HIST 121 Final Exam

History 121 Final Exam
Created Apr 29, 2012
by kmillervir
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Aztec Empire
Major state that developed in what is now Mexico in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries;...
Benin
territorial state that emerged by the fifteenth century in southern Nigeria; ruled by a warrior...
Christopher Colombus
Genoese mariner commissioned by Spain to search for a new trading route to Asia; in 1492 he...
Seizure of Constantinople
1453 = The capital and only outpost left of the Byzantine empire, fell to the Ottoman army...
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer whose 1497-1498 voyage was the first European venture to reach India by...
Gunpowder Revolution
1300 - 1650 = in which weapons that utilized gunpowder to fire projectiles gained a prominence...
Hundred Years' War
1337-1453: Major conflict between France and England over rival claims to territory in France;...
Inca Empire
The Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries;...
Malacca
Muslim port city that came to prominence on the waterway between Sumatra and Malaya in the...
Mexica
seminomadic people of northern Mexico who by 1325 had established themselves on a small island...
Ming Dynasty
1368-1644 = chinese dynasty that succeeded the Yuan dynasty of the Mongols; noted for its return...
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by an Islamized Turkic group that...
Ottoman Empire
Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include Balkans, the Near East, and much...
Paleolithic persistence
the continuance of gathering and hunting societies in substantial areas of the world despite...
European Renaissance
1350 - 1500 = A "rebirth" of classical learning that is most often associated with the cultural...
Safavid Empire
Major Turkic empire of Persia founded in the early sixteenth century, notable for its efforts...
Songhay Empire
Major Islamic of West Africa that formed in the second half of the fifteenth century.
Timur
Turkic warrior, (1336-1405) also known as Tamerlane, who effort to restore the Mongol Empire...
Zheng He
Great Chinese admiral (1371-1433) who commanded a fleet of more than 300 ships in a series...
Akbar
The most famous emperor of India's Mughal Empire (1556-1605); his poilicies are noted for their...
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor (1658-1707) who reversed his predecessors' policies of religious tolerance and...
Columbian Exchange
The massive transatlantic interaction and exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia that...
Constantinople, 1453
Constantinople, the capital and almost only outpost left of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the...
Creoles
Spaniards born in the Americas
The "Great Dying"
term used to describe the devastating demographic impact of European-borne epidemic diseases...
Mercantilism
An economic theory that argues that governments best serve their states' economic interests...
Mestizo
Literally "mixed" a term used to describe mixed race population of Spanish colonial societies...
Mughal Empire
One of the most successful empires of India, a state founded by Muslim Turks who invaded India...
Mulattoes
term commonly used for people of mixed African and European blood
Peninsulares
In the Spanish colonies of Latin America, the term used to refer to people who had been born...
Plantation Complex
Agricultural system based on African slavery that was used in Brazil, the Caribbean, and the...
Qing Dynasty
Ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912; the Qing rules were originally from Manchuria, which...
Settler Colonies
Colonies in which the colonizing people settled in large numbers, rather than simply spending...
African Diaspora
name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the salve trade
British/Dutch East India Companies
Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around...
Daimyo
Feudal lords of Japan who rules with virtual independence thanks to their bands of samurai...
Indian Ocean commercial network
The massive, interconnected web of commerce in premodern times between the lands that bordered...
Little Ice Age
A period of cooling temperatures and harsh winters that lasted for much of the early modern...
Manila
Capital of the Spanish phillipines and a major multicultural trade city that already had a...
Middle Passage
Name commonly given to the journey across the Atlantic undertaken by African slaves being shipped...
Potosi
City that devloped high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world's largest...
Samurai
the warrior elite of medieval Japan
Shogun
In Japan, a supreme military commander
"Silver Drain"
Term often used, along with "specie drain," to describe the siphoning of money from Europe...
"Soft Gold"
Nickname used in the early modern period for animals furs, highly valued for their warmth and...
Spanish Phillipines
An archipelago of Pacific Islands colonized b Spain in a relatively bloodless process that...
Tokugawa Shogunate
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japanpolitically by the early seventeenth...
Trading Post Empire
Form of Imperial dominance based on control of trade rather than on control of subject peoples
Catholic Counter-Reformation
An internal reform of the Catholic Church in the sixteenth century; thanks especially to the...
Council of Trent
The main instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation (1545-1563), at which the Catholic...
Charles Darwin
Highly influential English biologist (1809-1882) whose theory of natural selection continues...
Deism
Belief in a divine being who created the cosmos but who does not intervene directly in human...
European Enlightenment
European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century that applied the lessons of the Scientific...
Sigmund Freud
Austrian doctor and the father of modern psychoanalysis (1856-1939); his theories about the...
Huguenots
The Protestant minority in France
Jesuits in China
Series of Jesuit missionaries in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who, inspired...
Martin Luther
German priest and theologian (1483-1546) who inaugurated the Protestant Reformation movement...
Karl Marx
German philosopher (1818-1883) whose view of human history as a class struggle, formed the...
Guru Nanak
The founder of Sikhism
Isaac Newton
English natural scientist (1643-1727) whose formulation of the laws of motion and mechanics...
Ninety-five Theses
List of ninety-five debating points about the abuses of the Church, posted by Martin Luther...
Protestant Reformation
Massive schism within Christianity that had its formal beginning in 1517 with the German priest...
Scientific Revolution
Great European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the principles...
Sikhism
Religious tradition of northern India founded by Guru Nanak ca. 1500; combines elements of...
Thirty Years' War
Highly destructive war (1618–1648) that eventually included most of Europe; fought for the...
Wahhabi Islam
Major Islamic movement led by the Muslim theologian Abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792) that advocated...
Abolitionist Movement
An international movement that between approximately 1780 and 1890 succeeded in condemning...
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Document drawn up by the French National Assembly in 1789 that proclaimed the equal rights...
Estates General
French representative assembly called into session by Louis XVI to address pressing problems...
French Revolution
Massive dislocation of French society (1789–1815) that overthrew the monarchy, destroyed...
Haitian Revolution
The only fully successful slave rebellion in world history; the uprising in the French Caribbean...
Latin American Revolutions
Series of risings in the Spanish colonies of Latin America (1810–1826) that established...
Toussaint Louverture
First leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743–1803) who wrote the first...
Maternal Feminism
Movement that claimed that women have value in society not because of an abstract notion of...
Napoleon Bonaparte
French head of state from 1799 until his abdication in 1814 (and again briefly in 1815); Napoleon...
Nation
A clearly defined territory whose people have a sense of common identity and destiny, thanks...
Nationalism
The focusing of citizens’ loyalty on the notion that they are part of a “nation” with...
North American Revolution
Successful rebellion conducted by the colonists of parts of North America (not Canada) against...
The Terror
Term used to describe the revolutionary violence in France in 1793–1794, when radicals under...
Third Estate
: In prerevolutionary France, the term used for the 98 percent of the population that...
Bourgeoisie
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally meant “townspeople.” 
British Royal Society
Association of scientists established in England in 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion...
Crimean War
Major international conflict (1854–1856) in which British and French forces defeated Russia;...
Dependent Development
Term used to describe Latin America’s economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was...
The Duma
The elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in response...
Indian Cotton Textiles
For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded...
Industrial Revolution
Period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation,...
Labour Party
British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and...
Latin American export boom
Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing...
Lenin
Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov (1870–1924), who was the main leader of...
lower middle class
Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of...
Karl Marx
The most influential proponent of socialism, Marx (1818–1883) was a German expatriate in England...
Middle-class value
Belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century; it...
Peter The Great 
Tsar of Russia (r. 1689–1725) who attempted a massive reform of Russian society in an effort...
Populism
Late-nineteenth-century American political movement that denounced corporate interests of...
Progressivism 
American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct...
Proletariat
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient...
Russian Revolution of 1905
Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country’s defeat at the hands of...
Steam Engine
Mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure to drive a piston,...
Boxer Rebellion
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese...
China, 1911
The collapse of China’s imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries...
Daimyo
Feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and...
Hong Xiuquan
Chinese religious leader (1814–1864) who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to...
Informal Empire
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth...
Meiji Restoration
The overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to...
Matthew Perry
U.S. navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to...
Opium Wars
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839–1842 and 1856–1858) after China...
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor...
Samurai
Armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty;...
Self-strengthening movement
China’s program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application...
"The sick man of Europe"
Western Europe’s unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth...
Social Darwinism
An application of the concept of “survival of the fittest” to human history in the nineteenth...
Taiping Uprising
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was...
Tanzimat Reforms
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term “Tanzimat”...
Tokugawa Shogunate
Rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868. 
Unequal Treaties
Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers.
Young Ottomans
Group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level...
Young Turks
: Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually...
The Armenian Genocide
The systematic annihlation of 1.5 million indegenous Armenian population of Eastern Turkey...
Africanization of Christianity
Process that occurred in non-Muslim Africa, where millions who were converted to Christianity...
Apartheid
Afrikaans term literally meaning “aparthood”; the system that developed in South Africa...
Cash-crop agriculture 
Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than...
Colonial Racism
pattern of European racism in their Asian and African colonies that created a great racial...
Colonial Tribalism
A European tendency, especially in African colonies, to identify and sometimes invent distinct...
Congo Free State/Leopold II
Leopold II was king of Belgium from 1865 to 1909; his rule as private owner of the Congo Free...
Cultivation System
System of forced labor used in the Netherlands East Indies in the nineteenth century; peasants...
Eurocentrism
A term with its roots in European colonialism and imperialism that emphasizes viewing the...
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858
Massive uprising of much of India against British rule; also called the Indian Mutiny or the...
Informal Empire
Term commonly used to describe areas such as Latin America and China that were dominated by Western...
Scramble for Africa
Name used for the process of the European countries’ partition of the continent of Africa...
Western-educated Elite
The main beneficiaries in Asian and African lands colonized by Western powers; schooled in...
European Economic Community
: The EEC (also known as the Common Market) was an alliance formed by Italy, France,...
European Union
The final step in a series of arrangements to increase cooperation between European states...
Fascism
ideology marked by its intense nationalism and authoritarianism; its name is derived from...
Fourteen Points
Plan of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to establish lasting peace at the end of World War I;...
Franco-Prussian War
German war with France (1870–1871) that ended with the defeat of France and the unification...
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a Serbian nationalist on June 28, 1914,...
Great Depression
Worldwide economic depression that began in 1929 with the New York stock market crash and...
Great War
Name originally given to the First World War (1914–1918).
Adolf Hitler
Leader of the German Nazi Party (1889–1945) and Germany’s head of state from 1933 until...
Holocaust
Name commonly used for the Nazi genocide of Jews and other “undesirables” in German society;...
Kristallnacht
Literally, “crystal night”; name given to the night of November 9, 1938, when Nazi-led gangs...
League of Nations
International peacekeeping organization created after World War I; first proposed by U.S....
Marshall Plan
Huge U.S. government initiative to aid in the post–World War II restoration of Europe that...
Benito Mussolini
leader of the Italian fascist party (1883–1945) who came to power in 1922
Rape of Nanjing
The Japanese army’s systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civilian population...
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military and political alliance founded in 1949 that...
Nazi Germany
Germany as ruled by Hitler and the Nazi Party from 1933 to 1945, a fascist state dedicated...
Nazi Party
Properly known as the National Socialist Democratic Workers’ Party, the Nazi party was founded...
New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942...
Nuremberg Laws
Series of laws passed by the Nazi-dominated German parliament in 1935 that forbade sexual...
Revolutionary Right (Japan)
Also known as Radical Nationalism, this was a movement in Japanese political life ca. 1930–1945...
Total War
: War that requires each country involved to mobilize its entire population in the...
Treaty of Versailles
1919 treaty that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany...
Triple Alliance
An alliance consisting of Germany, Austria, and Italy that was one of the two rival European...
Triple Etente
An alliance consisting of Russia, France, and Britain that was one of the two rival European...
United Nations
International peacekeeping organization and forum for international opinion, established in...
Weimar Republic
The weak government that replaced the German imperial state at the end of World War I; its...
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States from 1913 to 1921 who was especially noted for his idealistic...
World War I
The “Great War” (1914–1918), in essence a European civil war with global implications...
World War II in Asia
A struggle essentially to halt Japanese imperial expansion in Asia, fought by the Japanese...
World War II in Europe
A struggle essentially to halt German imperial expansion in Europe, fought by a coalition...
Berlin Wall
Wall constructed by East German authorities in 1961 to seal off East Berlin from the West;...
Bolsheviks
Russian revolutionary party led by Vladimir Lenin and later renamed the Communist Party;...
Building Socialism
Euphemistic expression for the often-forcible transformation of society when a communist regime...
Fidel Castro
Revolutionary leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008 who gradually turned to Soviet communism and...
Chinese Revolution
Long revolutionary process in the period 1912–1949 that began with the overthrow of the...
Cold War
Political and ideological state of near-war between the Western world and the communist world...
Collectivization
: Process of rural reform undertaken by the communist leadership of both the USSR and...
Cuban Missile Crisis
Major standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over Soviet deployment...
Cultural Revolution
China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was a massive campaign launched by Mao Zedong...
Deng Xiaoping
Leader of China from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements of...
Glasnost
Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of “openness,” which allowed greater cultural and intellectual...
Mikhail Gorbachev
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its collapse. 
Great Leap Forward
Major Chinese initiative (1958–1960) led by Mao Zedong that was intended to promote small-scale...
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Mao Zedong’s great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed...
Great Purges
Also called the Terror, the Great Purges of the late 1930s were a massive attempt to cleanse...
Gulag
Acronym for the Soviet government agency that administered forced labor camps
Guomindang
The Chinese Nationalist Party led by Chiang Kai-shek from 1928 until its overthrow by the...
Nikita Khrushchev
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964
Lenin
Adopted name of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870–1924), the main leader of Russia’s communist...
Mao Zedong
 Chairman of China’s Communist Party and de facto ruler of China from 1949 until his...
McCarthyism
Wave of anticommunist fear and persecution that took place in the United States in the 1950s
Natinoal Security State
Form of government that arose in the United States in response to the cold war and in which...
Perestroika
Bold economic program launched in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev with the intention of freeing...
Russian Revolution 
Massive revolutionary upheaval in 1917 that overthrew the Romanov dynasty in Russia and ended...
Stalin
Name assumed by Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili (1878–1953), leader of the Soviet Union...
Warsaw Pact
alliance of the USSR and the communist states of Eastern Europe during the cold war.
African National Congress
South African political party established in 1912 by elite Africans who sought to win full...
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey (1881–1938); as military commander...
Black Consciousness 
South African movement that sought to foster pride, unity, and political awareness among the...
Boers
Also known as Afrikaners, the sector of the white population of South Africa that was descended...
Decolonization 
Process in which many African and Asian states won their independence from Western colonial...
Democracy in Africa
A subject of debate among scholars, the democracies established in the wake of decolonization...
Economic development
A process of growth or increasing production and the distribution of the proceeds of that...
Mohandas Gandhi
Usually referred to by his soubriquet “Mahatma” (Great Soul), Gandhi (1869–1948) was...
Indian National Congress
Organization established in 1885 by Western-educated elite Indians in an effort to win a voice...
Muhammad Aku Jinnah
Leader of India’s All-India Muslim League and first president of the breakaway state of...
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini 
Important Shia ayattolah (advanced scholar of Islamic law and religion) who became the leader...
Nelson Mandela
South African nationalist (b. 1918) and leader of the African National Congress who was imprisoned...
Muslim League
The All-India Muslim League, created in 1906, was a response to the Indian National Congress...
Jawaharlal Nehru
first prime minister of independent India (1889–1964)
Satyagraha
Literally, “truth force”; Mahatma Gandhi’s political philosophy, which advocated confrontational...
Soweto
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent...
al-Qaeda
International terrorist organization of fundamentalist Islamic militants, headed by Osama...
Antiglobalization
Major international movement that protests the development of the global economy on the grounds...
Osama bin Laden
The leader of al-Qaeda terrorist organization, a wealthy Saudi Arabian who turned to militant...
Bretton Woods System
Named for a conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944, this system provided...
Environmentalism
Twentieth-century movement to preserve the natural world in the face of spiraling human ability...
Fundamentalism 
Occurring within all the major world religions, fundamentalism is a self-proclaimed return...
Globalization 
Term commonly used to refer to the massive growth in international economic transactions from...
Global Warming
A worldwide scientific consensus that the increased burning of fossil fuels and the loss of...
Che Guevara
Ernesto “Che” Guevara was an Argentine-born revolutionary (1928–1967) who waged guerrilla...
Hindutva
Fundamentalist Hindu movement that became politically important in India in the 1980s by advocating...
Islamic Renewal
Large number of movements in Islamic lands that promote a return to strict adherence to the...
Jihad
Term used by modern militant Islamic groups to denote not just the “struggle” or “striving”...
Kyoto protocol on global warming
International agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to slow global warming;...
neo-liberalism 
An approach to the world economy, developed in the 1970s, that favored reduced tariffs, the...
North/South gap
Growing disparity between the Global North and the Global South that appears to be exacerbated...
Augusto Pinochet
Military dictator of Chile from 1973 to 1990 who was known for his widespread use of torture...
Prague Spring
Sweeping series of reforms instituted by communist leader Alexander Dubcek in Czechoslovakia in...
Reglobalization 
The quickening of global economic transactions after World War II, which resulted in total...
Religious right
The fundamentalist phenomenon as it appeared in U.S. politics in the 1970s.
second-wave feminism
Women’s rights movement that revived in the 1960s with a different agenda than earlier women’s...
World Trade Organization
International body representing 149 nations that negotiates the rules for global commerce...

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