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Intro Psychology: Chpt1-3: Terms And Info


These Flash Cards Are To Study For The Intro To Psychology Book Written By James W. Kalat (8th Edition).
  
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Define Psychology
 
study of behavior and experience.
Free Will Verus Determinism
 
Determinism: the assumption that every thing that happens has a cause, or determinant, in the observable world.

Free Will: belief that behavior is caused by a person's independent decisions is known as free will.
The Mind-Brain Problem
 
The philosophical question of how experience relates to the brain.
The Nature-Nurture Issue
 
How do differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment.
Developmental Psychologist
 
studies how behavior changes with age
Learning and Motivation
 
studies how behavior depends on the outcomes of past behaviors and current motivations.
Cognitive Psychologist
 
Studies thought and knowledge processes.
Biological Psychologist
 
Tries to explain behavior in terms of biological factors.
Evolutionary Psychologist
 
tries to explain behaviors in terms of the evolutionary history of the species.
Social Psychology + Cross-Cultural
 
Social Psychologist: Studies how an individual infuences other people and how the group influences an individual.

Corss-Cultural: compares the behavior of people from different cultures.
Clinical Psychologist, Ph.D.
 
has an advanced degree in psychology, with a specialty in understanding and helping people with psychological problems.
Psychiatrist, M.D
 
branch of medicine that deals with emotional disturbances.
Psychoanalysts, Ph.D
 
therapy providers who rely heavily on the theories and methods pioneered by the early 20th-century Viennese physician Sigmund Freud. Later modified by others.
Wilhelm Wudnt
 
Md and Sensory Researcher. Set up the first psychology laboratory in Germany,
William James and Functionalism
 
William James: Recognition as the founder of American psychology.

Functionalism: how to produce useful behaviors in people.
Darwin/Comparative Psychologist
 
Darwin: Founder of "natural selection"

Comparative: compare different aniimal species
John B. Watson - The found of ____?
 
Behaviorism
Freud
 
Tried to trace current behavior to early childhood experiences.
Falsifiable
 
stated in such clear, prcise terms that we can see what evidence would count against it.
Burden of proof
 
is the obligation to present evidence to support one's claim.
Positron-Emmissions Tomography (PET)


 
Records radioactivity of various brain areas emitted from injected chemicals.


Functional-Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI)
 
Use magnetic detectors outside the head to compare the amounts of hemoglobin with and without oxygen in different brain areas
Central Nervious System
 
Cerebral Cortex
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Pons
Medulla
Cerebellum

Cerebral Cortex
 
Outer covering of the forebrain. Opposite side of brain for things. Move your left arm is triggered on the right side.
Electroencephalohraph (EEG)
 
uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in the brain electrical activity
Magnetoencephalohraph (MEG)
 
records magnetic changes.
Temporal Lobe
 
located toward the left and right side of the head, is the main area for hearing and some complex aspects of vision.
Parietal Lobe
 
forward for the occipital lobe, specialized for the body senses, including touch, pain, temperature, and awareness of the location of body parts in space.
Frontal lobe contains which two parts?
 
Primary Motor Cortex: Important for planned control of fine movements.

Prefrontal Cortex: Contributes to certain aspects of memory and to the organization and planing of movements. Decision making.
Pons + Medulla
 
(parts of the hindbrain)
Controle the muscles of the head.
Spinal Cord
 
controls the muscels from your neck down.
Cerebellum ("Little Brain")
 
part of the hindbrain. Imporrtant for any behavior that requires aim or timing, such as tapping out a rhythm, judging which of two visual stimuli is moving faster.
Autonomic Nervious System + Endorcrine System
 
Autonmic Nervious System: closely associated with the spinal cord. Conrols the internal organs such as the heart.

Endocrine System: a set of glands that produce hormones and release them into the blood.
Hormones
 
chemicals released by glands and conveyed by the blood to alter activity in various organs.
Corpus Callosum
 
Set of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex.
Blinding Problem
 
THe question of how separate brain areas combine forces to produce a unified perception of a single object.
Neurons
 
Never cells.
Glia
 
Supports the nerons in many ways such as by insulating them, synchronizing activity among neighboring neurons, and removing waste products.
Axon:
 
single, long , thin straight fiber with branches near its tip.
Synapses
 
specialized junction between one neuron and another, a neuron releases a chemical that either excites or inhibits the next neurin.
Stimulants
 
drugs that increase energy, alertness and activity.
Depressant
 
Drugs that predominantly decrease arounsal.

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