An Illustrated Guide To Veterinary Medical Terminology Positional Terms

An Illustrated Guide To Veterinary Medical Terminology Positional Terms Positional Terms From Chapter 2 Of An Illustrated Guide To Veterinary Medical Terminology Second Edition By Janet Amundson Romich.
  
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ventral
 

the belly or underside of a body
cranial
 

toward the head
anterior
 
front of the body
rostral
 

nose end of the head
cephalic
 
pertaining to the head
medial
 

toward the midline
superior
 
uppermost, above, or toward the head
proximal
 

nearest the midline or nearest the beginning of a structure
superficial
 
near the surface; also called external
palmar
 

the caudal surface of the manus (front paw) including the carpus (from the antebrachial joint distally)
dorsal
 

to the back
caudal
 

towards the tail
posterior
 
rear end of the body
caudal
 

toward the tail
lateral
 

away from the midline
inferior
 
lowermost, below, or toward the tail
distal
 

farthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of a structure
deep
 
away from the surface; also called internal
plantar
 

means the caudal surface of the pes (rear paw) including the tarsus (from the tibiotarsal joint distally)
midsagittal plane
 

plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves; also called median; it is also called midline
sagittal plane
 

plane that divides the body into unequal right and left parts
dorsal plane
 

the plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts; also called frontal plane or coronal plane
transverse plane
 

the plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts; also called horizontal plane or cross-sectional plane
anatomy
 
the study of body structure
physiology
 
the study of the body function(s)
pathophysiology
 
the study of changes in function caused by disease
etiology
 
the study of disease
arcade
 
term used to describe how teeth are arranged in the mouth
lingual surface
 

the aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue
palatal surface
 

the tooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue on both the maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw)
buccal surface
 

the aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek; also called vestibular surface
occlusal surfaces
 

the aspects of the teeth that meet when you chew
labial surface
 

the tooth surface facing the lips
contact surfaces
 

the aspects of the tooth that touch other teeth
mesial surface
 

the contact surface closest to the midline of the dental arcade or arch
distal surface
 

the contact surface is the one that is furthest from the midline of the dental arcade
cranial cavity
 
hollow space that contains the brain in the skull
spinal cavity
 
hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column
thoracic cavity
 
also called chest cavity; hollow space that contains the heart and lungs within the ribs between the neck and diaphragm
abdominal cavity
 
hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity
peritoneal cavity
 
hollow space within the abdominal cavity between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum
pelvic cavity
 
hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory system organs formed by the pelvic bones
abdomen
 
the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis containing the abdominal cavity
thorax
 
chest region located between the neck and diaphragm
groin
 
lower region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh; also known as the inguinal area
membranes
 
thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity, or divide a space or organ
peritoneum
 
the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covers some organs in this area
parietal peritoneum
 
the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
visceral peritoneum
 
inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs
umbilicus
 
the pit in the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus; also called the navel
mesentery
 
the layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine in the abdominal cavity
retroperitoneal
 
superficial to the peritoneum
recumbent
 
lying down
dorsal recumbency
 
lying on the back
ventral recumbency or sternal recumbency
 
lying on the belly
left lateral recumbency
 
lying on the left side
right lateral recumbency
 
lying on the right side
adduction
 

movement toward the midline
abduction
 

movement away from the midline
flexion
 

closure of a joint angle, or reduction of the angel between two bones
extension
 

straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between two bones
hyperflexion
 
palmar or plantar movement of the joint angles
hyperextension
 
occurs when the joint is flexed or extended too far
supination
 
the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward
pronation
 
the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned townward
rotation
 
circular movement around an axis
cytology
 
the study of cells
protoplasm
 
the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus
cytoplasm
 
the material located within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
nucleus
 
structure of a cell that contains nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and the surrounding membrane
nucleoplasm
 
the material in the nucleus
chromosomes
 
the structures in the nucleus composed of DNA, which transmits genetic information
genetic disorder
 
any disease or condition caused by defective genes and is inherited
congenital
 
something that is present at birth
anomaly
 
a deviation from what is regarded as normal
tissue
 
a group of specialized cells that are similar in structure and function
histology
 
the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissue
epithelial tissue
 
tissue that covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells in a variety of arrangements
epithelium
 
the cellular covering that forms the outer layer of the skin and covers the external surfaces of the body
endothelium
 
the cellular covering that forms the lining of the internal organs including the blood vessels
mesothelium
 
the cellular covering that forms the lining of serous membranes such as the peritoneum

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