An Illustrated Guide To Veterinary Medical Terminology Positional Terms

Positional Terms From Chapter 2 Of An Illustrated Guide To Veterinary Medical Terminology Second Edition By Janet Amundson Romich.
Created Apr 27, 2010
by chuseth
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Side ASide B
ventral

the belly or underside of a body
cranial

toward the head
anterior
front of the body
rostral

nose end of the head
cephalic
pertaining to the head
medial

toward the midline
superior
uppermost, above, or toward the head
proximal

nearest the midline or nearest the beginning of a structure
superficial
near the surface; also called external
palmar

the caudal surface of the manus (front paw) including the carpus (from the antebrachial joint...
dorsal

to the back
caudal

towards the tail
posterior
rear end of the body
caudal

toward the tail
lateral

away from the midline
inferior
lowermost, below, or toward the tail
distal

farthest from the midline or farthest from the beginning of a structure
deep
away from the surface; also called internal
plantar

means the caudal surface of the pes (rear paw) including the tarsus (from the tibiotarsal joint...
midsagittal plane

plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves; also called median;...
sagittal plane

plane that divides the body into unequal right and left parts
dorsal plane

the plane that divides the body into dorsal (back) and ventral (belly) parts; also called frontal...
transverse plane

the plane that divides the body into cranial and caudal parts; also called horizontal plane...
anatomy
the study of body structure
physiology
the study of the body function(s)
pathophysiology
the study of changes in function caused by disease
etiology
the study of disease
arcade
term used to describe how teeth are arranged in the mouth
lingual surface

the aspect of the tooth that faces the tongue
palatal surface

the tooth surface of the maxilla that faces the tongue on both the maxilla (upper jaw) and...
buccal surface

the aspect of the tooth that faces the cheek; also called vestibular surface
occlusal surfaces

the aspects of the teeth that meet when you chew
labial surface

the tooth surface facing the lips
contact surfaces

the aspects of the tooth that touch other teeth
mesial surface

the contact surface closest to the midline of the dental arcade or arch
distal surface

the contact surface is the one that is furthest from the midline of the dental arcade
cranial cavity
hollow space that contains the brain in the skull
spinal cavity
hollow space that contains the spinal cord within the spinal column
thoracic cavity
also called chest cavity; hollow space that contains the heart and lungs within the ribs between...
abdominal cavity
hollow space that contains the major organs of digestion between the diaphragm and pelvic cavity
peritoneal cavity
hollow space within the abdominal cavity between the parietal peritoneum and the visceral peritoneum
pelvic cavity
hollow space that contains the reproductive and some excretory system organs formed by the...
abdomen
the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis containing the abdominal cavity
thorax
chest region located between the neck and diaphragm
groin
lower region of the abdomen adjacent to the thigh; also known as the inguinal area
membranes
thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity, or divide a space or organ
peritoneum
the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covers some organs in...
parietal peritoneum
the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities
visceral peritoneum
inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the abdominal organs
umbilicus
the pit in the abdominal wall marking the point where the umbilical cord entered the fetus;...
mesentery
the layer of the peritoneum that suspends parts of the intestine in the abdominal cavity
retroperitoneal
superficial to the peritoneum
recumbent
lying down
dorsal recumbency
lying on the back
ventral recumbency or sternal recumbency
lying on the belly
left lateral recumbency
lying on the left side
right lateral recumbency
lying on the right side
adduction

movement toward the midline
abduction

movement away from the midline
flexion

closure of a joint angle, or reduction of the angel between two bones
extension

straightening of a joint or an increase in the angle between two bones
hyperflexion
palmar or plantar movement of the joint angles
hyperextension
occurs when the joint is flexed or extended too far
supination
the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward
pronation
the act of rotating the limb or body part so that the palmar surface is turned townward
rotation
circular movement around an axis
cytology
the study of cells
protoplasm
the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus
cytoplasm
the material located within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
nucleus
structure of a cell that contains nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and the surrounding membrane
nucleoplasm
the material in the nucleus
chromosomes
the structures in the nucleus composed of DNA, which transmits genetic information
genetic disorder
any disease or condition caused by defective genes and is inherited
congenital
something that is present at birth
anomaly
a deviation from what is regarded as normal
tissue
a group of specialized cells that are similar in structure and function
histology
the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissue
epithelial tissue
tissue that covers internal and external body surfaces and is made up of tightly packed cells...
epithelium
the cellular covering that forms the outer layer of the skin and covers the external surfaces...
endothelium
the cellular covering that forms the lining of the internal organs including the blood vessels
mesothelium
the cellular covering that forms the lining of serous membranes such as the peritoneum


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