Human Anat and Physiology I 2514 final

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Created Apr 23, 2011
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lisarutledge

 

 
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1
The term pollex refers to the ________.
 
Thumb
2
Subdivisions of anatomy include which of the following?
 
gross, regional, systemic, and surface
3
Which body cavity protects the nervous system?
 
dorsal
4
What is the specific name for the hip region?
 
coxal
5
Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity?
 
thoracic cavity
6
If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat...
 
control center
7
The cavities housing the eyes are called __________ cavities
 
orbital
8
Which of the following are survival needs of the body?
 
nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen
9
The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following?
 
brain
10
What is the posterior side of the patella called?
 
popliteal
11
Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a
 
synthesis
12
describe fibrous proteins
 
very stable and insoluble in water
13
in liquid xyz you notice that light is scattered as it passes through.what type of liquid is...
 
colloid
14
describe coenzymes
 
organic molicules derived from vitamins
 
15
what would  be false about enzymes
 
enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction
16
discribe about mixtures
 
a solution contains solvent in large amounts ans solute in smaller qualities
17
what bonds often bind diffrent parts of a molecule into a specific three -dimensional
 
hydrogen
18
two good examples of a colloid would be Jell-O and
 
cytosol
19
describe HCO3
 
a bicarbonate ion
20
the single most abundant protein in the body is
 
collagen
21
example of a coenzyme is
 
riboflavin(B2)
22
What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol
 
3:1
23
the genetic information is coded in dna by the
 
three dimensional structure of the double helix
24
 correct statement about isotopes 
 
isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their masses
25
what is the major positive ion outside cells?
 
sodium
26
what is not a factor in influencing a reaction?
 
time
27
what level of protein synthesis is represented by the colling of the protein chain backbone...
 
secondary structure
28
heat shock proteins(hsp) are a type of protein called
 
chaperonins
29
the numbers listed represent the number of electrons in the first,second,and third in respectively.which...
 
2,8,1
30
correct statement about nucleic acids
 
Dna is a long double strained molecule made up of a,t,g,c bases
31
what is not true about proteins
 
they appear to be the molecule carriers of the coded hereditary information
32
what does not describe a atp molecule?
 
pigments
33
true/false a key featureof the body's metabolism is the almost exclusive use exergoni by the...
 
false
34
the chemical symbol o x o means
 
the atoms are double bonded
35
what protein type are vittally important to cell funtion in all types of stressfull situations
 
molecular chaperones
36
ribosomes,endoplasmic reticulum,and the golgi apparatus funtionally act in sequence synthesize...
 
false;integral cell membrane proteins,are synthesized this way
37
describe a cell membrane
 
the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
38
the endomembrane system is
 
an interactive system of organelles whose membranes are physically or funtion connected 
39
the electron microscope has revealed that one of the coponents within the cell consist microtubules...
 
centriole
40
what is not a funtion of the plasma membrane proteins
 
molecular transport through the membrane
41
cell juntion that promote the coordinated activity of cells by phsically binding them a cell...
 
peroxisomes
42
caveolae are closely associated with all but
 
enzymes involved in cell metabolism
43
dna  contains dark matter that codes for specific structure proteins(T/F)
 
false
44
crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in
 
hypertonic solution
45
Extracellular matrix is
 
the most abundant extracellular material
46
If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis...
 
UGCAA
47
statement best describes transcytosis?
 
transporting an endosome from one side of a cell to the other and releasing the contents by...
48
Skin color is influenced by the presence of _______.
 
melanin
49
The dermis is a dense irregular connective tissue. The structures responsible for producing...
 
epidermal ridges
50
The small bands of smooth muscle that attach to the hair follicle and cause goose bumps when...
 
arrector pili
51
The portion of the hair projecting from the surface of the skin is called the _______.
 
shaft
52
Fingerprinting is a commonly used tool for identifying and apprehending criminals because the...
 
genetically determined
53
most correct statement concerning skin cancer.
 
Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
54
________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred...
 
Porphyria
55
A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?
 
corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
56
The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.
 
external root sheath
57
Acne is a disorder associated with ________.
 
sebaceous glands
58
The dermis ________.
 
has two layers
59
Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps?
 
arrector pili
60
If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot,...
 
lucidum
61
Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light...
 
Meissner's corpuscles
62
is a skin sensory receptor for touch?
 
Meissner's corpuscle
63
Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?
 
Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
64
Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following...
 
Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
65
Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions...
 
resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them...
66
The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.
 
allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
67
Vernix caseosa is a ________.
 
whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
68
The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.
 
ceruminous
69
Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.
 
diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
70
The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.
 
the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
71
Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and...
 
Squamous cell carcinoma
72
Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they ________.
 
produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
73
Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes...
 
accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment...
74
The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in...
 
stratum basale
75
The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and...
 
macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells
76
Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which...
 
Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into...
77
The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types...
 
fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
78
The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is...
 
the reticular layer
79
Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know...
 
The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
80
The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels....
 
dermal papillae.
81
The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae...
 
They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
82
Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect...
 
Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
83
Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the...
 
The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
84
An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized ________.
 
phagocytic cell
85
What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?
 
nutrition and hormones
86
Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?
 
Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
87
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are...
 
eccrine and apocrine
88
The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.
 
99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
89
Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play...
 
in the axillary and anogenital area
90
The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The...
 
by hormones, especially androgens
91
In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions....
 
It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
92
Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the...
 
by using the "rule of nines"
93
What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?
 
catastrophic fluid loss
94
Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________.
 
male hormones
95
Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.
 
eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
96
The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region...
 
true
97
The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.
 
false
98
The hypodermis is composed of adipose and dense connective tissue.
 
false
99
Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.
 
true
100
Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle.
 
true
101
When a patient is said to have "third-degree burns," this indicates that the patient has burns...
 
false
102
Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures.
 
true
103
Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of...
 
false
104
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
 
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
105
The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.
 
hyaline
106
Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.
 
false
107
Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.
 
true
108
The term vertebrochondral ribs refers to ribs that attach to each other before...
 
true
109
Lordosis affects the thoracic vertebrae.
 
false
110
Which vertebra does not have a body?
 
atlas
111
All vertebrae possess a body, a spine, and transverse foramina.
 
false
112
Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen...
 
scoliosis
113
Three discrete types of muscle fibers are identified on the basis of their size, speed, and...
 
a long, relaxing swim
114
Excitation-contraction coupling requires which of the following substances?
 
Ca2+ and ATP
115
What is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle called?
 
a sarcomere
116
What does oxygen deficit represent?
 
the difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic muscle activity and...
117
Creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by ________.
 
storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP
118
The extensor carpi radialis brevis ________.
 
extends and abducts the wrist and is short
119
Paralysis of which of the following muscles would make an individual unable to flex the knee?
 
hamstring muscles
120
What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common?
 
All act on the tongue.
121
Which of the following describes fascicle arrangement in a pennate muscle?
 
The fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a...
122
The epicranius or occipitofrontalis has two bellies, the frontal and occipital.
 
true
123
describes the ANS?
 
motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and...
124
Which of the following is not a special characteristic of neurons?
 
They are mitotic.
125
During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative.
 
true
126
The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell...
 
false
127
The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons.
 
true
128
Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.
 
found in the retina of the eye
129
Unipolar neurons have axons structurally divided into peripheral and central processes.
 
true
130
In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of...
 
true
131
Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating...
 
acetylcholine
132
Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?
 
innervation of skeletal muscle
133
Which of the choices below describes the ANS?
 
motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and...
134
Which of the following is not a special characteristic of neurons?
 
They are mitotic.
135
During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative.
 
true
136
The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell...
 
false
137
The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons.
 
true
138
Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.
 
found in the retina of the eye
139
Unipolar neurons have axons structurally divided into peripheral and central processes.
 
true
140
In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of...
 
true
141
Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating...
 
acetylcholine
142
Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?
 
innervation of skeletal muscle
143
Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
 
Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection,...
144
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
 
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
145
Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
 
loss of proprioception
146
The arbor vitae refers to ________.
 
cerebellar white matter
147
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1....
 
paraplegia
148
A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
 
olfactory
149
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.
 
nociceptors
150
A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________.
 
sciatica
151
Which of the following is not an example of an exteroceptor?
 
baroreceptor
152
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms...
 
facial
153
Endothelium covers and lines internal cavities such as the pleural and peritoneal cavities.
 
false
154
An epithelial membrane ________.
 
contains simple or stratified epithelia and a basement membrane
155
The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.
 
collagen
156
Cartilage tissue tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue. 
 
true
157
 Which tissue type arises from all three embryonic germ layers?
 
epithelial tissue 
158
Organized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose...
 
tissue 
159
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than...
 
endocrine
160
Chondroblasts
 
within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
161
 Matrix is composed of ________.
 
fibers and ground substance
162
Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair.
 
Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.
163
Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?
 
anular
164
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.
 
multiaxial
165
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.
 
hyaline cartilage
166
Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is...
 
medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
167
Tendon sheaths ________.
 
act as friction-reducing structures
168
Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces...
 
number of bones in the joint
169
Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called...
 
true
170
Which of the following is a true statement?
 
The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
171
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint.
 
plane
172
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following...
 
It contains hyaluronic acid.
173
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
 
NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
174
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
 
hypothalamus
175
The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.
 
false
176
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
 
vagus nerve
177
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
 
x
178
Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?
 
Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.
179
What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
 
iris
180
Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.
 
brain stem reflex centers
181
Light passes through the following structures in which order?
 
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
182
The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.
 
macula

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