The Heart - Chapter 20

Here I Am Doi Ng Chapt
Created Apr 20, 2010
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Side ASide B
Pulmonary circuit
Carries blood to and from the gas exchange surfaces of the lungs.
Systemic circuit
Transports blood to and from the rest of the body.
Efferent vessels. Blood is carried away from the heart.
Afferent vessels. Blood is retured to the heart.
Exchange vessels, permit the exchange of nutrients, dissolved gases and waste products between...
The right atrium
Receives blood from the systemic circuit  (superior vena cava and inferior vena cava)...
The right ventricle
Pumps blood into the pulmonary circuit from the right atrium through three fibrous flaps (cusps)...
The left atrium
Collects blood from the pulmonary circuit and empties it into the left ventricle. Once gas...
The left ventricle
Pumps blood into the systemic circuit. Forces oxygenated blood that has returned to the heart...
The apex
Pointed tip of the heart.
Coronary sulcus
Deep groove, marks the border between the atria and the ventricles.
Anterior interventricular sulcus
Shallow depression, marks the boundary between the left and right ventricles.
Posterior interventricular sulcus
Shallow depression, marks the boundary between the left and right ventricles.
Layers of the heart wall
1. Epicardium - visceral pericardium, covers the outer surface of the heart. 2. Myocardium...
Cardiac muscle cells
Interconnected by intercalated discs.  Cells are held together by desmosomes and linked...
Interatrial septum
Wall between the atria
Interventricular septum
Wall separating ventricles
Atrioventricular (AV) valves
Between atria and ventricles. Permit blood flow in one direction only - from the atria to the...
Superior vena cava
delivers blood to the right atrium from the head, neck, upper limbs and chest
Inferior vena cava
Delivers blood to the right atrium from the rest of the trunk, the viscera and the lower limbs....
Blood flow
Each heartbeat begins with an action potential generated at a pacemaker called the SA node.This...
Coronary circulation
Supplies cardiac muscle cells with oxygen and nutrients.
The conducting system
# SA node, located in the wall of the right atrium # AV node, located at the junctions between ...
Muscles cells involved in a normal heartbeat
1. Specialized muscle cells of the conducting system - control and coordinate the heartbeat 2....
SA node
The heartbeat is initiated by the specialized cardiac muscle cells of the sinoartial...
Action potential of cardiac muscle
P-R - time what's happening electrically in the heart P wave - depolarization - sodium rushes...
1.PULMONARY CIRCUIT. From superior and inferior pulmonary vena cava (systemic circuit) -...
Slower than normal heart rate.
Faster than normal heart rate.
The conduction system
1. Pacemaker cells in tge SA node send the stimulus to the AV node 2. From AV node impups...
P wave
Atrial depolarization.
QRS complex
Ventricular depolarization. Atria repolarization
T wave
Ventricular repolarization.
Cardiac cycle
Contains periods of atrial and ventricular systole (contraction( and atrial and ventricular...
Stroke volume (SV)
The amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during a single beat.
Cardiac output (CO)
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle each minute. Can be adjusted by changes in either...
Cardiac cycle
The period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next.
Systolic contraction
The chamber contracts and pushes blood into an adjacent chamber or into an arterial trunk.
Diastoleic contraction
Relaxation. The chamber fills with blood and prepares for next cardiac cycle.
Principle of movement of blood between atria and ventricles and between major veins and atria.
Fluids move from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure. The pressure within wach...
Phases of the cardiac cycle
1. Atrial systole - the atria contract. filling the ventricles completely with blood. 2. Atrial...
Blood backflow into the atria when ventricles contract because chordae tendae is cut or papillary...
Blood flow through heart
From the body tissues (cystemic circulation) - Superior and inferior vena cava - Right atrium...
Abnormaly slow depolarization of the ventricles would most change the shape of the
QRS complex
Trace ta drop of blood through the lungs, beginning at the right ventricle and ending at...
The pulmonary arteries enter the lungs carrying deoxygenated blood and the pulmonary veins...
Name the blood vessels that enter and exit the lungs, and indicate the relative oxygen...
Right ventricle - pulmonary trunk - left and right pulmonary arteries - pulmonary arterioles...
A blockage of which branch from the aortic arch would interfere with blood flow to the...
Left subclavian artery

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