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Functions Of Shark Structures


Functions Of Shark Structures
  
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protection of the skin
 
placoid scales
controlling the sharks direction as it swims
 
Fins (except caudal)
Propelling the shark
 
tail and caudal fin
grsping prey and cutting off pieces of meat, but not chewing
 
teeth
discharges water that has come in through the mouth and passed over the gills
 
external gill slits
swallowing and also passing incoming water to gills
 
pharynx
heavily vascularized, feathery fans of tissue that take oxygen from the water passing over them and discharge carbon dioxide to it
 
gills
allowing water to enter the mouth of the shark when it is holding food in its jaw
 
spiracle
canals from top of head to inner ear (possibly a role in equillibrium)
 
endolymphatic pores
sample of water for odors
 
external nares
sensing minute electrical fields given off by prey
 
ampullae of lorenzini
sensing tiny pressure disturbances in the water, such as those made by swimming prey
 
lateral line system
outlet for feces, urine, and reproductive products
 
cloaca
dischares urine and sperm into the cloaca in the male
 
urogenital papilla
discharges urine into the cloaca in the female
 
urinary papilla
unknown by may equalize pressures in the body cavity and external environment or outlet excess coelomic fluid
 
abdominal pores
introduction of sperm into female's cloaca.
 
claspers
carries sperm on the claspers
 
doral grooves
body cavity caudal to the transverse septum; holds all abdominal organs
 
pleuroperitoneal cavity
body cavity cranial to the transverse septum
 
pericardial cavity
sheet of tissue separating the pleuroperitoneal and pericardial cavities
 
transverse septum
loose connective tissue convered with squamous epithelium, covers the organs
 
visceral peritoneum
sheets of peritoneum that attach organs to the body wall
 
mesentery
holds the oil that gives the shark buoyancy, many digestive functions such as storing nutrients and transforming food molecules arriving from the gut
 
liver
storing bile, a liquid that breaks up fat droplets in the gut
 
gall bladder
passing food from the pharynx to the stomach
 
esophagus
storing of meals until digestion can begin
 
stomach
initial digestion of food
 
stomach
allowing the stomach to expand as food is taken in
 
rugae
a muscular, narrow portion of stomach that controls entry of food from the stomach into the duodenum
 
pylorus
secretion of many digestive enzymes
 
pancreas
blood reservoir, immune functions
 
spleen
the portion of the small intenstine just beyond the pylorus; many digestive secretions are added to the gut ehre
 
duodenum
largest middle portion of the intestive; digestion and nutrient absorption
 
ileum
narrow portion of the intestive cranial to the rectal gland; formation of feces
 
colon
portion of intestine caudal to the rectal gland; elimination of feces
 
rectum
slowing the progess of food through the ileum; increasing internal surface area of ileum
 
spiral valve
removes excess salts from the sharks circulation
 
rectal gland
salt and water balance, eliminating toxic wastes
 
kidneys
carries urine in both sexes and sperm in males
 
opisthonephric duct
making sperm
 
testes
mestentary attaching ovaries to the body wall
 
mesorchium
storage of sperm and passing of sperm to the sperm sacs
 
seminal vesicles
a space formed by the union of the two sperm sacs in the male
 
urogenital sinus
making eggs
 
ovaries
where are eggs released?
 
into the coelom
takes in immature eggs from the coelom and passes them to the oviducts
 
ostium tubae
secreats a membranous shell around groups of eggs and also serves a reservoir for sperm from the male
 
shell gland
passes the eggs from the ostium tubae to the uterus
 
oviduct
stores and nutures the developing embryo
 
uterus
covers the heart
 
pericardial membrane
filled with fluid that reduces friction between the beating heart and surrounding structures
 
pericardial cavity
receives blood from the body and passes it to the atrium
 
sinus venosus
pumps blood into the ventricle
 
atrium
the most muscular portion of the heart; pumps blood into the bentral aorta through the gills and then around the circulatory system.
 
ventricle
conducts blood from the ventricle to the ventral aorta
 
conus asteriosus
conduct blood from the ventral aorta to the gills
 
afferent branchial arteries
conduct blood from the gills to the dorsal aorta
 
efferent branchial arteries
carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the body
 
dorsal aorta
lead from the pharynx to the gill chambers
 
internal gill slits
a cartilage skeletal element that supports the gills
 
gill arch
protect the gills from food in the sharks mouth
 
gill rakers
unknown but perhaps preventing swallowed food particles from coming up the espophagus
 
esophageal papillae
not fully known but probably muscular coordination
 
cerebellum
processin of visual data
 
optic lobes
not fully known but probably control of simple relexes like blood pressure, heart rate, etc
 
medulla
not fully known but probably processing sensory information and sending signals to the muscles
 
cerebrum
processing of chemical stimuli in the water
 
olfactory lobes

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