Human Anatomy Exam #1 Testing Your Recall

170 cards

These Flashcards Contain The Questions And Answers From The "Testing Your Recall" Section And Some Of The "True/False" Section Of The Human Anatomy Textbook By Saladin (2nd Edition).  These Correlate With Exam #1 Of The Spring 2009 Semester Consisting Of Chapters 1,2,3,6,7,8 And Atlas A.


 
  
Created Feb 1, 2009
by
divadawni

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
Which cells have a ruffled border and secrete hydrochloric acid?
 
osteoclasts
2
The medullary cavity of a child's bone may contain:
 
red bone marrow
3
The long bones of the limbs grow in length by cell proliferation and hypertrophy in:
 
the metaphysis
4
Osteoclasts are most closely related, by common descent, to
 
monocytes
5
The walls between cartilage lucunae break down in the zone of:
 
bone deposition
6
Which of these does not promote bone deposition? (dietary calcium, Vit D, parathyroid hormone,...
 
parathyroid hormone
7
A child jumps to the ground from the top of a playground "jungle Gym." His leg bones do not...
 
collagen fibers
8
One long bone meets another at its:
 
epiphysis
9
Calcitriol is made from:
 
7-dehydrocholesterol
10
One sign of osteoporosis is:
 
kyphosis
11
Calcium phosphate crystallizes in bone as a mineral called __________.
 
hydroxyapatite
12
Osteocytes contact each other through channels called ________ in the bone matrix.
 
canaliculi
13
A bone increases in diameter only by _______ growth, the addition of new surface lamellae.
 
appositional
14
Most conpact bone is organized in cylindrical units called _______ , composed of lamellae encircling...
 
osteons
15
The _____ glands secrete a hormone that stimulates cells to resorb bone and return its minerals...
 
parathyroid
16
The ends of a bone are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage called the _____.
 
articular cartilage
17
The cells that deposit new bone matrix are called _________.
 
osteoblasts
18
The most common bone disease is ______.
 
osteoporosis
19
The transitional region btw. epiphyseal cartilage & the primary marrow cavity of a young bone...
 
metaphysis
20
The cranial bones develop from a flat sheet of condensed mesenchyme in a process called _________.
 
intramembranous ossification
21
The most common bone disorder is _________.
 
osteoporosis
22
The growth zone is the ________.
 
epiphyseal plate
23
Osteoclasts develop from stem cells relating to __________.
 
monocytes
24
The protein of the bone matrix is _______.
 
collagen
25
Only the ___________ is hemopoietic.
 
red blood marrow
26
The vertebral bodies are derived from the _________.
 
sclerotomes
27
Adults have _________ bones than children do.
 
fewer
28
The _______________ of the temporal bone and maxilla also contribute to the arch.
 
zygomatic process
29
The _______________ lies loosely against most of the cranium.
 
dura mater
30
Lumbar vertebrae have _______________, but not transverse costal facets.
 
transverse processes
31
Each hand and foot has how many phalanges?
 
14
32
The upper limb is attached to the _____________.
 
glenohumeral joint
33
The arm contains only the ___________, but the leg contains the ________ and _______.
 
humerus tibia, fibula
34
The most frequently broken bone is the ________.
 
clavicle
35
The ___________ is the opening in the floor of the greater pelvis leading into the lesser pelvis.
 
pelvic inlet
36
Directionally: The diaphram is ________ to the lungs
 
inferior
37
How many organs are contained btw. the parietal and visceral pleurae?
 
None
38
Where is the liver located?
 
In the right hypochondriac and epigastric regions
39
What lines the abdominal cavity and external surfaces of the stomach?
 
peritoneum
40
Where is the sigmoid colon located?
 
in the lower left quadrant
41
How much protein does the plasma membrane contain?
 
1%-10%
42
Osmosis is a case of __________.
 
simple diffusion
43
The noncellular components of tissue include ________ and ________.
 
ground substance and fibers
44
Macrophages develop from _________.
 
monocytes
45
What is it called when one mature tissue type transforms into another?
 
metaplasia
46
What is it called when one listens to the sounds of the body?
 
Auscultation
47
What method is concerned with all aspects of medical imaging?
 
Radiology
48
Nearly every cell contains many ________.
 
oraganelles
49
_____________ was a textile merchant by trade.
 
Leeuwenhoek
50
______________ was probably an adaptation to the arboreal habitat.
 
Stereoscopic vision
51
Which of these is not a paranasal sinus? (frontal, temporal, shenoid, ethmoid, maxillary)
 
temporal
52
Which of these is a facial bone? (frontal, temporal, occipital, ethmoid, lacrimal)
 
lacrimal
53
What occupies the transverse foramina seen in certain vertebrae?
 
vertebral arteries
54
All of the following groups of vertebrae except ______, which is a spinal curvature. (thoracic,...
 
pelvic
55
Thoracic vertebrae do not have... (transverse foramina, costal facets, transverse costal facets,...
 
transverse foramina
56
Which of theese bones forms by intramembranous ossification? (vertebrae, pariteal bone, occipital...
 
parietal bone
57
The viscerocranium includes the ________.
 
maxilla
58
Which of these is not a suture? (parietal, coronal, lambdoid, sagittal, squamous)
 
parietal
59
The sella turcica contains the ___________.
 
pituitary gland
60
The nasal septum is composed partly of the same bone as the ______.
 
cribriform plate
61
Gaps btw. the cranial bones of an infant are called ___________.
 
fontanels
62
The external acoustic meatus is an opening in the _________ bone.
 
temporal
63
Bones of the skull are joined along lines called _________.
 
sutures
64
The ______ bone has greater and lesser wings and protects the pituitary.
 
sphenoid
65
A herniated disc occurs when a ring called the ___________ cracks.
 
anulus fibrosus
66
The transverse ligament of the atlas holds the ________ of the axis in place.
 
dens
67
The sacroiliac joint is formed where the ________ surface of the sacrum articulates with that...
 
auricular
68
We have five pairs of ________ ribs and two pairs of _______ ribs.
 
false, floating
69
Ribs 1 and 10 are joined to the sternum by way of strips of connective tissue called _____________.
 
costal cartilage
70
The point at the inferior end of the sternum is the __________.
 
xiphoid process
71
The hip bone is attached to the axial skeleton through its _________.
 
auricular surface
72
Which of these bones supports the most body weight? (ilium, pubis, femur, tibia, talus)
 
talus
73
Which can be most easily palpated on a living person? (deltoid tuberosity, gr8ter sciatic...
 
the medial malleolus
74
Compared to the male pelvis, the pelvis of a female ___________.
 
has a rounder pelvic inlet
75
The lateral and medial malleoli are most similar to ____________.
 
the radial and ulnar styloid processes
76
When you rest your hands on your hips, you are resting them on the _________.
 
Iliac crests
77
The disc-shaped head of the radius articulates with the _______ of the humerus.
 
capitulum
78
All of the following are carpal bones except the ______, which is a tarsal bone. (trapezium,...
 
cuboid
79
The bone that supports your body weight when you are sitting down is the _________.
 
ischium
80
Which of these is the bone if the heel? (cuboid, calcaneus, navicular, trochlear, talus)
 
calcanues
81
The Latin anatomical name for the thumb is _______, and the name for the great toe is _______.
 
pollex, hallux
82
The acromion and coracoid process are parts of what bone?
 
scapula
83
How many phalanges, total, does the human body have?
 
56
84
The bony prominences on each side of your elbow are the lateral and medial _______ of the humerus.
 
epicondyles
85
One of the wrist bones, the ________, is characterized by a prominent hook.
 
hamate
86
The fibrocartilage pad that holds the pelvic girdle together anteriorly is called the _______.
 
interpubic disc
87
The leg proper, btw. the knee and ankle, is called the _____ region.
 
crural
88
The _______ processes of the radius and ulna form bony protuberances on each side of the wrist.
 
styloid
89
Two massive protuberances unique to the proximal end of the femur are the greater and lesser...
 
trochanters
90
The ______ arch of the foot extends from the heel to the great toe.
 
medial longitudinal
91
Structure that can be observed with the naked eye is called _________.
 
gross anatomy
92
What technique requires an injection of radioisotopes into a patient's bloodstream?
 
PET scan
93
The simplest structures considered to be alive are ________.
 
cells
94
Who revolutionized the teaching of gross anatomy?
 
Vesalius
95
What characteristics do humans share with all other chordates?
 
notochord, tail extending beyond anus, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal arches
96
Who argued that all living organisms are composed of cells?
 
Schwann
97
A person's blood sugar level rises & insulin is secreted. This stimulates cells to absorb glucose...
 
homeostasis
98
The word root 'histo-' means?
 
tissue
99
The word root 'patho-' means?
 
disease
100
The prefix 'hetero-' means?
 
different
101
Cutting and separating tissues to reveal their structural relationships is called _____.
 
dissection
102
______ invented many components of the compund microscope and named the cell.
 
Robert Hooke
103
The term for all chemical change in the body is _______.
 
metabolism
104
Most physiology serves the purpose of ______, maintaining a stable internal environment in...
 
homeostasis
105
______ is a science that doesn;t merely describe bodily structure but interprets structure...
 
functional morphology
106
When a Dr. presses on the upper abdomen to feel the size and texture of the liver, he/she is...
 
palpation
107
______ is a method of medical imaging that uses X-rays and a computer to generate images of...
 
computed tomography
108
A/an _____ is the simplest body structure to be composed of two or more types of tissue.
 
organ
109
Depth perception, or the ability to form 3-D images, is called __________ vision.
 
stereoscopic
110
Our hands are said to be _____ b/c they can encircle an object such as a branch or tool. Presence...
 
prehensile, opposable
111
Which of the following is not an essential part of anatomical position? (eyes forward, feet...
 
mouth closed
112
A ring-shaped section of the small intestine would be a _____ section.
 
transverse
113
Directionally: The tarsal region is ______ to the popliteal region.
 
distal
114
Directionally: The greater omentum is ____ to the small intestine.
 
superficial
115
A _____ line passes through the sternum, umbilicus, and mons pubis.
 
misagittal
116
The _______ region is immediately medial to the coxal region.
 
inguinal
117
Which of the following regions is not part of the upper limb? (plantar, carpal, antecubital,...
 
plantar
118
Which of these organs is intraperitoneal? (urinary bladder, kidneys, heart, small intestine,...
 
small intestine
119
In which area do you think pain from the gallbladder would be felt?
 
right upper quadrant
120
Which of the following is not an organ system? (muscular, integumentary, endocrine, lymphatic,...
 
immune system
121
The forearm is said to be ____ when the palms are facing forward.
 
supinated
122
The more superficial layer of the pleura is called the _____ pleura.
 
parietal
123
The right and left pleural cavities are separated by a thick region called the _____.
 
mediastinum
124
The back of the head is called the _____ region, and the back of the neck is the ______ region.
 
occipital, nuchal
125
The manus is more commonly known as the ______, and the pes is more commonly known as the ______.
 
hand, foot
126
The cranial cavity is lined by membranes called the ______.
 
meninges
127
Abdominal organs that lie against the posterior abdominal wall & covered with peritoneum only...
 
retroperitoneal
128
Directionally: The sternal region is ______ to the pectoral region.
 
medial
129
The pelvic cavity can be described as ______ to the abdominal cavity in position.
 
inferior
130
The anterior pit of the elbow is the ______ region, and the corresponding (but posterior) pit...
 
cubital, popliteal
131
The clear, structureless gel in a cell is its
 
cytosol
132
New nuclei form and a cell pinches in two during which phase?
 
telophase
133
The amount of ____ in a plasma membrane affects its stiffness versus fluidity.
 
cholesterol
134
Cells specialized for absorption of matter from the ECF are likely to show and abundance of
 
microvilli
135
Osmosis is a special case of
 
simple diffusion
136
Embryonic stem cells are best described as
 
pluripotent "having more than one potential outcome"
137
The amount of DNA in a cell doubles during which phase?
 
the S phase
138
Fusion of a secretory vesicle w/the plasma membrane & release of the vesicle's contents is
 
exocytosis
139
Most cellular membranes are made by
 
the endoplasmic reticulum
140
Matter can leave a cell by any of the following means except: (active transport, pinocytosis,...
 
pinocytosis
141
Most human cells are 10 to 15 ______ wide.
 
micrometers
142
When a hormone cannot enter a cell, it binds to a _____ at the cell surface.
 
receptor
143
_______ are channels in the plasma membrane that open or close in response to various stimuli.
 
gates
144
Most ATP is produced by organelles called _______.
 
mitochondria
145
Leakage btw. cells is restricted by intracellular junctions called ________.
 
tight junctions
146
Thin scaly cells are described by the term
 
squamous
147
Two human organelles that are surrounded by a double unit membrane are the _____ & _____.
 
squamous mitochondrion, nuclear envelop
148
Liver cells can detoxify alcohol with two organelles, the _____ & _____.
 
peroxisomes, smooth ER
149
Cells adhere to each other and to extracellular material by means of membrane proteins called...
 
cell-adhesion molecules
150
A macrophage would use the process of _______ to engulf a dying tissue cell.
 
phagocytosis
151
Transitional epithelium is found in which system?
 
urinary system
152
The external surface of the stomach is covered by
 
a serosa "lines and encloses contents"
153
The interior of the respiratory tract is lined with
 
a mucosa
154
A seminiferous tubule of the testis is lined with ______ epithelium.
 
stratified cuboidal
155
When the blood supply to a tissue is cut off, the tissue is most likely to undergo
 
necrosis "premature or unnatural death of cells and living tissue"
156
A fixative serves to
 
stop tissue decay
157
The collagen of areolar tissue is prodeuced by
 
fibroblasts
158
Tendons are composed of _______ connective tissue.
 
dense regular
159
The shape of the external ear is due to
 
elastic cartilage
160
The most abundant formed element(s) of blood is/are
 
erythrocytes
161
The prearranged death of a cell that has completed its task is called
 
apoptosis
162
The simple squamous epithelium that lines the peritoneal cavity is called ______.
 
mesothelium (programmed cell death)
163
Osteocytes and chondrocytes occupy little cavities called _______.
 
lucunae
164
Muscle cells and axons are often called _______ b/c of their shape.
 
fibers
165
Tendons and ligaments are made mainly of the protein _________.
 
collagen
166
A ________ adult stem cell can differentiate into two or more types of mature cells, but not...
 
multipotent "Self-renew for long periods of time and differentiate into specialized cells...
167
An epithelium rests on a layer called the _______ btw. its deepest cells and the underlying...
 
basement membrane
168
Fibers and ground substance make up the _____ of a connective tissue.
 
matrix
169
In _______ glands, the secretion is formed by the complete disintegration of teh gland cells.
 
holocrine
170
Any epithelium in which every cell touches the basement membrane is called a _________ epithelium.
 
simple


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