Immunology Chapter 1 and 2

74 cards

immuno 1 and 2


 
  
Created Aug 19, 2010
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kwalker5

 

 
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1
Two types of host defense systems
 
innate and adaptive immunity
2
first line of defense; nonspecific; always present
 
innate immunity
3
specific or acquired defense
 
adaptive immunity
4
two major classes of lymphocytes in adaptive immunity
 
B and T cells
5
lymphocyte most responsible for the clearance of extracellular microbes
 
B cells
6
lymphocyte population most responsible for the clearance of intracellular microbes
 
T cells
7
classes of T cells
 
helper, cytolytic, regulatory
8
substance, usually foreign, that reacts with an antibody
 
antigen
9
substance, usually foreign that elicits an immune response
 
immunogen
10
lymphocyte population that secretes antibodies
 
B cells (plasma cells)
11
lymphocyte population that directly kills infected cells
 
cytotoxic T cells
12
lymphocyte population that helps B cells make antibodies
 
T helper cells
13
lymphocyte population that helps activate macrophages 
 
T helper cells
14
active immunity that is naturally acquired
 
recovery from infection
15
active immunity that is artificially acquired
 
vaccination
16
passive immmunity that is artificially acquired
 
injection of immune globulin
17
passive immunity that is naturally acquired
 
placental transfer of IgG
18
passive immunity that is naturally acquired
 
breast feeding of IgA
19
Maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has not yet engaged antigen
 
naive lymphocyte
20
maturation stage of a mature lymphocyte that has been activated by antigen
 
effector lymphocyte
21
maturation stage of mature lymphocyte that is long lived and ready to rapidly respond to antigen...
 
memory lypmphocyte
22
secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to blood-borne antigens
 
spleen
23
secondary lymphoid tissue where the response occurs to tissue-borne antigens
 
lymph nodes, MALT, GALT, BALT
24
major cell types involved in innate immunity
 
granulocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells,
25
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
 
granulocytes
26
primary lymphoid tissue
 
bone marrow, thymus
27
anatomic location where stem cells reside
 
bone marrow
28
anatomic site of B cell maturation
 
bone marrow
29
anatomic site of T cell maturation
 
thymus
30
cells that capture and present peptides to T cells
 
antigen-presenting cells (APC)
31
professional antigen presenting cells
 
dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells, FDC
32
Response to first exposure to an antigen
 
primary immune response
33
response to repeat encounters with same antigen
 
secondary immune response
34
major antibody produced in serum during primary immune response
 
IgM
35
major antibody produced in serum during secondary immune response
 
IgG
36
anatomic location of T cells in lymph nodes
 
paracortex
37
anatomic location of B cells in lymph nodes
 
follicle (cortex)
38
anatomic location of T cells in spleen
 
periarteriolar sheath
39
specialized venules in lymph nodes where T cells enter
 
high endothelial venules
40
cellular receptors for microbial antigens on innate immune cells
 
pathogen recognition receptors
41
LPS, peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, viral RNA, fungal mannans
 
pathogen associated molecular patterns
42
general characteristics of innate immunity
 
no induction period, specificity or memory
43
extensive physical barrier to infection
 
epithelial lining of portals of entry
44
most active phagocytic cell and most abundant circulating WBC
 
neutrophil
45
neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells
 
phagocytic cells
46
lyosozyme, reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide
 
microbicidal molecules of phagocytes
47
enzyme responsible for production of reactive oxygen species
 
phagocyte oxidase
48
pro-inflammatory cytokines that target endothelium, among others
 
TNF, IL-1
49
adhesion molecules expressed on endothelium that mediate rolling of leukocytes
 
E and P selectins
50
adhesion molecules expressed on leukocytes that mediate thethering of leukocytes
 
integrins
51
lymphocytes of innate immunity that provide early defense against viral infections
 
NK cells
52
major sourse of interfereon-y (IFN) in innate immune system
 
NK cellss
53
structural domains found on inhibitory receptors of NK cells
 
ITIMs
54
structural domains found on activating receptors of NK cells
 
ITAMs
55
intraepithelial lymphocytes that are early sentinels of bacterial infections
 
gamma delta T cells
56
activator of classical pathway of complement
 
antibody binding to C1q
57
activator of alternative pathway of complement
 
binding of C3b to microbial surfaces
58
activator of lectin pathway of complement
 
terminal mannose residues of microbial glyoproteins
59
major opsonin generated by complement activation
 
C3b
60
pro-inflammatory molecules generated by complement activation
 
C3a and C5a
61
polymeric protein complex that lyses microbes
 
membrane attack complex (MAC), C6-C9
62
cytokines that activate endothelium
 
TNF and IL-1
63
class of cytokines that increase integrin affinity and are chemotacic
 
chemokines
64
cytokine that induces interfereon-gamma production by NK cells and T cells
 
IL-12
65
cytokine that activates macrophages
 
IFNgamma
66
anti-viral cytokines
 
IFNa/b (Type I IFNs)
67
cytokine that down-regulates immune responses
 
IL-10
68
pro-inflammatory cytokines
 
TFN, IL-1, IL-6
69
inducers of acute phase response
 
IL-6, TNF, IL-1
70
induces proliferation of plasma cells
 
IL-6
71
C-reactive protein, mannose-binding lectin and others
 
acute phase proteins
72
signals generated by innate immune response to stimulate lymphocytes
 
B7, C3d, and IL-12
73
substances given with vaccines that stimulate immune responses
 
adjuvants
74
neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, basophils, esinophils
 
cells quantified on a CBC

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