Geology 100

94 cards

study guide of geology. exam on friday.


 
  
Created Dec 18, 2009
by
de2418

 

 
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1
minerals
 
chemical compounds that form through natural processes and have orderly atomic arrangements...
2
major elements in the crust
 
oxygen, silicon, aluminum, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium
3
rocks high in Si are also high in______
 
alkalis (Na and K)
4
four factors that determine chemical composition
 
degree of melting (partial or whole), what part of the earth is melting, the pressure present,...
5
viscosity
 
the resistance to flow, determined by chemical composition (more Si- more tetrahedral- slower)...
6
strato volcanoes
 
steep slope, andesitic magma, very explosive and viscous, pyroclastic debris
7
shield volcanoes
 
small slope, basaltic magma, not very explosive or viscous, lava flow
8
volcanoes differ in....
 
slope, chemical composition of magma, temperature of magma, eruption style
9
concordant
 
horizontal- sill- laccolith
10
discordant
 
vertical- dike- batholith
11
phaneritic
 
large grains- cooled slowly
12
aphanitic
 
small grains cooled fast
13
porphyritic
 
large phenocrysts in a groundmass of small grains.. cooled slowly then sped up
14
glassy
 
no minerals cooled to fast
15
vesicular
 
pores, cooled fast, bubbles got trapped
16
forms of chemical weathering
 
dissolution, hydration, oxidation, carbonation
17
forms of phyiscal weathering
 
sheet joints, frost wedging
18
dissolution
 
dissolving a mineral in water
19
products of weathering
 
dissolved ions, new minerals, and minerals resistant to weathering
20
carbonation or hydration
 
mineral combining with carbonic acid or water forming  a new mineral
21
oxidation
 
increase in valence state 
22
permeability
 
ability to have water go through the material
23
porosity
 
pore space in the ground that water can go through
24
velocity depends on...
 
slope of the water table, permeability of the material
25
darcy's law
 
the hydralic head of a drop of water is equal to the elevation of the drop plus the water pressure...
26
aquifer
 
rock that is permeable and saturated (sandstone,conglomerate, fractured rocks, sand and gravel)
27
bad aquifers
 
shale, gneiss, schist 
28
bioremediation
 
the removing of pesticides by putting bugs in the earth that eat it
29
geothermal energy
 
source of direct heat if available in area
30
glaciers need ____ and ____ to form
 
precipitation and cold temperatures
31
valley glaciers
 
formed on mountains
32
ice sheets
 
formed on the poles
33
what percentage of the earth is covered in ice?
 
10%
34
percentages of where ice is on earth
 
85% antartic, 10% Greenland, 5% everywhere else
35
plucking
 
pieces of frozen rock broken loose and frozen into base of glacier
36
abrasion
 
base of glacier slides over bedrock, and the embedded pieces of rock grind against the bedrock
37
results from glacical erosion
 
polished surfaces, striations and grooves, rock flour
38
hanging valleys
 
valleys filled with ice
39
drift
 
materials deposited by glaciers
40
till
 
material deposited by glacier ice
41
outwash
 
materials deposited by glacier melt
42
moraine
 
any kind of land form that comes in contact with glacial ice
43
erratics
 
boulders deposited by glaciers
44
drumlins
 
upside down spoon mountains
45
kettles
 
lakes formed  by glaciers
46
cause of glacial ages
 
variations in earth's orbit, as it effects distance from the sun, and inclination to the sun...
47
clastic sediments
 
resistant/ new minerals that have been transported and deposited by water, wind or ice
48
lithification
 
conversion of loose unconsolidated sediments into solid sedimentary rocks by compaction or...
49
compaction
 
squeezed together and push out water
50
cementation
 
pore spaces are filled with chemical precipitates that bind sediments together
51
primary sedimentary features
 
bedding, ripple marks, cross bedding
52
metamorphism
 
forms in solid state, chemical composition not changed.
53
rocks can change in 2 ways....
 
texture change and minerals change
54
kinds of foliation
 
schistosity, lineation, banding
55
types of metamorphism
 
contact, regional metamorphism
56
source of heat
 
decay of radioactive isotopes, heat of the earth
57
beta decay
 
gain a proton, loose neutron
58
electron capture
 
gain a neutron, loose a proton
59
alpha decay
 
loose 2 neutrons and 2 protons
60
epicenter of earthquake
 
the point on the earth's surface where the earthquake originates 
61
focus of an earthquake
 
point below surface where it originated
62
magnitude
 
how strong the earthquake is
63
p waves
 
primary waves, 1st to arrive, go through any substance
64
s waves
 
secondary, only goes through solids, 2nd
65
tsunami develops when...
 
faulting affects the ocean floor. this generates waves in the open ocean that have long wavelengths...
66
liquefaction
 
when water-saturated sediment is shaken by an earthquake it can behave as a liquid
67
NaCl vs CaCo3 in ocean
 
NaCl is not near the saturation point in open ocean whereas CaCO3 is
68
recrystallization
 
enlargement of mineral grains, associated with metamorphism
69
evidence of plate tectonics
 
geometric fit of coastlines, stratographic (list of sedimentary rocks over time) evidence,...
70
plate boundaries
 
transform fault, divergent, convergent
71
divergent oceanic-oceanic
 
seafloor spreading, normal fault, tension, shallow focus earthquakes, basalt
72
compression
 
pushed together
73
tension
 
pulled apart
74
shear stress
 
pushed but not centered
75
strike
 
the direction the bed is trending
76
dip
 
how far it's tilted
77
mass wasting
 
the movement of materials down a slope without the help of any other transportation agent
78
regolith
 
unconsolidated soil and rock debris
79
bedrock
 
more coherent than regolith, but bedding an fractures are present
80
forces to overcome in mass wasting
 
frictional forces, cohesion of materials, shallow slope
81
flow
 
liquid moving like a liquid but not a coherent mass, creep very slow
82
slide
 
descending mass remains coherent unit
83
fall
 
landslides, very fast
84
rockfall
 
vertical movement could be caused by waves or frost wedging
85
drainage divides
 
high areas that seperate drainage basins
86
discharge
 
width x depth x velocity
87
bars
 
sedimentary landforms in streams formed from sediment deposited by decreased discharge of velocity,...
88
meandering stream
 
narrow and deeper channels, carry all sediment
89
drainage patterns
 
dendritic, radial, trellis
90
incised meanders
 
cut down from stream, steep walls
91
alluvial fans
 
large fan-shaped pile of sediment formed where stream velocity decreases as it emerges from...
92
water gaps
 
cut through ridges
93
flood plain
 
the stream approaches the flood stage, it flows a relatively high velocity in attempting to...
94
base level
 
at sea level. the elevation to which any stream is able to erode.


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