000-11,000. Deepest point in ocean Mariana trench 11,022m.
24
ROV
 
Remotely Operated Vehicles
25
CTD
 
Ships check these elements when exploring: Conductivity (Salinaty: the saltiness of the water),...
26
AUV
 
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles--not teather, used for exploring, programed the path before...
27
Alvin
 
Submarine-45 years old, can only cover 63% of the ocean floor, 4500 dives, 4000 meters
28
Nereus
 
Hybrid between ROV/AUV can go down to 11,00 meters, first expedition this past march, went...
29
Depth Measurents: Before and Modern
 
Before: depth was determined by using a line and tying knots. Modern: Beam of sound waves travels...
30
Hypothermal Vents:
Where does the hot water come from?
 
Up to 400 C. Ph can reach 2-3 (can melt lead just based on acidity). Rich in sulficides.
Hot...
31
Pressure and Water Boiling Relationship
 
The More Pressure the Higher the Tempreture neccessary to make water boil.
32
Mid Oceanic Ridge
 
High Volcanic Activity. -Hot magma makes it more buoyant (higher) -Earthquakes  associated...
33
Convenction Cells
 
Heat rising, cooling, going back down to the core --> driving hypothermal vents and continental...
34
Divergent Plate Coundary
 
-Hot magma comes to surface to form a new crust. Old crust moves down. Mantel solid but like...
35
Sea Floor Spreading
 
Evidence:
 Balsaltic magma rises to create new ocean floor at the mid-ocean ridges....
36
Abiotic
 
Chemistry: pressure, hot, acidic, minerals
37
Biotic
 
Life: Alvinella living on the base of them, can survice at 78C in Hypothermal Vents
38
Endosymbionts
 
In bacteria/lives together
39
Chemosynthesis
 
The use of chemicals to get the energy
40
Mid Atlantic Ridge
 
More iron, lots of shrimp and mussels, sulfer deposits
41
Whale Falls
 
When Whales die; animals live on the decomposed carcus on the sea floor. -Osedex-new species...
42
Color of Fish
 
Mainly Red or Transparent--much harder to see
43
Why is the ocean blue?
 
Light has different wavelengths. Top 10 meters lose all red/yellow particles it dissapartes....
44
Climate
 
Average weather: tempreture, precipitation, cloudiness. Long term statistics. Atmosphere (air),...
45
Heat vs. Tempreture
 
Heat: How many and rapidly atoms vibrate

Tempreture: how rapidly atoms vibrate
46
Heat Capacity
 
Amount of heat required to bring a substance to a certain tempreture varies 1.00 water .2granite...
47
Latent Heat
 
"hidden heat" heat associated with a change phase but no change in tempreture
48
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
 
Band of clouds where it rains a lot
49
Ekman Transport
 
Forms dome-which sinks compressing the layers beneath forcing those layers to spead, thermocline...
50
Jet Stream
 
Divides the polar cell from the ferral cell
51
Heat Budget
 
How much Sun is goin in and where it goes

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