Human Anat And Physiology I 2514 Final

Created Apr 23, 2011
by lisarutledge
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Side ASide B
The term pollex refers to the ________.
Thumb
Subdivisions of anatomy include which of the following?
gross, regional, systemic, and surface
Which body cavity protects the nervous system?
dorsal
What is the specific name for the hip region?
coxal
Which of these is not part of the dorsal cavity?
thoracic cavity
If you consider your home air conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat...
control center
The cavities housing the eyes are called __________ cavities
orbital
Which of the following are survival needs of the body?
nutrients, water, atmospheric pressure, and oxygen
The dorsal body cavity is the site of which of the following?
brain
What is the posterior side of the patella called?
popliteal
Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a
synthesis
describe fibrous proteins
very stable and insoluble in water
in liquid xyz you notice that light is scattered as it passes through.what type of liquid is...
colloid
describe coenzymes
organic molicules derived from vitamins 
what would  be false about enzymes
enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction
discribe about mixtures
a solution contains solvent in large amounts ans solute in smaller qualities
what bonds often bind diffrent parts of a molecule into a specific three -dimensional
hydrogen
two good examples of a colloid would be Jell-O and
cytosol
describe HCO3
a bicarbonate ion
the single most abundant protein in the body is
collagen
example of a coenzyme is
riboflavin(B2)
What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol
3:1
the genetic information is coded in dna by the
three dimensional structure of the double helix
 correct statement about isotopes 
isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their masses
what is the major positive ion outside cells?
sodium
what is not a factor in influencing a reaction?
time
what level of protein synthesis is represented by the colling of the protein chain backbone...
secondary structure
heat shock proteins(hsp) are a type of protein called
chaperonins
the numbers listed represent the number of electrons in the first,second,and third in respectively.which...
2,8,1
correct statement about nucleic acids
Dna is a long double strained molecule made up of a,t,g,c bases
what is not true about proteins
they appear to be the molecule carriers of the coded hereditary information
what does not describe a atp molecule?
pigments
true/false a key featureof the body's metabolism is the almost exclusive use exergoni by the...
false
the chemical symbol o x o means
the atoms are double bonded
what protein type are vittally important to cell funtion in all types of stressfull situations
molecular chaperones
ribosomes,endoplasmic reticulum,and the golgi apparatus funtionally act in sequence synthesize...
false;integral cell membrane proteins,are synthesized this way
describe a cell membrane
the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
the endomembrane system is
an interactive system of organelles whose membranes are physically or funtion connected 
the electron microscope has revealed that one of the coponents within the cell consist microtubules...
centriole
what is not a funtion of the plasma membrane proteins
molecular transport through the membrane
cell juntion that promote the coordinated activity of cells by phsically binding them a cell...
peroxisomes
caveolae are closely associated with all but
enzymes involved in cell metabolism
dna  contains dark matter that codes for specific structure proteins(T/F)
false
crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in
hypertonic solution
Extracellular matrix is
the most abundant extracellular material
If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis...
UGCAA
statement best describes transcytosis?
transporting an endosome from one side of a cell to the other and releasing the contents by...
Skin color is influenced by the presence of _______.
melanin
The dermis is a dense irregular connective tissue. The structures responsible for producing...
epidermal ridges
The small bands of smooth muscle that attach to the hair follicle and cause goose bumps when...
arrector pili
The portion of the hair projecting from the surface of the skin is called the _______.
shaft
Fingerprinting is a commonly used tool for identifying and apprehending criminals because the...
genetically determined
most correct statement concerning skin cancer.
Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
________ is an inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred...
Porphyria
A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?
corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.
external root sheath
Acne is a disorder associated with ________.
sebaceous glands
The dermis ________.
has two layers
Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps?
arrector pili
If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot,...
lucidum
Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light...
Meissner's corpuscles
is a skin sensory receptor for touch?
Meissner's corpuscle
Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?
Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following...
Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions...
resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them...
The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.
allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
Vernix caseosa is a ________.
whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.
ceruminous
Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________.
diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.
the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly and...
Squamous cell carcinoma
Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they ________.
produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes...
accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment...
The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in...
stratum basale
The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and...
macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells
Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which...
Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into...
The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types...
fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is...
the reticular layer
Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know...
The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels....
dermal papillae.
The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae...
They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body's natural defenses protect...
Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the...
The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized ________.
phagocytic cell
What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?
nutrition and hormones
Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are?
Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are...
eccrine and apocrine
The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.
99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play...
in the axillary and anogenital area
The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The...
by hormones, especially androgens
In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions....
It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the...
by using the "rule of nines"
What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?
catastrophic fluid loss
Male pattern baldness has a genetic switch that turns on in response to ________.
male hormones
Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.
eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region...
true
The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.
false
The hypodermis is composed of adipose and dense connective tissue.
false
Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.
true
Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle.
true
When a patient is said to have "third-degree burns," this indicates that the patient has burns...
false
Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures.
true
Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of...
false
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.
hyaline
Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.
false
Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.
true
The term vertebrochondral ribs refers to ribs that attach to each other before...
true
Lordosis affects the thoracic vertebrae.
false
Which vertebra does not have a body?
atlas
All vertebrae possess a body, a spine, and transverse foramina.
false
Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen...
scoliosis
Three discrete types of muscle fibers are identified on the basis of their size, speed, and...
a long, relaxing swim
Excitation-contraction coupling requires which of the following substances?
Ca2+ and ATP
What is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle called?
a sarcomere
What does oxygen deficit represent?
the difference between the amount of oxygen needed for totally aerobic muscle activity and...
Creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by ________.
storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP
The extensor carpi radialis brevis ________.
extends and abducts the wrist and is short
Paralysis of which of the following muscles would make an individual unable to flex the knee?
hamstring muscles
What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common?
All act on the tongue.
Which of the following describes fascicle arrangement in a pennate muscle?
The fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a...
The epicranius or occipitofrontalis has two bellies, the frontal and occipital.
true
describes the ANS?
motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and...
Which of the following is not a special characteristic of neurons?
They are mitotic.
During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative.
true
The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell...
false
The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons.
true
Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.
found in the retina of the eye
Unipolar neurons have axons structurally divided into peripheral and central processes.
true
In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of...
true
Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating...
acetylcholine
Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?
innervation of skeletal muscle
Which of the choices below describes the ANS?
motor fibers that conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and...
Which of the following is not a special characteristic of neurons?
They are mitotic.
During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative.
true
The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell...
false
The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons.
true
Bipolar neurons are commonly ________.
found in the retina of the eye
Unipolar neurons have axons structurally divided into peripheral and central processes.
true
In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of...
true
Which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating...
acetylcholine
Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?
innervation of skeletal muscle
Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection,...
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
loss of proprioception
The arbor vitae refers to ________.
cerebellar white matter
An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1....
paraplegia
A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
olfactory
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.
nociceptors
A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________.
sciatica
Which of the following is not an example of an exteroceptor?
baroreceptor
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms...
facial
Endothelium covers and lines internal cavities such as the pleural and peritoneal cavities.
false
An epithelial membrane ________.
contains simple or stratified epithelia and a basement membrane
The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.
collagen
Cartilage tissue tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue. 
true
 Which tissue type arises from all three embryonic germ layers?
epithelial tissue 
Organized groups of cells (plus their intercellular substances) that have a common purpose...
tissue 
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than...
endocrine
Chondroblasts
within the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix
 Matrix is composed of ________.
fibers and ground substance
Select the correct statement regarding tissue repair.
Inflammation causes capillaries to dilate and become permeable.
Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?
anular
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.
multiaxial
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.
hyaline cartilage
Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is...
medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
Tendon sheaths ________.
act as friction-reducing structures
Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces...
number of bones in the joint
Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called...
true
Which of the following is a true statement?
The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint.
plane
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following...
It contains hyaluronic acid.
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
hypothalamus
The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.
false
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
vagus nerve
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
x
Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?
Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.
What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?
iris
Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.
brain stem reflex centers
Light passes through the following structures in which order?
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.
macula

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