Geology Of Natural Disasters

64 cards

Geology Of Natural Hazzards 


 
  
Created Feb 28, 2010
by
8bw9

 

 
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1
Tsunamis are triggered by?
 
subduction zones
2
what is a subduction zone?
 
long narrow srip of lithosphere where one tectonic plate move benith the other
3
Processes
 
internal and external
4
Process
 
ways in which events effect the earths surface 
5
Hazzard 
 
natural process that threatens human life or limb
6
risk
 
the probablu severity that a destructice event will occur mulitplied by the likelyhood of the...
7
mitigation 
 
efforts to prepare for disasters and to minimize harmful effects
8
geological cycle has four parts which are
 
tectonic
rock
hydrologic
bigeochemical
9
tectonic cylce
 
large scale geological processes that deform the earths crust
10
outer most layer of the earth?
 
lithosphere
11
level below lithosphere
 
asthenosphere
12
plate boundary types
 
divergent
convergent
transorm
13
reasons damage from natural disasters are increasing
 
population growth
magnitude and frequency of events
14
befits of natural disaster
 
floods=new sediment
volcano= new land
earthquake=mountain range
15
earthquakes
 
movement on faults
16
epicenter
 
point on the surface of the earth directly above the fault rupture or focus
17
fault types
 
strike slip

dip slip
18
ice age caused by
 
tilt, precission, ecentricity
19
4 reservoirs of earth system
 
atmosphere
hydrosphere
solid earth
life
20
Galia theory
 
all life and all the material parts of the earths surface make up a single system a kind of...
21
physiology
 
brach of bio that deals with activitiesd of life and the physical chemical phenonmeon involved
22
father of geology
 
james hutton
23
Thomas Midgely
 
greatest impact on the earth, leaded gasoline and fist chloroflurocarbins
24
Managing earth requires (4)
 
technical
ethical
economical
enviornmental
25
|Risk Analysis
 
1) understand the hazzard

2) acess the risk from the hazzard in a particular area
26
Risk Managment
 
minimize risk by reducing probablility and severity of hazzards
cost benifit anaysis
27
main factors that conrol how severe an event is 
 
intensity
duration
rate of change
28
managing population decline
 
immigration
raise retirment age
encourage women to have more children
29
managing population growth
 
regulations
education on birth control
provisions of contraception
eduactation of...
30
more disasters because
 
population growth
land pressure
urbanization
inequality
climate change
political...
31
Understanding the hazzard
 
what causes earthquakes
where do they occur
what energy to they release
what causes...
32
Elastic rebound theory
 
rigid part of the earth can store elastic energy. when you apply stress it bounces back when...
33
 seismometers allow
 
detect energy from a quake
measure distnace to a quake
measure energy releases
34
first seismometer
 
april 17, 1889
35
san francuscio sit on what fault
 
san andreas fault
36
two types of surface waves
 
love waves
reyleigh waves
37
Body waves
 
p waves: primanry push and pull
s waves: secondary shear
38
the more elastic the material
 
higher the sesmic velocity
39
more dense a material
 
lower the sesimic velocity
40
s waves travel at 
 
3.3 km per sec
41
p waves travel at 
 
5.6 km per sec
42
why do earthquakes only occur in the outer 10% of the earth 
 
only part that is rigid enough to experience brittle failure
43
how do we estimat energy from a quake
 
measure intensity based on obsrved damage: modified mercalli scale
richter magnitude
44
Modified Mercalli Scale
 
based on observed damange, subjective, depends on how close people are, varies based on distance...
45
Richter Magnitude
 
quantitative measure of energy released determined frim the maximum amplitude (surface waves)...
46
damage is a direct consequence of 
 
surface wave motion
47
amount of damage is proportional to 
 
distnace from quake (inversly)
magnitude of quake (directly)
48
surface faulting 
 
fault will be disrupted by the tearing motion
49
Ground shaking
 
greatest threat to buildings and people
50
Material Amplification
 
sesimic velocity changes when going from one medium to another 
51
after shock
 
smaller earthquakes that occur soon after the main shock with epicenters in the same area as...
52
Ground Failure
 
land slides and liquefaction of soils
53
Tusunami
 
generated by earthquake at sea
54
earthquake hazzard
 
ground faulting
earth shaking
afdtershock
material amplification
ground failure...
55
dam construction
 
water changes stress regime on faults, water can lubricate faults
56
mining
 
underground blasting can destabilize rocks which can lead to earthquakes
57
Assess seismic risk of area
 
locate and determine nature of faults in the area
determine what type of fault
study...
58
Law of Superposition 
 
for sediment layers the oldest aare on the bottom and the youngest on top
59
Law of Cross-cutting relationship
 
fault cuts across the layers there for the fault is younger then the layers
60
carbon 14 data 
 
can be used to deterimine when the fault last move
61
Preventative measures
 
appply land planning and zoning
apply building codes
set up emergency response plans
62
what causes faults
 
stress on rock in earth
63
what causes stress in earth 
 
release of earths internal heat
64
how is heat released to the surface
 
conduction and convection
radiation


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