Intracranial Pressure And Brain Herniatio

40 cards

Intracranial Pressure And Brain Herniation Portion Of Exam


 
  
Created Nov 8, 2008
by
debbihall

 

 
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1
Factors influencing ability to compensate for increased ICP
 
1. Location of lesion 2. Rate of expansion 3. Impaired CSF drainage/displacement 4. Intracranial...
2
3 components of intracranial space
 
Brain - 80% blood - 10% CSF - 10%
3
THypothesis that states that the skull (rigid compartment) is filled to capacity with essentially...
 
Monroe-Kellie hypothesis
4
Defined as the pressure exerted by the intracranial volumes of brain mass, blood, and CSF
 
ICP
5
The only major organ that is fully encased in bone.
 
Brain
6
There is approximately _________ ml of tissue and fluid in the skull
 
1700 ml
7
A Severe increase: in ICP is considered to be _________
 
>40mmHg
8
Causes cerebral vasodilation which would increase cerebral blood flow
 
Hypercarbia (increases pCO2—is too high)
9
The pressure at which brain cells are being perfused
 
Cerebral perfusion pressure
10
Normal ICP pressure is_________
 
0- 10 or 15mmHg
11
Decreases sodium transport in brain and somewhat inhibits CSF production
 
Lasix
12
Used to decrease ICP and reduce extracellular fluid volume in the brain and throughout the...
 
Hyperosmolar agent such as manitol
13
Late sign, see more often if ICP rises gradually
 
Papilledema
14
Formula for determining ICP
 
MAP – ICP = CPP
15
Primary CNS tumors or metastatic tumors
 
Neoplasms
16
Shifting of brain tissue from 1 compartment to another, brain is displaced either within the...
 
Brain herniation
17
Most frequent type of herniation; is a unilateral expanding mass lesion usually of temporal...
 
Uncal
18
Occurs when expanding mass displaces hemispheres, basal ganglia and diencephalon downward
 
Central Herniation
19
An expanding lesion of 1 hemisphere shifts laterally
 
Cingulate herniation
20
Type of herniation where brain tissue comes through the cranium
 
Transcalvarial
21
If head is out of neutral position ______venous return and causes an increase in ICP
 
decreased
22
Caused by lack of drainage, absorption, deficient or over secretion of CSF
 
Hydrocephalus
23
Mechanism by which cerebral blood flow is maintained at a constant rate over a wide range of...
 
Pressure autoregulation
24
Anything that causes a hematoma, hemorrhage, or edema in the head can cause increased ICP
 
Craniocerebral trauma
25
Usually level transducer at ____________ for ICP pressure monitoring
 
foramen of Monroe (lateral to the outer canthus of the eye or top of the ear)
26
Examples of metabolic causes for increased ICP
 
SIADH or water intoxication, alcohol poisoning, lead poisoning, acidosis or hypoxia
27
Most compensatory mechanisms for accommodating a volume increase
 
CSF
28
put a burr hole into epidural space. Can’t drain with them, but easy and versatile, Now seeing...
 
Fiber optic epidural screw
29
A way to monitor ICP includes a drill hole into subarachnoid space on non-dominate hemisphere
 
Subarachnoid screw
30
1st device that was ever used for monitoring intracranial pressure; is very reliable and accurate
 
Intraventricular catheter
31
Examples of vascular causes for increased ICP
 
Stroke (embolic or hemorrhagic), DIC
32
Examples of infectious processes/toxic states causing increased ICP
 
Meningitis, encephalitis, abscesses, Reye’s Syndrome (kids aspirin)
33
Typicall motor function changes in ICP
 
Contralateral (opposite side) due to pressure on motor tracts
34
Normal osmolarity is
 
275-295
35
Will decrease cerebral metabolic oxygen demand and blood flow and therefore decrease ICP
 
Hypothermia
36
May see this used in drastic cases; inducing a coma is an effect of this type of therapy
 
Barbituates
37
Draining too fast in cases of ICP can cause
 
ventricular collapse
38
Typically, if HA is due to increase in ICP, will be more severe when pt. _________
 
wakes up in morning
39
Due to tissue shifts that compress the oculomotor nerve; whenever you have papillary changes,...
 
>28
40
________ used most commonly if is a tumor
 
Solumedrol


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