Intro To Oceanography Midterm 1

Basic Oceanography Information
Created Sep 27, 2009
by ak5193a
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Side ASide B
Physical Resources
Result from the deposition, precipitation, or accumulation of useful substances in the ocean...
Biological Resources
Living animals and plants collected for human use
Nonextractive Resource
Uses of the ocean in place--transportation of people and commodities by sea recreation and...
Renewable Resources
Natrually replaced by the growth of marine organisms or by other natural physical processes
Nonrenewable Physical Resources
-Most physical resources are mineral deposits (from non living processes) I.E. Petroleum and...
Destillation
(from Freshwater) Heat water, condense steam, Salt remains
Reverse Osmosis
Water forced through a semi-permeable membrane
Why is it difficult to study the ocean? Why has the ocean remained largely unexplored?
-Extreme pressure/access -Extreme tempreture -Size -Movement (life) -Water Movements -Funding...
Direct Measurements
Length/Weight using a ruler
Proxy Measurements
The agency, function, or office of a deputy who acts as a subsite for another. Comparing it...
Eulerian
1st way to measure current. Fixed point.
Lagrangian
2nd way to measure current. I.E. rubber duckies see where they go (satellite attached to them).
Latitude
North/South Position
Longitude
East/West Position
Euphoric Zone
Enough light for photosynthesis. 1% light. 1m-100m
-Photic Zone
Light zone (top layer of light in the ocean)
Disphotic
Enough light to see .1% light. 100-200m
Aphotic Zone
No light. 200m and below
Eppelogic
Depth Zone 1. sunlight Zone 0-200m
Mesopelagic
Depth Zone 2. 200-1000 m.
Bathypelagic
Depth Zone 3. 1000-4000 m. 
Abyssopelogic
Depth Zone 4. Most of the ocean is in this zone 4000-6000 meters.
Hadalpelogic
Depth Zone 5. Deepest part 6,000-11,000. Deepest point in ocean Mariana trench 11,022m.
ROV
Remotely Operated Vehicles
CTD
Ships check these elements when exploring: Conductivity (Salinaty: the saltiness of the water),...
AUV
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles--not teather, used for exploring, programed the path before...
Alvin
Submarine-45 years old, can only cover 63% of the ocean floor, 4500 dives, 4000 meters
Nereus
Hybrid between ROV/AUV can go down to 11,00 meters, first expedition this past march, went...
Depth Measurents: Before and Modern
Before: depth was determined by using a line and tying knots. Modern: Beam of sound waves travels...
Hypothermal Vents:Where does the hot water come from?
Up to 400 C. Ph can reach 2-3 (can melt lead just based on acidity). Rich in sulficides. Hot...
Pressure and Water Boiling Relationship
The More Pressure the Higher the Tempreture neccessary to make water boil.
Mid Oceanic Ridge
High Volcanic Activity. -Hot magma makes it more buoyant (higher) -Earthquakes  associated...
Convenction Cells
Heat rising, cooling, going back down to the core --> driving hypothermal vents and continental...
Divergent Plate Coundary
-Hot magma comes to surface to form a new crust. Old crust moves down. Mantel solid but like...
Sea Floor Spreading
Evidence: Balsaltic magma rises to create new ocean floor at the mid-ocean ridges. On...
Abiotic
Chemistry: pressure, hot, acidic, minerals
Biotic
Life: Alvinella living on the base of them, can survice at 78C in Hypothermal Vents
Endosymbionts
In bacteria/lives together
Chemosynthesis
The use of chemicals to get the energy
Mid Atlantic Ridge
More iron, lots of shrimp and mussels, sulfer deposits
Whale Falls
When Whales die; animals live on the decomposed carcus on the sea floor. -Osedex-new species...
Color of Fish
Mainly Red or Transparent--much harder to see
Why is the ocean blue?
Light has different wavelengths. Top 10 meters lose all red/yellow particles it dissapartes....
Climate
Average weather: tempreture, precipitation, cloudiness. Long term statistics. Atmosphere (air),...
Heat vs. Tempreture
Heat: How many and rapidly atoms vibrateTempreture: how rapidly atoms vibrate
Heat Capacity
Amount of heat required to bring a substance to a certain tempreture varies 1.00 water .2granite...
Latent Heat
"hidden heat" heat associated with a change phase but no change in tempreture
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Band of clouds where it rains a lot
Ekman Transport
Forms dome-which sinks compressing the layers beneath forcing those layers to spead, thermocline...
Jet Stream
Divides the polar cell from the ferral cell
Heat Budget
How much Sun is goin in and where it goes

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