histology - cartilage + bone

50 cards

direct from lecture slides.


 
  
Created Dec 12, 2009
by
ejberg

 

 
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1
Cartilage
 
Connective tissue w/rigid extracellular matrix Chondrocytes (cells) with low metabolic...
2
From where does cartilage develop?
 
Mesenchyme
3
Cartilage development/growth
 
Develops from mesenchyme Chondroblasts for collagen fibrils Differentiation of...
4
Perichondrium
 
Sheath of dense irregular connective tissue – with fibroblasts and vasculature, envelops...
5
Interstitial growth
 
Mitotic division of existing chondrocytes and production of new matrix (young cartilage)
6
Appositional growth
 
Differentiation of new chondrocytes from stem cells (inner layer of perichondrium)...
7
Name the 3 forms of cartilage
 
Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage
8
Hyaline (glass) cartilage
 
Most common Type II collagen Appears blue/white In embryo: serves as skeleton...
9
Hyaline cartilage matrix
 
Amorphous ground substance with proteoglycans – including chondroitin sulfate and...
10
Hyaline cartilage chondrocytes
 
Chondrocytes occupy small cavities in matrix (lacunae) Surface of cell irregular;...
11
name the two kinds of bone growth
 
intramembranous ossification
endochondrial ossification
12
Lacunae
 
Small cavities in cartilage/bone matrix
13
Isogenous group / cell nests
 
Deeper round chondrocytes grouped – up to 8 cells – all offspring from same chondrocyte
14
Elastic cartilage
 
Support w/flexibility Auricle of ear, external auditory canal, Eustachian tube,...
15
Fibrocartilage
 
Tough support + tensile strength Intervertebral disks, tendon and ligament attachment...
16
Trabecular / cancellous /spongy bone
 
Slender irregular bars and sheets of bone, trabeculae, which branch and intersect...
17
Compact bone
 
No spaces or hollow space visible to the eye Thick-walled tube of the shaft (diaphysis)...
18
Haversian canals
 
Individual lamellae form concentric rings around larger longitudinal canals (50 micrometers...
19
Osteon
 
Haversian canals and surrounding lamellae
20
Volkmann’s (perforating) canals
 
From peristeal surfaces, Haversian canals enter the bone perpendicular to its long axis Communicate with...
21
Interstitial lamellae
 
Remnants of Haversian systems that have been partially destroyed Fills intervals...
22
Name the 2 lamella which run parallel to inner and outer surface of the bone, immediately...
 
1-       Circumferential lamellae 2-       Endosteal...
23
Formation of compact bone
 
Osteoblasts produce lamellae of bone matrix inward on the surface of longitudinal...
24
Intramembranous ossification
 
type of BONE GROWTH Primitive connective tissues layer that becomes vascularized Cells differentiate...
25
Endochondral ossification
 
type of BONE GROWTH transformation of cartilage (bone model) to osseous tissue periosteal bud...
26
epiphyseal plate
 
between the diaphysis and the epiphyses – a thin sheet of cartilage is maintained...
27
periosteal collar
 
consists of a thin sheet of woven bone deposited around shaft of the cartilage model formed during...
28
Decalcification of bone – tissue preparation
 
Cellular and organic components preserved and inorganic components removed by acid Then embedded,...
29
Ground bone – tissue preparation
 
Grining thin piece of bone with abrasives Matrix well preserved but cells are...
30
Periosteum
 
Layer of dense connective tissue Covers all bones except over articular surfaces
31
Endosteum
 
Thin layer of cell-rich connective tissue Lines the surface of marrow cavity/spaces
32
Osteoprogenitor cells
 
Stem cells of bone Located in periosteum and endosteum Hard to distinguish...
33
What components are responsible for bone’s hardness?
 
Cells (osteocytes) and intercellular matrix which contains organic compounds (collagen...
34
Lamellar structure
 
Bone matrix organized in layers
35
Lacunae
 
Cavities which contain cells
36
Canaliculi
 
Radiating from each lacuna, narrow channels that penetrate adjacent lamellae
37
Osteoblasts
 
Associated with bone formation Small cuboidal or pyramidal cells, form continuous...
38
Collagen fibers
 
Within lamellae Run parallel and oblique in adjacent lamellae
39
Osteocytes
 
Small inactive cells Isolated from each other in individual lacunae Cell processes...
40
Osteoclasts
 
Bone-restoring cells Multinucleated (5 to 10 per section) Giant cells (up...
41
Howship’s lacuna
 
small hollow excavation in matrix contains osteocytes
42
list the zones of cartilage at the zone of ossification that occur during endochondral...
 
reserve cartilage zone of chondrocyte proliferation zone of cartilage maturation...
43
reserve cartilage
 
Farthest away from the zone of ossification looks like immature hyaline cartilage
44
zone of chondrocyte proliferation
 
longitudinal columns of mitotically active chondrocytes
45
zone of cartilage maturation and hypertrophy
 
cells and lacunae grow in size
46
zone of cartilage calcification
 
forms border between cartilage and zone of bone deposition matrix stains deeply...
47
zone of retrogression
 
cartilage cells die matrix destroyed and vascular primary marrow extends into...
48
zone of ossification
 
osteoblasts differentiate from cells in the marrow tissue and gather on calcified...
49
zone of resorption
 
marrow cavities increase in size resorption of bone in diaphysis cavity forms...
50
bone remodeling
 
osteoclasts “drill” circular tunnel within existing bone matrix osteoblasts deposit...


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