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Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries;...
territorial state that emerged by the fifteenth century in southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior...
Genoese mariner commissioned by Spain to search for a new trading route to Asia; in 1492 he...
Seizure of Constantinople
1453 = The capital and only outpost left of the Byzantine empire, fell to the Ottoman army...
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer whose 1497-1498 voyage was the first European venture to reach India by...
1300 - 1650 = in which weapons that utilized gunpowder to fire projectiles gained a prominence...
Hundred Years' War
1337-1453: Major conflict between France and England over rival claims to territory in France;...
The Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries;...
Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the...
seminomadic people of northern Mexico who by 1325 had established themselves on a small island...
1368-1644 = chinese dynasty that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return...
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that...
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include Balkans, the Near East, and much...
the continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite...
1350 - 1500 = A "rebirth" of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural...
Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early sixteenth century, notable for its efforts...
Major Islamic of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century.
Turkic warrior, (1336-1405) also known as Tamerlane, who effort to restore the Mongol Empire...
Great Chinese admiral (1371-1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series...
The most famous emperor of India's Mughal Empire (1556-1605); his poilicies are noted for their...
Mughal emperor (1658-1707) who reversed his predecessors' policies of religious tolerance and...
The massive transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that...
Constantinople, the capital and almost only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the...
Spaniards born in the Americas
The "Great Dying"
term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases...
An economic theory that argues that governments best serve their states' economic interests...
Literally "mixed" a term used to describe mixed race population of Spanish colonial societies...
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India...
term commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood
In the Spanish colonies of Latin America, the term used to refer to people who had been born...
Agricultural system based on African slavery that was used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the...
Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rules were originally from Manchuria, which...
Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather than simply spending...
name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the salve trade
British/Dutch East India Companies
Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around...
Feudal lords of Japan who rules with virtual independence thanks to their bands of samurai...
Indian Ocean commercial network
The massive, interconnected web of commerce in premodern times between the lands that bordered...
Little Ice Age
A period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern...
Capital of the Spanish phillipines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a...
Name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped...
City that devloped high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world's largest...
the warrior elite of medieval Japan
In Japan, a supreme military commander
Term often used, along with "specie drain," to describe the siphoning of money from Europe...
Nickname used in the early modern period for animals furs, highly valued for their warmth and...
An archipelago of Pacific Islands colonized b Spain in a relatively bloodless process that...
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japanpolitically by the early seventeenth...
Trading Post Empire
Form of Imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples
An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; thanks especially to the...
Council of Trent
The main instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1545-1563), at which the Catholic...
Highly influential English biologist (1809-1882) whose theory of natural selection continues...
Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human...
European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that applied the lessons of the Scientific...
Austrian doctor and the father of modern psychoanalysis (1856-1939); his theories about the...
The Protestant minority in France
Jesuits in China
Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who, inspired...
German priest and theologian (1483-1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement...
German philosopher (1818-1883) whose view of human history as a class struggle, formed the...
The founder of Sikhism
English natural scientist (1643-1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics...
List of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther...
Massive schism within Christianity that had its formal beginning in 1517 with the German priest...
European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the
tradition of northern India
founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of...
Thirty Years' War
destructive war (1618–1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for
Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792) that
An international movement that between approximately 1780
and 1890 succeeded in condemning...
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Document drawn up by the French National Assembly in 1789
that proclaimed the equal rights...
French representative assembly called into session by Louis
XVI to address pressing problems...
dislocation of French society (1789–1815) that overthrew the monarchy,
only fully successful slave rebellion in world history; the uprising in the
Latin American Revolutions
Series of risings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America
(1810–1826) that established...
leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743–1803) who wrote the
Movement that claimed that women have value in society
not because of an abstract notion of...
French head of state from 1799 until his abdication in 1814
(and again briefly in 1815); Napoleon...
clearly defined territory whose people have a sense of common identity and
The focusing of citizens’ loyalty on the notion that they
are part of a “nation” with...
North American Revolution
rebellion conducted by the colonists of parts of North America (not Canada)
Term used to describe the revolutionary violence in France
in 1793–1794, when radicals under...
prerevolutionary France, the term used for the 98 percent of the population
that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally
British Royal Society
of scientists established in England
in 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion...
international conflict (1854–1856) in which British and French forces defeated
Term used to describe Latin America’s
economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was...
elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar
Nicholas II in response...
Indian Cotton Textiles
For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and
inexpensive cotton textiles from India
from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining,
British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and...
Latin American export boom
Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw
materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing...
name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov (1870–1924), who was the main leader
lower middle class
Social stratum that
developed in Britain in the
nineteenth century and that consisted of...
influential proponent of socialism, Marx (1818–1883) was a German expatriate in
system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century;
Peter The Great
of Russia (r. 1689–1725) who attempted a massive reform of Russian society in
Late-nineteenth-century American political movement that
denounced corporate interests of...
political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to
that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used
Russian Revolution of 1905
Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country’s defeat at the hands
Mechanical device in which the steam from heated water
builds up pressure to drive a piston,...
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which
large numbers of Europeans and Chinese...
The collapse of China’s imperial order, officially
at the hands of organized revolutionaries...
lords of Japan
who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and...
religious leader (1814–1864) who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by
Western powers in the nineteenth...
overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at
long last to...
navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839–1842 and 1856–1858) after China...
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor...
retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and
China’s program of internal reform in the 1860s and
1870s, based on vigorous application...
"The sick man of Europe"
Western Europe’s unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in
the nineteenth and early twentieth...
An application of the concept of “survival of the fittest”
to human history in the nineteenth...
Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it
reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire
beginning in 1839; the term “Tanzimat”...
from 1600 to 1868.
Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made
major concessions to Western powers.
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level...
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900,
The Armenian Genocide
systematic annihlation of 1.5 million indegenous Armenian population of Eastern
Africanization of Christianity
Process that occurred in non-Muslim Africa,
where millions who were converted to Christianity...
term literally meaning “aparthood”; the system that developed in South Africa...
production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather
of European racism in their Asian and African colonies that created a great
A European tendency, especially in African colonies, to
identify and sometimes invent distinct...
Congo Free State/Leopold II
Leopold II was king of Belgium
from 1865 to 1909; his rule as private owner of the Congo Free...
System of forced labor
used in the Netherlands East Indies in the nineteenth century; peasants...
term with its roots in European colonialism and imperialism that emphasizes
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858
Massive uprising of much of India against British rule;
also called the Indian Mutiny or the...
used to describe areas such as Latin America and China that were dominated by
Scramble for Africa
Name used for the process of the European countries’
partition of the continent of Africa...
The main beneficiaries
in Asian and African lands colonized by Western powers; schooled in...
European Economic Community
The EEC (also known as the Common Market) was an alliance formed by Italy,
The final step in a series of arrangements to increase
cooperation between European states...
marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism; its name is derived
Plan of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to establish lasting
peace at the end of World War I;...
war with France (1870–1871)
that ended with the defeat of France
and the unification...
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a
Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914,...
Worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market
given to the First World War (1914–1918).
Leader of the
German Nazi Party (1889–1945) and Germany’s head of state from 1933
commonly used for the Nazi genocide of Jews and other “undesirables” in German
“crystal night”; name given to the night of November 9, 1938, when Nazi-led
League of Nations
International peacekeeping organization created after World
War I; first proposed by U.S....
U.S. government initiative
to aid in the post–World War II restoration of Europe that...
of the Italian fascist party (1883–1945) who came to power in 1922
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese army’s systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese
Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military and political alliance founded in 1949
Germany as ruled by Hitler and the Nazi Party from 1933 to
1945, a fascist state dedicated...
Properly known as the National Socialist Democratic
Workers’ Party, the Nazi party was founded...
series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933
Series of laws passed by the Nazi-dominated German
parliament in 1935 that forbade sexual...
Revolutionary Right (Japan)
Also known as Radical Nationalism, this was a movement in
Japanese political life ca. 1930–1945...
: War that
requires each country involved to mobilize its entire population in the...
Treaty of Versailles
treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany...
alliance consisting of Germany,
Austria, and Italy that was
one of the two rival European...
alliance consisting of Russia,
France, and Britain that
was one of the two rival European...
International peacekeeping organization and forum for
international opinion, established in...
weak government that replaced the German imperial state at the end of World War
President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 who was
especially noted for his idealistic...
World War I
The “Great War” (1914–1918), in essence a European civil
war with global implications...
World War II in Asia
A struggle essentially to halt Japanese imperial expansion
in Asia, fought by the Japanese...
World War II in Europe
A struggle essentially to halt German imperial expansion in
Europe, fought by a coalition...
Wall constructed by East German authorities in 1961 to seal
off East Berlin from the West;...
revolutionary party led by Vladimir Lenin and later renamed the Communist
Euphemistic expression for the often-forcible
transformation of society when a communist regime...
leader of Cuba
from 1959 to 2008 who gradually turned to Soviet communism and...
Long revolutionary process in the period 1912–1949 that
began with the overthrow of the...
and ideological state of near-war between the Western world and the communist
: Process of
rural reform undertaken by the communist leadership of both the USSR and...
Cuban Missile Crisis
Major standoff between the United States and the Soviet
Union in 1962 over Soviet deployment...
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was a massive campaign launched by Mao
from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements
Gorbachev’s policy of “openness,” which allowed greater cultural and
of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its
Great Leap Forward
Chinese initiative (1958–1960) led by Mao Zedong that was intended to promote
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Zedong’s great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that
called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to
for the Soviet government agency that administered forced labor camps
Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until its overthrow
of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964
Adopted name of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870–1924), the
main leader of Russia’s
Chairman of China’s
Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his...
of anticommunist fear and persecution that took place in the United States
in the 1950s
Natinoal Security State
of government that arose in the United
States in response to the cold war and in
economic program launched in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev with the intention of
revolutionary upheaval in 1917 that overthrew the Romanov dynasty in Russia and
assumed by Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili (1878–1953), leader of the Soviet Union...
of the USSR and the
communist states of Eastern Europe during the
African National Congress
South African political party established in 1912 by elite
Africans who sought to win full...
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
and first president of the Republic of
Turkey (1881–1938); as military
South African movement that sought to foster pride, unity,
and political awareness among the...
Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white
population of South Africa
that was descended...
in which many African and Asian states won their independence from Western
Democracy in Africa
subject of debate among scholars, the democracies established in the wake of
A process of growth or increasing production and the
distribution of the proceeds of that...
referred to by his soubriquet “Mahatma” (Great Soul), Gandhi (1869–1948) was...
Indian National Congress
established in 1885 by Western-educated elite Indians in an effort to win a
Muhammad Aku Jinnah
of India’s All-India Muslim
League and first president of the breakaway state of...
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Shia ayattolah (advanced scholar of Islamic law and religion) who became the
South African nationalist (b. 1918) and leader of the
African National Congress who was imprisoned...
The All-India Muslim League, created in 1906, was a
response to the Indian National Congress...
prime minister of independent India
“truth force”; Mahatma Gandhi’s political philosophy, which advocated
black neighborhood outside Johannesburg,
and the site of a violent...
terrorist organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama...
international movement that protests the development of the global economy on
Osama bin Laden
The leader of al-Qaeda terrorist organization, a wealthy
Saudi Arabian who turned to militant...
Bretton Woods System
Named for a conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire,
in 1944, this system provided...
Twentieth-century movement to preserve the natural world in
the face of spiraling human ability...
within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed
Term commonly used to refer to the massive growth in
international economic transactions from...
A worldwide scientific consensus that the increased burning
of fossil fuels and the loss of...
“Che” Guevara was an Argentine-born revolutionary (1928–1967) who waged
Hindu movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s by advocating...
number of movements in Islamic lands that promote a return to strict adherence
used by modern militant Islamic groups to denote not just the “struggle” or
Kyoto protocol on global warming
agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to slow global
An approach to the world economy, developed in the 1970s,
that favored reduced tariffs, the...
Growing disparity between the Global North and the Global
South that appears to be exacerbated...
dictator of Chile
from 1973 to 1990 who was known for his widespread use of torture...
Sweeping series of reforms instituted by communist leader
Alexander Dubcek in Czechoslovakia
quickening of global economic transactions after World War II, which resulted
The fundamentalist phenomenon as it appeared in U.S. politics
in the 1970s.
Women’s rights movement that revived in the 1960s with a
different agenda than earlier women’s...
World Trade Organization
International body representing 149 nations that negotiates
the rules for global commerce...