Geology

Created Dec 18, 2012
by dm431689
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Sponges
are mostly marine, colonial organisms that attach to substrates and feed only on microscopic...
osculum
Where Undigested material and water pass out through an opening at the top called an
Sponges Anatomy
do not have nervous, digestive, or circulatory systems. Instead, most rely on maintaining...
Spicules
either remain separate and embedded in the wall of the sponge or united in a continuous scaffolding...
megascleres
Large spicules that are visible to the naked eye
microscleres
microscopic ones
Anthozoa (sea anemones, corals)
are marine animals that consist of polyps, bag-shaped structures with their interiors lined...
tabulate corals
are all colonial, with calcite corallites joined to form a corallum. Vertical septa are...
Rugose corals
are solitary, but some are colonial, and they tend to be more complex than the tabulate corals....
Phylum Mollusca
Most of them have an exoskeleton or a shell of some kind secreted by the mantle. They are...
Anatomy of Mollusca
The body consists of a head (except in the pelecypods), a foot, and a dorsal portion which...
Mollusca Classes
Amphineura
 Pelecypoda
 Gastropoda Conularida
 Pteropoda
 Scaphopoda Cephalopoda
The pelecypods
also known as bivalves,
are represented by clams, muscles,
and oysters, among others....
Anatomy of Pelecypods
They have a calcareous shell of two valves with bilateral symmetry between the valves....
Gastropods
are represented by the snails, single-­‐valved mollusks, and include marine, freshwater,...
Anatomy of a Gastropod
Their mouth contains a radula, a minutely toothed, filelike, chitinous ribbon, which is...
protoconch
The embryonic shell
columella
The shell grows as a gradually widening cone which is wound around an axial pillar
whorl
each coil of the gastropod
body whorl
last coil where the animal lives
spire
are all the other whorl's together
Ammonoids
may have straight, loosely coiled, or tightly coiled shells.
Goniatites  
have the simplest suture pattern of the ammonoids. numerous undivided lobes and saddles;...
Ceratites
have a more complicated suture pattern than the goniatites. lobes have subdivided tips,...
Ammonites
have the most complicated suture pattern of the ammonoids.lobes and saddles are much subdivided...
Cephalopods
are bilaterally symmetric carnivorous marine animals that are nearly all free-­‐ swimming....
Anatomy of a Cephalopod
The circulatory, digestive, nervous, and respiratory systems of cephalopods are all very...
Belemnoids
were abundant during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. An example of a fossil belemnoid is Belemnitella...
Nautilus:
: A hood, formed from the inner pair of tentacles, serves the same function as the...
Polychaetes
or bristleworms, are Planktonic Tomopteris the largest group of annelids and are
mostly...
parapodia
used for locomotion and, in many species, act as the worm’s primary respiratory surfaces...
Scolecodonts
fossilized jaws in polichaetes
Anatomy of a Trilobite
have a dorsal exoskeleton that is longitudinally divisible into three regions, an axial...
Arachnida
, which includes spiders and scorpions
Merostomata
horseshoe crabs and an extinct group of sea scorpions called the eurypterids
Pycnogonida
which includes the sea spiders
Hood
formed from the inner pair of tentacles, serves the same function as the operculum in...
siphuncle
a calcareous wall surrounding the siphon
sutures
The lines formed by the intersection of the septa with the shell
siphon
tubular extension of the mantle
apex
posterior end
apeture
anterior end
dextrel
coiled right handed gastropod shell
sinistral
coiled left handed gastropod shell

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