HIST 121 Final Exam

246 cards

History 121 Final Exam


 
  
Created Apr 29, 2012
by
kmillervir

 

 
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1
Aztec Empire
 
Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries;...
2
Benin
 
territorial state that emerged by the fifteenth century in southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior...
3
Christopher Colombus
 
Genoese mariner commissioned by Spain to search for a new trading route to Asia; in 1492 he...
4
Seizure of Constantinople
 
1453 = The capital and only outpost left of the Byzantine empire, fell to the Ottoman army...
5
Vasco da Gama
 
Portuguese explorer whose 1497-1498 voyage was the first European venture to reach India by...
6
Gunpowder Revolution
 
1300 - 1650 = in which weapons that utilized gunpowder to fire projectiles gained a prominence...
7
Hundred Years' War
 
1337-1453: Major conflict between France and England over rival claims to territory in France;...
8

 

9
Inca Empire
 
The Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries;...
10

 

11
Malacca
 
Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the...
12
Mexica
 
seminomadic people of northern Mexico who by 1325 had established themselves on a small island...
13
Ming Dynasty
 
1368-1644 = chinese dynasty that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return...
14
Mughal Empire
 
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that...
15

 

16
Ottoman Empire
 
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include Balkans, the Near East, and much...
17
Paleolithic persistence
 
the continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite...
18
European Renaissance
 
1350 - 1500 = A "rebirth" of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural...
19
Safavid Empire
 
Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early sixteenth century, notable for its efforts...
20
Songhay Empire
 
Major Islamic of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century.
21

 

22
Timur
 
Turkic warrior, (1336-1405) also known as Tamerlane, who effort to restore the Mongol Empire...
23

 

24
Zheng He
 
Great Chinese admiral (1371-1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series...
25
Akbar
 
The most famous emperor of India's Mughal Empire (1556-1605); his poilicies are noted for their...
26
Aurangzeb
 
Mughal emperor (1658-1707) who reversed his predecessors' policies of religious tolerance and...
27
Columbian Exchange
 
The massive transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that...
28

 

29
Constantinople, 1453
 
Constantinople, the capital and almost only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the...
30
Creoles
 
Spaniards born in the Americas
31

 

32
The "Great Dying"
 
term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases...
33
Mercantilism
 
An economic theory that argues that governments best serve their states' economic interests...
34
Mestizo
 
Literally "mixed" a term used to describe mixed race population of Spanish colonial societies...
35
Mughal Empire
 
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India...
36
Mulattoes
 
term commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood
37
Peninsulares
 
In the Spanish colonies of Latin America, the term used to refer to people who had been born...
38
Plantation Complex
 
Agricultural system based on African slavery that was used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the...
39
Qing Dynasty
 
Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rules were originally from Manchuria, which...
40
Settler Colonies
 
Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather than simply spending...
41
African Diaspora
 
name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the salve trade
42
British/Dutch East India Companies
 
Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around...
43
Daimyo
 
Feudal lords of Japan who rules with virtual independence thanks to their bands of samurai...
44

 

45
Indian Ocean commercial network
 
The massive, interconnected web of commerce in premodern times between the lands that bordered...
46
Little Ice Age
 
A period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern...
47
Manila
 
Capital of the Spanish phillipines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a...
48
Middle Passage
 
Name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped...
49

 

50
Potosi
 
City that devloped high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world's largest...
51
Samurai
 
the warrior elite of medieval Japan
52
Shogun
 
In Japan, a supreme military commander
53
"Silver Drain"
 
Term often used, along with "specie drain," to describe the siphoning of money from Europe...
54
"Soft Gold"
 
Nickname used in the early modern period for animals furs, highly valued for their warmth and...
55
Spanish Phillipines
 
An archipelago of Pacific Islands colonized b Spain in a relatively bloodless process that...
56
Tokugawa Shogunate
 
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japanpolitically by the early seventeenth...
57
Trading Post Empire
 
Form of Imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples
58

 

59
Catholic Counter-Reformation
 
An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; thanks especially to the...
60

 

61
Council of Trent
 
The main instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1545-1563), at which the Catholic...
62
Charles Darwin
 
Highly influential English biologist (1809-1882) whose theory of natural selection continues...
63
Deism
 
Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human...
64
European Enlightenment
 
European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that applied the lessons of the Scientific...
65
Sigmund Freud
 
Austrian doctor and the father of modern psychoanalysis (1856-1939); his theories about the...
66

 

67
Huguenots
 
The Protestant minority in France
68
Jesuits in China
 
Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who, inspired...
69
Martin Luther
 
German priest and theologian (1483-1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement...
70
Karl Marx
 
German philosopher (1818-1883) whose view of human history as a class struggle, formed the...
71

 

72
Guru Nanak
 
The founder of Sikhism
73
Isaac Newton
 
English natural scientist (1643-1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics...
74
Ninety-five Theses
 
List of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther...
75
Protestant Reformation
 
Massive schism within Christianity that had its formal beginning in 1517 with the German priest...
76
Scientific Revolution
 
Great European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the principles...
77
Sikhism
 
Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of...
78
Thirty Years' War
 
Highly destructive war (1618–1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the...
79
Wahhabi Islam
 
Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792) that advocated...
80
Abolitionist Movement
 

An international movement that between approximately 1780 and 1890 succeeded...

81

 

82
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
 

Document drawn up by the French National Assembly in 1789 that proclaimed...

83
Estates General
 

French representative assembly called into session by Louis XVI to address...

84
French Revolution
 
Massive dislocation of French society (1789–1815) that overthrew the monarchy, destroyed...
85

 


86
Haitian Revolution
 
The only fully successful slave rebellion in world history; the uprising in the French Caribbean...
87
Latin American Revolutions
 

Series of risings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America (1810–1826)...

88
Toussaint Louverture
 
First leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743–1803) who wrote the first...
89
Maternal Feminism
 
Movement that claimed that women have value in society not because of an abstract notion of...
90
Napoleon Bonaparte
 

French head of state from 1799 until his abdication in 1814 (and again...

91
Nation
 
A clearly defined territory whose people have a sense of common identity and destiny, thanks...
92
Nationalism
 

The focusing of citizens’ loyalty on the notion that they are part...

93
North American Revolution
 
Successful rebellion conducted by the colonists of parts of North America (not Canada) against...
94

 


95
The Terror
 

Term used to describe the revolutionary violence in France in 1793–1794,...

96
Third Estate
 
: In prerevolutionary France, the term used for the 98 percent of the population that...
97
Bourgeoisie
 
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally meant “townspeople.” 
98
British Royal Society
 
Association of scientists established in England in 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion...
99
Crimean War
 
Major international conflict (1854–1856) in which British and French forces defeated Russia;...
100
Dependent Development
 

Term used to describe Latin America’s economic growth in the nineteenth...

101

 

102
The Duma
 
The elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in response...
103
Indian Cotton Textiles
 

For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and inexpensive cotton...

104
Industrial Revolution
 
Period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation,...
105
Labour Party
 
British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and...
106
Latin American export boom
 

Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials...

107
Lenin
 
Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov (1870–1924), who was the main leader of...
108
lower middle class
 

Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century...

109
Karl Marx
 

The most influential proponent...

110

 


111
Middle-class value
 
Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century; it...
112
Peter The Great 
 
Tsar of Russia (r. 1689–1725) who attempted a massive reform of Russian society in an effort...
113
Populism
 

Late-nineteenth-century American political movement that denounced corporate...

114
Progressivism 
 
American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct...
115
Proletariat
 
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient...
116
Russian Revolution of 1905
 

Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country’s defeat...

117
Steam Engine
 

Mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure...

118

 

119
Boxer Rebellion
 

Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers...

120
China, 1911
 

The collapse of China’s imperial order, officially at the hands of...

121
Daimyo
 
Feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and...
122
Hong Xiuquan
 
Chinese religious leader (1814–1864) who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to...
123
Informal Empire
 

Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western...

124
Meiji Restoration
 
The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to...
125
Matthew Perry
 

U.S. navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan...

126
Opium Wars
 

Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839–1842 and 1856–1858)...

127
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
 

Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable...

128
Samurai
 
Armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty;...
129
Self-strengthening movement
 
China’s program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application...
130
"The sick man of Europe"
 

Western Europe’s unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth...

131
Social Darwinism
 

An application of the concept of “survival of the fittest” to human...

132
Taiping Uprising
 
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was...
133
Tanzimat Reforms
 
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term “Tanzimat”...
134
Tokugawa Shogunate
 
Rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868. 
135
Unequal Treaties
 

Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions...

136
Young Ottomans
 

Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire...

137
Young Turks
 
: Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually...
138
The Armenian Genocide
 
The systematic annihlation of 1.5 million indegenous Armenian population of Eastern Turkey...
139
Africanization of Christianity
 

Process that occurred in non-Muslim Africa, where millions who were...

140
Apartheid
 
Afrikaans term literally meaning “aparthood”; the system that developed in South Africa...
141
Cash-crop agriculture 
 
Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than...
142
Colonial Racism
 
pattern of European racism in their Asian and African colonies that created a great racial...
143
Colonial Tribalism
 

A European tendency, especially in African colonies, to identify and...

144
Congo Free State/Leopold II
 

Leopold II was king of Belgium from 1865 to 1909; his rule as private...

145
Cultivation System
 

System of forced labor used in the Netherlands East Indies in the nineteenth...

146
Eurocentrism
 
A term with its roots in European colonialism and imperialism that emphasizes viewing the...
147
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858
 

Massive uprising of much of India against British rule; also called...

148
Informal Empire
 

Term commonly used to describe areas such as Latin America and China...

149

 

150
Scramble for Africa
 

Name used for the process of the European countries’ partition of...

151
Western-educated Elite
 

The main beneficiaries in Asian and African lands colonized by Western...

152
European Economic Community
 
: The EEC (also known as the Common Market) was an alliance formed by Italy, France,...
153
European Union
 

The final step in a series of arrangements to increase cooperation between...

154
Fascism
 
ideology marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism; its name is derived from...
155
Fourteen Points
 

Plan of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to establish lasting peace at...

156
Franco-Prussian War
 
German war with France (1870–1871) that ended with the defeat of France and the unification...
157
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
 

Heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist...

158
Great Depression
 

Worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock...

159
Great War
 

Name originally given to the...

160
Adolf Hitler
 

Leader of the German Nazi Party (1889–1945) and Germany’s head of...

161
Holocaust
 
Name commonly used for the Nazi genocide of Jews and other “undesirables” in German society;...
162
Kristallnacht
 
Literally, “crystal night”; name given to the night of November 9, 1938, when Nazi-led gangs...
163
League of Nations
 

International peacekeeping organization created after World War I; first...

164
Marshall Plan
 
Huge U.S. government initiative to aid in the post–World War II restoration of Europe that...
165
Benito Mussolini
 
leader of the Italian fascist party (1883–1945) who came to power in 1922
166
Rape of Nanjing
 
The Japanese army’s systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civilian population...
167
NATO
 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military and political alliance founded in 1949 that...
168
Nazi Germany
 

Germany as ruled by Hitler and the Nazi Party from 1933 to 1945, a fascist...

169
Nazi Party
 

Properly known as the National Socialist Democratic Workers’ Party,...

170
New Deal
 
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942...
171
Nuremberg Laws
 

Series of laws passed by the...

172
Revolutionary Right (Japan)
 

Also known as Radical Nationalism, this was a movement in Japanese political...

173
Total War
 

: War that requires each country involved to mobilize its entire...

174
Treaty of Versailles
 
1919 treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany...
175
Triple Alliance
 
An alliance consisting of Germany, Austria, and Italy that was one of the two rival European...
176
Triple Etente
 
An alliance consisting of Russia, France, and Britain that was one of the two rival European...
177
United Nations
 

International peacekeeping organization and forum for international...

178
Weimar Republic
 
The weak government that replaced the German imperial state at the end of World War I; its...
179
Woodrow Wilson
 

President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 who was especially...

180
World War I
 

The “Great War” (1914–1918), in essence a European civil war with...

181
World War II in Asia
 

A struggle essentially to halt Japanese imperial expansion in Asia,...

182
World War II in Europe
 

A struggle essentially to halt German imperial expansion in Europe,...

183
Berlin Wall
 

Wall constructed by East German authorities in 1961 to seal off East...

184
Bolsheviks
 
Russian revolutionary party led by Vladimir Lenin and later renamed the Communist Party;...
185
Building Socialism
 

Euphemistic expression for the often-forcible transformation of society...

186
Fidel Castro
 
Revolutionary leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008 who gradually turned to Soviet communism and...
187
Chinese Revolution
 

Long revolutionary process in the period 1912–1949 that began with...

188
Cold War
 
Political and ideological state of near-war between the Western world and the communist world...
189
Collectivization
 

: Process of rural reform undertaken by the communist leadership...

190
Cuban Missile Crisis
 

Major standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962...

191
Cultural Revolution
 

China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was a massive campaign...

192
Deng Xiaoping
 
Leader of China from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements of...
193
Glasnost
 
Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of “openness,” which allowed greater cultural and intellectual...
194
Mikhail Gorbachev
 
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its collapse. 
195
Great Leap Forward
 
Major Chinese initiative (1958–1960) led by Mao Zedong that was intended to promote small-scale...
196
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
 
Mao Zedong’s great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed...
197
Great Purges
 
Also called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse...
198
Gulag
 
Acronym for the Soviet government agency that administered forced labor camps
199
Guomindang
 
The Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until its overthrow by the...
200
Nikita Khrushchev
 
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964
201
Lenin
 

Adopted name of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870–1924), the main leader...

202
Mao Zedong
 
 Chairman of China’s Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his...
203
McCarthyism
 
Wave of anticommunist fear and persecution that took place in the United States in the 1950s
204
Natinoal Security State
 
Form of government that arose in the United States in response to the cold war and in which...
205
Perestroika
 
Bold economic program launched in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev with the intention of freeing...
206
Russian Revolution 
 
Massive revolutionary upheaval in 1917 that overthrew the Romanov dynasty in Russia and ended...
207
Stalin
 
Name assumed by Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili (1878–1953), leader of the Soviet Union...
208
Warsaw Pact
 
alliance of the USSR and the communist states of Eastern Europe during the cold war.
209
African National Congress
 

South African political party established in 1912 by elite Africans...

210
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
 
Founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey (1881–1938); as military commander...
211
Black Consciousness 
 

South African movement that sought to foster pride, unity, and political...

212
Boers
 
Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended...
213
Decolonization 
 
Process in which many African and Asian states won their independence from Western colonial...
214
Democracy in Africa
 
A subject of debate among scholars, the democracies established in the wake of decolonization...
215
Economic development
 

A process of growth or increasing production and the distribution of...

216
Mohandas Gandhi
 
Usually referred to by his soubriquet “Mahatma” (Great Soul), Gandhi (1869–1948) was...
217
Indian National Congress
 
Organization established in 1885 by Western-educated elite Indians in an effort to win a voice...
218
Muhammad Aku Jinnah
 
Leader of India’s All-India Muslim League and first president of the breakaway state of...
219
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini 
 
Important Shia ayattolah (advanced scholar of Islamic law and religion) who became the leader...
220
Nelson Mandela
 
South African nationalist (b. 1918) and leader of the African National Congress who was imprisoned...
221
Muslim League
 

The All-India Muslim League, created in 1906, was a response to the...

222
Jawaharlal Nehru
 
first prime minister of independent India (1889–1964)
223

 

224
Satyagraha
 
Literally, “truth force”; Mahatma Gandhi’s political philosophy, which advocated confrontational...
225
Soweto
 
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent...
226
al-Qaeda
 
International terrorist organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama...
227
Antiglobalization
 
Major international movement that protests the development of the global economy on the grounds...
228
Osama bin Laden
 

The leader of al-Qaeda terrorist organization, a wealthy Saudi Arabian...

229
Bretton Woods System
 

Named for a conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944,...

230
Environmentalism
 

Twentieth-century movement to preserve the natural world in the face...

231
Fundamentalism 
 
Occurring within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed return...
232
Globalization 
 

Term commonly used to refer to the massive growth in international economic...

233
Global Warming
 

A worldwide scientific consensus that the increased burning of fossil...

234
Che Guevara
 
Ernesto “Che” Guevara was an Argentine-born revolutionary (1928–1967) who waged guerrilla...
235
Hindutva
 
Fundamentalist Hindu movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s by advocating...
236
Islamic Renewal
 
Large number of movements in Islamic lands that promote a return to strict adherence to the...
237
Jihad
 
Term used by modern militant Islamic groups to denote not just the “struggle” or “striving”...
238
Kyoto protocol on global warming
 
International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to slow global warming;...
239
neo-liberalism 
 

An approach to the world economy, developed in the 1970s, that favored...

240
North/South gap
 

Growing disparity between the Global North and the Global South that...

241
Augusto Pinochet
 
Military dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990 who was known for his widespread use of torture...
242
Prague Spring
 

Sweeping series of reforms instituted by communist leader Alexander...

243
Reglobalization 
 
The quickening of global economic transactions after World War II, which resulted in total...
244
Religious right
 

The fundamentalist phenomenon as it appeared in U.S. politics in the...

245
second-wave feminism
 

Women’s rights movement that revived in the 1960s with a different...

246
World Trade Organization
 

International body representing 149 nations that negotiates the rules...

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