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Inflammation And Tissue Repair


Chapter 2 Phy Sical Ag
  
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What is the 3 main phases of healing?
 

1. Inflammation phase
2. Proliferation phase
3. Maturation phase

What is inflammmation phase?
last?
 

It's the first phase of healing.
prepares the wound for healing
Lasts 1-6 days from injury

What is proliferation phase?
last?
 

second phase of healing.
rebuilds the damaged structures and strengthenes the wound
Lasts 3-20 days from injury

What is the maturation phase?
how long does it last?
timeline applies?
 

3rd phase of healing
modifies the scar tissues into its mature form, 9 on (1-2 years)
This timeline does not apply to every injury because more factors could affect the healing process ex) size, nutrition, medications, other infections etc.
Major events in inflammation phse?
 

1.vasoconstriction
2. vasodilation
3. clot formation
4. phagocytosis
Major events in proliferation phase?
 

1.epitheliaziation
2. fibroplasias/ collagen production
3. wound contracture
4. neovascularization
Major events in maturation phase?
 

1. Synthesis/ lysis balance,
2. Collagen fiber orientation,
3. Healed injury
What is the Primary purpose of inflammation?
 
It's an immediate protective response attempt to destroy dilute or isolate the cells or agents that may be at fault.

cardinal signs of inflammation (English and Latin)
and give the cause of each.
 

heat Calor Increase vascularity
swelling Tumor blockage of lymphatic drainage
pain Dolar physical pressure of chemical irritation of pain sensitive
redness Rubor increase vascularity
english : loss of function
 

Latin : factio laesa pian and swelling
explain the affects of vasoactive mediators
 
increase vascular permeablity, edema
chemotactic factors
 
recruitment/ stimulation of inflammatory cells, acute inflammation PMSs, platelets; chronic inflammation - macrophages, lymphocytes, plasmas cells
platelets and the coagulation system?
 
thrombus formation, vasoactive mediators (vascular permeability)
what is Role of neutrophils?
 
predominate and release a number of factors that amplify the platelet aggregation response, initiate a coagulation cascade or act as chemoattractants for cells involved in the inflammatory phase.
macrophages
 
replace neutrophils after 2 days from injury
leukocytes?
 
are WBC that histamine attracts to the damaged tissue area
Monocytes?
 
monocytes turn into macrphages
Identify the most important cell in the inflammatory phase?
 
Neutrofils
Summerize the major events in the inflmmatory phase?
 

vascular: vasodilation followed by vasocontriction at the capillaries, post capillary venules, and lymphatics. vasodilation mediated by chemical mediators - histamine, hageman factor, bradykinin, prostaglandins, complement fractions. slowing of blood flow. Margination, pavementing and ultimately emigration of leukocytes. Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial tissues resulting in edema.
hemostatic
 
retraction and sealing off of blood vessels, platelets form clots and assist in building of fibrin lattice, which serves as the wound's
Cellular
 
delivery of leukocytes to the area of injur to rid the area of bacteria and debris by phagocytosis. monocytes, the precursors of macrophages, are considered the most important cell in the inflammatory phase. macrophages produce a number of products essential to the healing process.
immune
 
mediated by both cellular and humoral factors. activiation of the complrement system viathe alternative and classical pathways resulting in components that increase vascualr permeability, stimulate phagocytosis, and act as chemotactic stimuli for leukocytes

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