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Geology 101 Final Exam

WWU Geol 101 Flashcards For Final. . Mass Wasting, Shores, Deserts, Streams, Groundwater, Glaciers Etc. .
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Side ASide B
Which one of the following aquifers would be best for purifying groundwater that is contaminated...
a.  clay b.  coarse gravel c.  sand d.  cavernous limestone
Which of the following rock materials would be least permeable? 
a.  coarse sand b.  clay-rich, fine‑grained sand c.  gravel...
The major cause of most low‑latitude dry climates is:  
a.  their positions in the deep interiors of continents b.  the presence...
An open ocean wave has a wavelength of 20 meters, a wave height of 4 meters, and a...
a. 1 meter b. 2 meters c. 10 meters d. 15 meters e. impossible to determine...
A steep‑sided amphitheater‑shaped bowl, excavated by frost action  and glacial...
a.  horn b.  arete c.  cirque d.  fjord 
The dominant erosional force on Mercury is:
a. meteorite cratering  b. heat expansion  c. solar radiation  d....
Which of the following is NOT found on Venus
a. prominent plateaus and basins b. volcanoes c. two-step topography d....
At a bend in a river, the main point of deposition is:
a. on the outside of the bend b. on the inside of the bend c. both outside...
The downhill tilting of fences and telephone poles, and the presence of trees with curved...
a. Debris avalanche b. Slump c. Soil creep d. Gliding e. Mudflow
Which of the following types of mass wasting is generally the slowest?
a.  mudflow b.  creep c.  slump d.  they are all about...
mass wasting events are caused by
1) Over-steepening of slope, 2) Too much water, and 3) Unusual rock/soil conditions.
ways to mitigate mass wasting dangers?
-Steep slopes can be covered or sprayed with concrete covered with a wire mesh to prevent...
slump
A form of mass wasting event that occurs when loosely consolidated materials or rock layers...
slide
Rocks moving rapidly along a surface parallel to slope.
flow
Material moves as fluid.
collecting phase
The upper part has numerous tributaries, is actively down-cutting the land (eroding), and...
transporting phase
is highly meandering, has fewer tributaries and is not down-cutting and eroding sediment but...
dispersing phase
is the delta where the rivers sediment is dumped into a body of water and gradually extends...
oxbow lake
Because rivers erode at the outside of the bend, they are constantly changing shape and cutting...
braided river
is one of a number of channel types and has a channel that consists of a network of small...
flood plain
Is flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiences occasional or periodic...
types of mass wasting: PHOTO

photo
Stream: PHOTO

photo
dependance on ground water?
It provides about 40% of our water nationally. However, it takes many years to replenish itself 
how much of worlds water is fresh?
2%
problem when wells are over pumped?
Pumping a well in an unconfined aquifer will produce a cone of depression around the well....
zone of aeration
The subsurface sediment above the water table containing air and water.
recharge
hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater. This process...
sinkhole
A natural depression or hole in the surface topography caused by the removal of soil or bedrock,...
how do glaciers erode?
They erode because they carry rocks and grit in their bases and their great weight grinds...
features caused by glaciers
They are tremendous eroders and will straighten, deepen and round out V-shaped valleys which...
firn
It is ice that is at an intermediate stage between snow and glacial ice. Firn has the appearance...
zone of accumulation
Above the snowline where accumulation of snow exceeds evaporation and melting.
zone of ablation
Below the snowline where evaporation and melting exceed accumulation, has crevasses.
terminus
The end of the glacier.
erratic
A piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it...
striations
Scratches or gouges cut into bedrock by process of glacial abrasion.
alpine glacier
Tongue shaped glaciers in mountains.
continental glacier
Large ice sheets covering large areas. They are more or less round or elliptical in shape...
crevasse
A crack in an ice sheet or glacier.
cirque
Bowl-shaped depressions on the side of mountains.
horn
A mountaintop that has been modified by the action of ice during glaciation and frost weathering.
glacial trough (u-shaped valley)
A deep U-shaped valley with steep sides that leads down from a cirque and was excavated by...
hanging valley
A tributary valley with the floor at a higher relief than the main channel into which it flows.
Arete
A thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode...
fjord
If you fill the glacial trough above with water you get a fjord.
till
Unsorted glacial sediment.
moraine
Any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock) which can...
why deserts form where they do
Deserts occur in two parallel bands centered at around 25 degrees latitude.  This distribution...
why deserts are windy
There is a lot of wind in deserts because they tend to have very hot temperatures in the day...
effects of wind erosion
Wind erosion causes a typical desert feature known as desert pavement.  This is caused...
barchan dune
Arc shaped sand dune with two downward pointing ends.
barchanoid dune
Where there is more sand and the barchans coalesce into something like a line.
transverse dune
A transverse dune is perpendicular to the prevailing wind, probably caused by a steady build-up...
star dune
A dune that has slip faces on three or more sides, which is formed by multiple wind directions.
ventifact
Rocks that have been abraded, pitted, etched, grooved, or polished by wind-driven sand or...
flash flood
A rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas - washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It...
alluvial fan
Formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows, and spreads typically at the exit of a...
breakwater
structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal defence or to protect an anchorage from...
groin
A structure that juts out into a body of water perpendicular to the shoreline and is built...
drowned coast
A shoreline transformed from a hilly land surface to an archipelago of small islands by inundation...
wave refraction
When waves approach an irregular shoreline, those approaching headlands (parts of the coast...
tsunami
which are usually generated by earthquakes, are odd in that they have very long wavelengths...
wave of oscillation
open ocean wave
wave of translation
waves that are breaking


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