Integumentary System-Chapter 4

Integumentary System-Chapter 4
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derm/o dermat/o cut/o cutane/o
trich/o pil/o
onych/o ungu/o
hidr/o sudor/i
epi- =above derm/o =skin -is = structure
EPIDERMIS is "true skin"
hypo- = under derm/o = skin -is = structure
sub- = under cutane/o = skin -ous = pertaining to
kerat/o = hard, horny -in = substance -cyte - cell
a- = without vascul/o = vessel -ar = pertaining to
mela/o = black -cyte = cell
sudor/i = sweat -ferous = pertaining to carrying
sebac/o = oil -ous = pertaining to
epi- = above onych/o = nail -ium = structure
par- = near onchy/o = nail -ium = structure
cyst/o = sac, bladder
Nodule filled with a semisolid material such as a keratinous or sebaceous cyst (see Fig. 4-3, A) p 124
ecchymosis ec- = out (pl. ecchymoses) chym/o = juice -osis = abnormal condition
Hemorrhage or "out of the vesseal or leaking" of blood into the subcutaneous tissue. The resultant darkening is commonly described as a bruise.
hematoma hemat/o = blood -oma = mass
Collection of extravasated blood trapped in the tissues and palpable to the examiner, such as the ear.
macule macul/o = spot
Flat blemish or discoloration less than 1 cm, such as a freckle, port-wind stain, or tattoo (see Fig. 4-3, D) pg.124
Large, flat, nonpalpable macule larger than 1 cm.
nodule nod/o = knot -ule = small
Palpable solid lesion less than 2 cm, such as a very small lipoma. (see Figs) p124.
papul/o = pimple
Raised solid skin lesion raised less than 1 cm, such as a pimple.
pustule pustul/o
Superficial, elevated lesion containing pus that may be the result of an infection, such as acne. See pg 124.
vesicul/o = blister or small sac
Circumscribed, elevated lesion containing fluid and smaller than 1/2 cm such as an insect bite. If larger than 1/2 cm it is termed a bulla or blister
wheal wheel
Circumscribed, elevated papule caused by localized edema, which can result from a bug bite. Urticaria or hives results from an alergic reaction.
atrophy a- = no, not, without troph/o = development -y = process
Paper-thin casted skin often occurring in the aged or as stretch marks from rapid weight gain.
A scar. An area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after destruction of some of the dermis. See Figs p 124
Cracklike lesion of the skin, such as an anal fissure. see figs pg 124
Circumscribed craterlike lesion of the skin or mucour membrane resulting from necrosis or tissue death. Decubitus ulcer is sometimes seen in bedridden patients.
atopic dermatitus a- = no, not, without top/o = place, location -ic = pertaining to dermat/o = skin -itis = inflammation
Chronic, pruritic superficial inflammation of the skin usually associated with a family history of allergic disorders.
contact dermatitis dermat/o = skin -itis = inflammation
Irritated or allergic response of the skin that can lead to an acute or chronic inflammation.
Superficial inflammation of the skinm characterized by vesicles, weeping, and pruritus. Also called dermatitis.
Pruitis is severe itching. Can be resultant of chemicals, stress.
folliculitis follicul/o = follicle -itis = inflammation
Inflammation of the hair follicles, which may be superficial or deep, acute, or chronic.
EXTREMELY CONTAGIOUS. Superficial vesiculopustular skin infection normally seen in choldren but possible in adults.
pilonidal cyst pil/o = hair nid/o = nest -al = pertaining to
Growth of a hair in a cyst in the sacral region.
seborrheic dermatitis seb/o = sebum -rrheic = pertaining to discharge dermat/o = skin -itis = inflammation
Inflammatory scaling disease of the scalp (usually), and face. In newborns, this is called cradle cap
dermatomycosis dermat/o = skin myc/o = fungus -osis = abnormal condition
Fungal infection of the skin. Also known as dermatophtosis
tinea capitis capit/o = head -is = structure
Fungal infection of the scalp. Also known as ringworm
tinea corporis corpor/o = body -is = structure
Ringworm of the body manifested by pink to red papulosquamous annular (ringlike) plaques with raised borders; AKA Ringworm
tinea cruris crur/o = leg -is = structure
A fungal infection that occurs mainly on external genitalia and upper legs in males, particularly in warm weather; AKA Jock itch
tinea pedis ped/o = foot -is = structure
Fungal infection of the foot; AKA athlete's foot. Fungus will grow where it is dark and moist
pediculosis pedicul/o = lice ( singular- louse) -osis = abnormal condition
Parasitic infestation with lice, involving the head, body, or genital area
Parasitic infestation caused by mites; characterized by pruritic papular rash
herpes simplex virus (HSV)
Viral infection sharacterized by clusters of small vesicles filled with clear fluid on raised inflammatory bases on the skin or mucosa.
HSV-1 causes fever blisters (herpetic stomatitis) commonly known as genital herpes and keratitis, an inflammation of the cornea.
HSV-2 is commonly known as genital herpes
herpes zoster (chicken pox)
herpes zoster Acute, painful rash caused by reactivation of the latent varicellazoster virus; AKA shingles
verruca (pl. verrucae)
Common contagious epithelial growths usually appearing on the skin of the hands, feet, legs, and face; can be caused by any of the 60 types of the humanpapillomavirus (HPV). Also called warts
Baldness or hair loss resulting from genetic factors, aging, or disease
Common chronic skin disorder characterized by circumscribed, salmon-red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery scales that are the result of excessive development of epithelial cells
Common painless thickening of the stratum corneum at locations of external pressure or friction
Horny mass of condensed epithelial cells overlying a bony prominence as the result of pressure or friction; aka clavus
decubitus ulcer
Inflammation, ulcer, or sore in the skin over a bony prominence most often seen in aged, debilitated, cachectic (wasted) or immobilized patients. Pressure sores or ulcers are graded by stages of severity with the highest stage 6=muscles, fat, and bone. AKA bedsore, pressure ulcer, or pressure sore
ichthyosis ichthy/o = fish -osis = abnormal condition
Category of dry skin that has the scaly appearance of a fish. It ranges from mild to severe. The mild form is known as xeroderma. Xer/o means "dry".
albinism albin/o = white -ism = condition
Complete lack of melanin production by existing melanocytes resulting in pale skin, white hair, and pink irdes (sing. iris). Albinos
dyschromia dys- = abnormal chrom/o = color -ia = condition
Abnormality of skin pigmentation. Hyperchromia is abnormally increased pigmentation. Hypochromia is abnormally decreased pigmentation.
vitiligo (Michael Jackson's condition)
Benign acquired disease of unknown origin consisting of irregular patches of various sizes lacking pigment.
anhidrosis an- = no, not, without hidr/o = sweating -osis = abnormal condition
A condition in which a person produces little or no sweat
hidradenitis hidraden/o = sweat gland -itis = inflammation
Inflammation of the sweat glands
hyperhidrosis hyper- = excessive hidr/o = sweat -osis = abnormal condition
Excessive perspitation caused by heat, strong emotion, menopause, hyperthyroidism, or infection
Partial-thickness burn
Burn in which only the first and second layers of the skin (epidermis and part of the dermis) are affected; sometimes called a second-degree burn
superficial burn
burn in which only the first layer of the skin, the epidermis is damaged; aka first-degree burn characterized by redness (erythema), tenderness, and hyperesthesia with no scar development.
full-thickness burn
burn that damages the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue; aka third degree burn. Patient will need a skin graft
angioma angi/o = vessel -oma = tumor
Localized vascular lesion that includes hemangiomas, vasular nevi, and lymphangiomas.
lipoma lip/o = fat -oma = tumor
Fatty tumor that is a soft, movable, subcutaneous nodule
basal cell carcinoma (BCC) bas/o = base -al = pertaining to carcinoma = cancer of epithelial origin
The most common form of skin cancer it originates in the basal layer of the epidermis. It usually occurs on the face as a result of sun exposure and rarely metastasizes (spreads to distant sites)
malignant melanoma melan/o = black, dark -oma = tumor
This cancerous tumor arises from mutated melanocytes. This particular cancer is the leading cause of death from all skin diseases.
squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) squam/o = scaly -ous = pertaining to carcinoma = cancer of epithelial origin
The second most common type of skin cancer, also caused by sun exposure, but developing from squamous cells
What are the three most common malignant cancers of the skin?
1. basal cell carcinoma (BCC) 2. malignant melanoma 3. squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
excisional biopsy
biopsy in which the entire tumor may be removed with borders as a means of diagnosis and treatment
needle aspiration
Aspiration of fluid from lesions to obtain samples for culture and examination
punch biopsy
biopsy in which a tubular punch is inserted through to the subcutaneous tissue, and the tissue is cut off at the base
cauterization cauter/i = burn -zation = process of
Destruction of tissue by burning with heat
cryosurgery cry/o = extreme cold or freezing
Destruction of tissue through the use of extreme cold, usually liquid nitrogen
incision and drainage (I&D)
Cutting open and removing the contents of a wound, cyst, or other lesion
dermabrasion derm/o = skin -abrasion = scraping of
Surgical procedure to resurface the skin; to remove acne scars, nevi, wrinkles, and tattoos.
dermatoplasty dermat/o = skin -plasty = surgical repair
Transplant of living skin to correct effects of injury, operation, or disease
lipectomy lip/o = fat -ectomy = removal
Removal of fatty tissue (usually surgical removal)
liposuction lip/o = fat
Technique for removing adipose tissue with a suction pump device
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