Functions Of Shark Structures

Functions Of Shark Structures
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protection of the skin
placoid scales
controlling the sharks direction as it swims
Fins (except caudal)
Propelling the shark
tail and caudal fin
grsping prey and cutting off pieces of meat, but not chewing
discharges water that has come in through the mouth and passed over the gills
external gill slits
swallowing and also passing incoming water to gills
heavily vascularized, feathery fans of tissue that take oxygen from the water passing over them and discharge carbon dioxide to it
allowing water to enter the mouth of the shark when it is holding food in its jaw
canals from top of head to inner ear (possibly a role in equillibrium)
endolymphatic pores
sample of water for odors
external nares
sensing minute electrical fields given off by prey
ampullae of lorenzini
sensing tiny pressure disturbances in the water, such as those made by swimming prey
lateral line system
outlet for feces, urine, and reproductive products
dischares urine and sperm into the cloaca in the male
urogenital papilla
discharges urine into the cloaca in the female
urinary papilla
unknown by may equalize pressures in the body cavity and external environment or outlet excess coelomic fluid
abdominal pores
introduction of sperm into female's cloaca.
carries sperm on the claspers
doral grooves
body cavity caudal to the transverse septum; holds all abdominal organs
pleuroperitoneal cavity
body cavity cranial to the transverse septum
pericardial cavity
sheet of tissue separating the pleuroperitoneal and pericardial cavities
transverse septum
loose connective tissue convered with squamous epithelium, covers the organs
visceral peritoneum
sheets of peritoneum that attach organs to the body wall
holds the oil that gives the shark buoyancy, many digestive functions such as storing nutrients and transforming food molecules arriving from the gut
storing bile, a liquid that breaks up fat droplets in the gut
gall bladder
passing food from the pharynx to the stomach
storing of meals until digestion can begin
initial digestion of food
allowing the stomach to expand as food is taken in
a muscular, narrow portion of stomach that controls entry of food from the stomach into the duodenum
secretion of many digestive enzymes
blood reservoir, immune functions
the portion of the small intenstine just beyond the pylorus; many digestive secretions are added to the gut ehre
largest middle portion of the intestive; digestion and nutrient absorption
narrow portion of the intestive cranial to the rectal gland; formation of feces
portion of intestine caudal to the rectal gland; elimination of feces
slowing the progess of food through the ileum; increasing internal surface area of ileum
spiral valve
removes excess salts from the sharks circulation
rectal gland
salt and water balance, eliminating toxic wastes
carries urine in both sexes and sperm in males
opisthonephric duct
making sperm
mestentary attaching ovaries to the body wall
storage of sperm and passing of sperm to the sperm sacs
seminal vesicles
a space formed by the union of the two sperm sacs in the male
urogenital sinus
making eggs
where are eggs released?
into the coelom
takes in immature eggs from the coelom and passes them to the oviducts
ostium tubae
secreats a membranous shell around groups of eggs and also serves a reservoir for sperm from the male
shell gland
passes the eggs from the ostium tubae to the uterus
stores and nutures the developing embryo
covers the heart
pericardial membrane
filled with fluid that reduces friction between the beating heart and surrounding structures
pericardial cavity
receives blood from the body and passes it to the atrium
sinus venosus
pumps blood into the ventricle
the most muscular portion of the heart; pumps blood into the bentral aorta through the gills and then around the circulatory system.
conducts blood from the ventricle to the ventral aorta
conus asteriosus
conduct blood from the ventral aorta to the gills
afferent branchial arteries
conduct blood from the gills to the dorsal aorta
efferent branchial arteries
carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the body
dorsal aorta
lead from the pharynx to the gill chambers
internal gill slits
a cartilage skeletal element that supports the gills
gill arch
protect the gills from food in the sharks mouth
gill rakers
unknown but perhaps preventing swallowed food particles from coming up the espophagus
esophageal papillae
not fully known but probably muscular coordination
processin of visual data
optic lobes
not fully known but probably control of simple relexes like blood pressure, heart rate, etc
not fully known but probably processing sensory information and sending signals to the muscles
processing of chemical stimuli in the water
olfactory lobes

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