General Biology Chapter 14

53 cards

General Biology


 
  
Created Oct 31, 2011
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dspencer

 

 
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1
Advantages of pea plants for genetic study
 
Many VarietiesMating can be controlledEach flower has sperm-producing(stamen) organs and egg...
2
plants that produce offspring of the samevariety when they self-pollinate
 
True-breeding
3
Mendel mated twocontrasting, true-breeding varieties, a processcalled________
 
Hybridization
4
The true-breeding parents are the_________
 
P generation
5
The hybrid offspring of the P generation are calledthe_____________
 
F1 generation
6
When F1 individuals self-pollinate or crosspollinatewith other F1 hybrids, the ____________is...
 
F2 generation
7
alternative versions of genes
 
alleles
8
Each gene resides at a specific ______ on aspecific chromosome
 
locus
9
the two alleles for a heritable character separate(segregate) during gamete formation and end...
 
Law of segregation
10
a diagram for predicting the results of a genetic cross between individuals of known...
 
Punnett Spuare
11
An organism with two identical alleles for acharacter is said to be________ for the gene controlling...
 
homozygous
12
An organism that has two different alleles for agene is said to be __________ for the genecontrolling...
 
heterozygous
13
____________ are not true-breeding
 
Heterozygotes 
14
physical appearance
 
Phenotype
15
Genetic Makeup
 
Genotype
In the example of flower color in pea plants, PPand Pp plants have the same phenotype...
16
How can we tell the genotype of an individual withthe dominant phenotype?
 
Testcross
The answer is to carry out a testcross: breedingthe mystery individual with a...
17
individuals that are heterozygous for one character
 
Monohybrids
18
Crossing two true-breeding parents differing in twocharacters produces __________
 
Dihybrids
19
a cross between F1 dihybrids
 
Dihybrid cross
20
states that each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles...
 
Law of independent assortment
21
Mendel’s laws of segregation and independentassortment reflect the rules of _______
 
probability 
22
The _____________ states that the probabilitythat two or more independent events will occurtogether...
 
multiplication rule
23
Probability in an F1 monohybrid cross can bedetermined using__________
 
the multiplication rule 
24
The ___________ states that the probability thatany one of two or more exclusive events willoccur...
 
addition rule
25
The___________ can be used to figure out theprobability that an F2 plant from a monohybridcross...
 
 rule of addition
26
A dihybrid or other multicharacter cross isequivalent to two or more independent____________...
 
monohybrid crosses 

27
In calculating the chances for various genotypes,each character is considered separately, andthen...
 
multiplied

28
Inheritance of characters by a single gene maydeviate from simple Mendelian patterns in the...
 
– When alleles are not completely dominant orrecessive– When a gene has more than two alleles–...
29
___________occurs when phenotypesof the heterozygote and dominant homozygote areidentical
 
Complete dominance
30
___________the phenotype of F1hybrids is somewhere between the phenotypes ofthe two parental...
 
incomplete dominance
31
In _____________, two dominant alleles affect thephenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
 
codominance
32
________ are simply variations in a gene’snucleotide sequence
 
Alleles 
33
For any character, dominance/recessivenessrelationships of alleles depend on the level atwhich...
 
phenotype
34
a dysfunctional enzyme causes an accumulation of lipids in the brain
 
Tay-Sachs disease
35
Most ______exist in populations in more than twoallelic forms
 
genes
36
Most genes have multiple phenotypic effects, aproperty called______
 
Pleiotropy
For example, pleiotropic alleles are responsible forthe multiple symptoms of...
37
in ______________a gene at one locus alters thephenotypic expression of a gene at a secondlocus
 
Epistasis 
38
_______________are those that vary in thepopulation along a continuum
 
quantitative characters
39
Quantitative variation usually indicates ___________, an additive effect of two or moregenes...
 
polygenic inheritance
Skin color in humans is an example of polygenicinheritance
40
The ______________ is the phenotypic rangeof a genotype influenced by the environment
 
norm of reaction
For example, hydrangea flowers of the samegenotype range from blue-violet...
41
Norms of reaction are generally broadest forpolygenic characters, such characters are called...
 
multifactorial
42
An organism’s phenotype includes:
 
Physical appearanceInternal anatomyPhysiologybehavior
43
Why aren't humans good subjects for geneticresearch?
 
– Generation time is too long– Parents produce relatively few offspring– Breeding experiments...
44
Inheritance patterns of particular traits can betraced and described using _______________
 
Pedigrees 
45
Many genetic disorders are inherited in a __________ manner
 
Recessive 
46
___________are heterozygous individuals whocarry the recessive allele but are phenotypicallynormal
 
Carriers 
47
Recessively inherited disorders show up only inindividuals ____________ for the allele
 
homozygous
48
_______________ (i.e., matingsbetween close relatives) increase the chanceof mating between...
 
Consanguineous mating
49
____________ is the most common lethalgenetic disease in the United States
 
Cystic Fibrosis 
50
The disease is caused by the substitution of asingle amino acid in the hemoglobin protein inred...
 
Sickle-cell disease 
51
Dominant alleles that cause a lethal diseaseare rare and arise by __________
 
mutation
52
In _________________, a sampleof the placenta is removed and tested
 
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
53
In _____________, the liquid that bathes thefetus is removed and tested
 
amniocentesis


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