The heart - chapter 20

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Created Apr 20, 2010
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1
Pulmonary circuit
 
Carries blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs.
2
Systemic circuit
 
Transports blood to and from the rest of the body.
3
Arteries
 
Efferent vessels. Blood is carried away from the heart.
4
Veins
 
Afferent vessels. Blood is retured to the heart.
5
Capillaries
 
Exchange vessels, permit the exchange of nutrients, dissolved gases and waste products between...
6
The right atrium
 
Receives blood from the systemic circuit  (superior vena cava and inferior vena cava)...
7
The right ventricle
 
Pumps blood into the pulmonary circuit from the right atrium through three fibrous flaps (cusps)...
8
The left atrium
 
Collects blood from the pulmonary circuit and empties it into the left ventricle. Once gas...
9
The left ventricle
 
Pumps blood into the systemic circuit. Forces oxygenated blood that has returned to the heart...
10
The apex
 
Pointed tip of the heart.
11
Coronary sulcus
 
Deep groove, marks the border between the atria and the ventricles.
12
Anterior interventricular sulcus
 
Shallow depression, marks the boundary between the left and right ventricles.
13
Posterior interventricular sulcus
 
Shallow depression, marks the boundary between the left and right ventricles.
14
Layers of the heart wall
 
1. Epicardium - visceral pericardium, covers the outer surface of the heart. 2. Myocardium...
15
Cardiac muscle cells
 
Interconnected by intercalated discs.  Cells are held together by desmosomes and linked...
16
Interatrial septum
 
Wall between the atria
17
Interventricular septum
 
Wall separating ventricles
18
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
 
Between atria and ventricles. Permit blood flow in one direction only - from the atria to the...
19
Superior vena cava
 
delivers blood to the right atrium from the head, neck, upper limbs and chest
20
Inferior vena cava
 
Delivers blood to the right atrium from the rest of the trunk, the viscera and the lower limbs....
21
Blood flow
 
Each heartbeat begins with an action potential generated at a pacemaker called the SA node.This...
22
Coronary circulation
 
Supplies cardiac muscle cells with oxygen and nutrients.
23
The conducting system
 
# SA node, located in the wall of the right atrium # AV node, located at the junctions between ...
24
Muscles cells involved in a normal heartbeat
 
1. Specialized muscle cells of the conducting system - control and coordinate the heartbeat 2....
25
SA node
 
The heartbeat is initiated by the specialized cardiac muscle cells of the sinoartial...
26
Action potential of cardiac muscle
 
P-R - time what's happening electrically in the heart P wave - depolarization - sodium rushes...
27
PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT
 
1.PULMONARY CIRCUIT. From superior and inferior pulmonary vena cava (systemic circuit) -...
28
Bradycardia
 
Slower than normal heart rate.
29
Tachyardia
 
Faster than normal heart rate.
30
The conduction system
 
1. Pacemaker cells in tge SA node send the stimulus to the AV node 2. From AV node impups...
31
P wave
 
Atrial depolarization.
32
QRS complex
 
Ventricular depolarization. Atria repolarization
33
T wave
 
Ventricular repolarization.
34
Cardiac cycle
 
Contains periods of atrial and ventricular systole (contraction( and atrial and ventricular...
35
Stroke volume (SV)
 
The amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during a single beat.
36
Cardiac output (CO)
 
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle each minute. Can be adjusted by changes in either...
37
Cardiac cycle
 
The period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next.
38
Systolic contraction
 
The chamber contracts and pushes blood into an adjacent chamber or into an arterial trunk.
39
Diastoleic contraction
 
Relaxation. The chamber fills with blood and prepares for next cardiac cycle.
40
Principle of movement of blood between atria and ventricles and between major veins and atria.
 
Fluids move from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure. The pressure within wach...
41
Phases of the cardiac cycle
 
1. Atrial systole - the atria contract. filling the ventricles completely with blood. 2. Atrial...
42
Regurgitation
 
Blood backflow into the atria when ventricles contract because chordae tendae is cut or papillary...
43
Blood flow through heart
 
From the body tissues (cystemic circulation) - Superior and inferior vena cava - Right atrium...
44
Abnormaly slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the
 
QRS complex
45
Trace ta drop of blood through the lungs, beginning at the right ventricle and ending at...
 
The pulmonary arteries enter the lungs carrying deoxygenated blood and the pulmonary veins...
46
Name the blood vessels that enter and exit the lungs, and indicate the relative oxygen...
 
Right ventricle - pulmonary trunk - left and right pulmonary arteries - pulmonary arterioles...
47
A blockage of which branch from the aortic arch would interfere with blood flow to the...
 
Left subclavian artery


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