HPR Exam 2, 2

Alcohol Drugs Spirituality
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Spirituality • Belief in a unifying force that gives purpose/meaning/direction to life Religion • Specific system of belief, worship, conduct
Spiritual Health
Cultivating beliefs, principles and values that provide guidance throughout life’s experiences
Self Esteem
•Attempts to achieve self-esteem through external constructs FAILS –Power –Socioeconomic status –Physical Appearance
Four Relationships
1. self2. environment3. others4. Transcendent Other
Relationships with self
self respectself esteemself confidenceself disciplineself controlself efficacy
Components of Spirituality
1. Belief in a higher power, being, or energy force greater than oneself (God, nature forces, humanity)2. feelings of hope for the future3. feelings of purpose, meaning, direction in life4.optimism ability to see the best in situation5.regular worship, prayer, mediation, self reflection6.universal love and devotion to others7.Possession of moral and ethical principles that reflect your spiritual beliefs8. Possession of a clear set of values and the ability to live according to them9.Ability to share spiritual values with others, and tolerance of others whose beliefs are different than yours10. feeling a sense of unity with nature and universe and inner peace
Life expectancy
• Those who attend religious services compared to those who don’t - Overall (7 year difference) - For blacks (14 year difference)
Big brothers/sisters
•1. “Helper’s High” – release of endorphins/longer period of calm/improved well being •2. maintenance of good health •3. Stress related health problems improve •4. Decrease in pain •5. Increase in immunity
Phases to forgiveness
1. uncovering-confronting/acknowledging pain2. decision phase-ideas of forgiveness considered3. work phase-acceptance of pain/develop compassion4.outcome/deepening phase- begin to feel relief
¡Pharmaceutical companies spend...
nearly twice as much on marketing in the U.S. as they do on research and development (R&D).
factors that influence drug action
route administrationdosepotencypuritydrug mixing
immediate sensual appeal
– drugs with this quality are highly reinforcing and have a high dependence potential.
“Compulsive drug taking is caused as much by the characteristics of the user as the characteristics of the drug being used.”
BPS Model
Bio, psycho, social
drug taking persits for many reasons
brain changesdesire to experience pleasuredesire to avoid pain
standard drink
1.5 fl oz of 80-proof 5 fl oz wine12 fl oz beer or wine cooler
relaxation, mild euphoria, happy, talkative, buzzedwarmth relaxation, slight decrease reaction timebalance speech vision impairedreaction time slowed, color perception visual acuity decreased increases fatal crash by 10X
vomitting decision and judgment highly impairedslurring fatal crash 25xmajor memory impairment blackoutdouble vision unconscious fall asleeplethal dose for 50% of adultsdeep coma, most likely death
signs of alcohol poisoning
§Confusion…vomiting §Seizures §Slow, irregular breathing §Cold, clammy, pale, discolored skin §Person cannot be awakened… ▪…when vomiting ▪…when someone is shouting, or actively trying to wake them
alcohol in moderation
better buzzless physical harmless moneyhealthier relationshiplower toleranceless negative consequences

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