GEOL 1403 - Exam IV

Cover Materia L For GE
Created Nov 23, 2010
by stayawayjoe12
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Side ASide B
Plates are moving apart from one another (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Divergent
Plates are sliding past one another horizontally (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Transform (Oblique)
This boundary is normally devoid of volcanism (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Transform (Oblique)
Where lithosphere is sinking into the mantle (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Convergent
Characterized by basaltic volcanism and seafloor spreading (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Divergent
Characterized by arcs of stratovolcanoes and deep-ocean trenches (Trasform, Divergent, or...
Convergent
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Divergent
Where subduction zones occur (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Convergent
The San Andreas fault (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Transform (Oblique)
The west coast of South America (Trasform, Divergent, or Convergent)
Convergent
The oldest rocks on the seafloor are much younger than the oldest rocks on the continents. (True...
True
Earth's radius and surface area are slowly increasing to accommodate the new oceanic creust...
False
Hawaii is the oldest island of the Hawaiian Island chain. (True or False)
False
The oldest rocks of the oceanic crust are found in deep ocean trenches far away from active...
True
As the South Atlantic basin widens by seafloor spreading, Africa and South America are moving...
False
In general, rocks of the continental crust are less dense than rocks of the oceanic crust. (True...
True
During various times in the geologic past, the polarity of Earth's magnetic field has been...
True
The rate of seafloor spreading is, on the average, about one meter per year. (True or False)
False
Wegener's continental drift hypothesis was weakened because a viable mechanism for moving the...
True
Seafloor spreading rates can be estimated if the geologic ages of the magnetic field reversals...
True
The volcanoes of Hawaii are localized above a deep mantle hot spot; they are not part of the...
True
S-waves can travel through solid and liquid media. (True or False)
False
The time between the first P-wave and S-wave arrivals is a measure of the distance from a receiving...
True
Earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain energy previously stored in rocks...
True
Tsunamis are caused by sudden displacement of large volumes of seawater. (True or False)
True
The epicenter of an earthquake is on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus. (True...
True
Unconsolidated, water-saturated soils or sediments provide good foundation materials for buildings...
False
Continental crust is generally thicker than oceanic crust. (True or False)
True
The crust and mantle are solids; the inner core is thought to be solid. (True or False)
True
The Earth's magnetic field originates by...
... weak elctrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core.
When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source.  The source...
... focus.
How do S- and P- waves differ in behavior?
S-waves travel through solids, and P-waves travel through liquids.
__________ have the highest velocities.
Primary waves
What is the nature of Tsunamis?
Tsunamis occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights...
The amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations is affected by...
1) design of structures, 2) intensity and duration of the vibrations, and 3) nature of the...
On a typical seismogram, __________ will show the highest amplitudes.
surface waves
The __________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released.  It does not directly...
Richter
The instrument that records earthquake events is termed a __________.
seismograph
__________ is the maximum possible damage designation on the Mercalli scale.
XII
The position on Earth's surface directly above the earthquake source is called the __________.
epicenter
The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake...
elastic rebound
Overall, this type of seismic wave is the most destructive.
surface wave
Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in...
30 times
P-waves...
... are faster than S-waves and surface waves.
The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ...
... I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake.
The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined...
... arrival times of P- and S-waves.
The Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the ...
... arrival time of P- and S- waves.
Which one of the following best characterizes tsunamis?
They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths.
The __________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage.
San Franciso, 1906
__________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and...
Liquefaction
The record of an earthquake obtained from a seismic instrument is a __________.
seismogram
Most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from...
... seismic waves.
Which one of the following statments about the crust is NOT true?
Oceanic crust is enriched in potassuim, sodium, and silicon.
The dense core of Earth is thought to consist predominantly of __________.
iron
The lithosphere is defined as ...
... a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material.
The average composition of the oceanic crust is thought to approximate that of __________.
basalt
The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of __________.
granite
Tsunamis are caused by sudden displacement of large volumes of seawater. (True or False)
True
The Richter earthquake magnitude scale is based on the total amount of energy released by the...
True
The epicenter of an earthquake is on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus. (True...
True
Unconsolidated, water-saturated soils or sediments provide good foundation materials for buildings...
False
Oceanic crust is mainly basaltic in composition; the mantle is more like the igneous rock peridotite...
True
Continental crust is generally thicker than oceanic crust. (True or False)
True
The crust and mantle are solids; the inner core is thought to be solid. (True or False)
True
The mantle is composed mainly of metallic iron with small amounts of magnesium silicate minerals. (True...
False
Earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain energy previously stored in rocks...
True
__________ was an ancient reptile that lived in South America and Africa during the late Paleozoic.
Mesosaurus
In the early part of the 20th century, __________ argued forcefully for continental drift.
Alfred Wegener
The former late Paleozoic super continent is known as __________.
Pangaea
Today, __________ is in about the same geographic position as during late Paleiozoic time.
Antarctica
Pull-apart rift zones are generally associated with a __________ plate boundary.
Divergent
The temperature below which a magnetic material can retain a permanent magnetization is called...
Curie point
A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a __________.
hot spot
Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are confitured as __________.
normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge
The __________ is a logical evolutionary analog of the African Rift Valleys ten million years...
Red Sea
A typical rate of seafloor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean is __________.
2 centimeters per year
The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not __________.
identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for __________.
changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates
__________ was never proposed as evidence supporting the existence of Pangaea.
Similar fossils on different continents
Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?
shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
Which of the following statements apply to the asthenosphere, but not the lithosphere?
zone in the upper mantle that deforms by plastic flowage
New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ...
divergent boundaries by submaring eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma.
Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sinks into the mantle at ...
subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries.
Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for...
sinding of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone.
A transform plate boundary is characterized by ...
a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions.
Which one of the following is an important fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic...
Earth's diameter has been essentially constant over time.
The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ...
a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate.
Mount St. Helens and the other Cascade volcanoes are ...
young, active stratovolcanoes built on a continental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic...
The volcanoes and deep calleys of east Africa are related to a ...
continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate.
The Aleutian Islands occur at a ...
convergent boundary on a volcanic arc above a northward-subducting Pacific plate.
__________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithosperic plates.
Lines of earthquake epicenters
Deep-oceanic trenches are most abundant around the rim of the __________ ocean basin.
Pacific
Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which...
Oceanic side of the Aleutian trench
__________ first related the symmetrical magnetic patterns in seafloor basalts to seafloor...
Vine and Matthews
Early results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project clearly justified the conclusion that....
the ocean basins are relatively young; most ocean basin rocks and sediments are Cretaceous...
Plates are moving apart from one another (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Divergent
Plates are sliding past one another horizontally (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Transform
This boundary is normally devoid of volcanism (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Transform
Where lithosphere is sinking into the mantle (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Convergent
Characterized by basaltic volcanism and seafloor spreading (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Divergent
Characterized by arcs of stratovolcanoes and deep-ocean trenches (Convergent, Transform, or...
Convergent
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Divergent
Where subduction zones occur (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Convergent
The San Andreas fault (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Transform
The west coast of South America (Convergent, Transform, or Divergent)
Convergent
Water depths and seafloor topography are now routinely determined by ...
ship-mounted echo sounders.
Geologically, __________ are actually submerged parts of the continents.
continental shelves
The __________ lies at the base of the continental slope.
continental rise
Submarine canyons found on the continental slope and rise are believed to have been created...
Turbidity currents
Which one of the following would most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers?
Deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope
__________ sediments represent weathered rock and mineral particles eroded mainly from land...
Terrigenous
Seamouts ...
are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor.
"Black smokers" are associated with ...
ALL OF THESE!!!: A) oceanic ridges B) metal-rich sulfide deposits C) hot water
Which one of the following is not connected in any way with submarine, hot spring vents?
Thick turbidites on the continental rise
__________ are not associated with a mid-ocean ridge.
Deep-ocean trenches
Where in the oceans are biological communities thriving without sunlight?
around seafloor, hot spring vents
Graded bedding is ...
an upward decrease in clastic particle size within a single sediment layer.
Calcareous ooze is composed of __________ sediment.
biogenous
Manganese nodules represent __________ sediment on the seafloor.
hydrogenous
Geologically, what is the best way to explain the thousands of feet of coral limestone beneath...
The eroded volcano slowly sank as sea level remained steady or rose gradually
Oceans cover approximately __________ of Earth's surface area?
70%
Manganese nodule (Biogenous, Terrigenous, or Hydrogenous)
Hydrogenous
Calcareous ooze (Biogenous, Terrigenous, or Hydrogenous)
Biogenous
Quartz sand (Biogenous, Terrigenous, or Hydrogenous)
Terrigenous
Diatom ooze (Biogenous, Terrigenous, or Hydrogenous)
Biogenous
Turbidite deposits (Biogenous, Terrigenous, or Hydrogenous)
Terrigenous
Abyssal plain clay (Biogenous, Terrigenous, or Hydrogenous)
Terrigenous
An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for a ...
sound pulse to travel from the ship to the seafloor and back.
__________ is a characteristic, internal structure exhibited by turbidite sediment layers.
Graded bedding
__________ correctly formulated a basic theory concerning the formation of atolls in the 1800s.
Charles Darwin
Submerged, flat-topped volcanoes that rise from the deep ocean floor are called __________.
Seamounts
Valleys that lead from the continental shelf into deeper waters are known as __________.
Submarine canyons
__________ continental margins typically exhibit wide, extensive, continental shelves.
Passive
A __________ is a volcanic mountain, built up from the seafloor, that never reached the sea...
Guyot
A low lying, coral limestone island with a central lagoon is called an __________.
Atoll
An __________ is the vast, relatively deep, flat, sediment-covered portion of the deep-ocean...
Abyssal Plain
A __________ marks the site where old, oceanic lithosphere begins its descent into a subduction...
Trench
CH. 17 - MAY NOT BE ON EXAM... A __________ fault has little or no vertical movements...
strike slip
In a __________ fault, the hanging wall block moves up with respect to the footwall block.
reverse
In thrust faulting, ...
the crust is shortened and thickened.
Which one of the following stress situations result in folding or flat-lying, sedimentary strata?
horizontally directed; compressive stresses
A graben is characterized by ...
a hanging wall block that
The mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range Province of the western United States formed...
tensional stresses and normal-fault movements.
In a normal fault, ...
the hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block.
A transform fault is ...
a strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates.
Brittle deformation would be favored over plastic deformation in which of the following conditions?
Cooler temperatures
A thrust fault is best described as ...
a low-angle, reverse fault.
A horst is ...
an uplifted block bounded by two normal faults.
A syncline is ...
a fold in which the strata dip toward the axis.
An __________ is a thick accumulation of sediments and small, tectonic blocks formed of material...
accretionary-wedge complex
The Black Hills of South Dakota are a good example of a __________.
dome
Large circular downwarped structures are called ___________.
basins
Which of the following combinations should favor folding rather than faulting?
High temperature and high confining pressure
Tensional forces normally cause which one of the following?
normal faults
The __________ in California is the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates.
San Andreas strike-slip fault
The Sierra Nevada, California and Teton, Wyoming ranges are examples of ...
fault blocks uplifted by late Tertiary to Quaternary normal faulting.
A good example of a present-day passive continental margin is the ...
east coast of North America.
The __________ are a geologically old mountain range folded and deformed during the Paleozoic.
Appalachians in the eastern United States
The term __________ refers specifically to geologic mountain building.
orogenesis
Which one of the following is an example of an isostatic movement?
Uplift of areas recently covered by thick, continental ice sheets.
Folded limestones that occur high in the Himalayas were originally deposited as sediments in...
marine basin between India and Eurasia.
The concept that rocks of the crust and upper mantle are floating in gravitational balance...
isostasy.

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