Forensic Psychology: Chapter 1

39 cards


 
  
Created Jan 21, 2013
by
Sarah_Blanco

 

 
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1
What does the word 'forensic' come from?
 
The latin term, 'forum'

2
What are the three forms of forensic psychologists?
 
- Clinicians
- Researchers
- Legal Scholars
3
What type of training do clinicians, researchers, and legal scholars have?
 
Clinicians
- Spezialized training in the treatment of special groups
- Some legal...
4
What are 4 tasks a legal scholar might engage in?
 
- mental health law 
- psychology oriented legal movements
- policy analysis
5
What are 6 tasks a researcher might engage in?
 
- Effectiveness fo risk assessment strategies 
- Factors that influence jury decision...
6
What are 6 tasks a clinician might engage in? 
 
- divorce and custody mediation
- determination of criminal responsibility and competency...
7
Describe the procedure and results of the 'Ekman & O'sullivan' experiment in...
 
People were tested at their ability to detect lies. 509 subjects watched a video of 10 people,...
8
Describe the 'McNaughten Rule' from 1843
 
The 'McNaughten Rule' was a reaction to the acquittal of a man named Daniel M'Naughten...
9
Describe the results from Catell's studies.
 
Catell began asking 56 of his students simple questions based on memory such as 'what was...
10
What method of interrogation did Freud believe would compel people to reveal their guilt or...
 
Word association: the clinician will say a word, and the subject will have to reply with an...
11
In what was did Munsterberg contribute to forensic psychology?
 
Munsterberg
- Is credited with founding forensic psychology
- Wrote 'On the...
12
Describe each of the chapters in Munsterberg's book, "On the Witness Stand"
 
1) Illusions: people don't always see things as they are (e.g. lighting can alter your...
13
Why were Moore and other juges critical of Munsterber'gs claim that psychology could help...
 
- Munsterberg phrased his writing in a way that was critical of judges
- They didn't...
14
What is the significance of the 'Brown v. Board of Education' (1954) case? 
 
In footnote 11, research from psychologists was cited as evidence in a supreme court ruling...
15
What is the significance of the 'Jenkins v. United States' (1962) case?
 
The judge ruled that psychologists were't qualified to make dignoses for mental disorders...
16
What is the significance of the 'Frye v. United States' (1994) case?
 
It caused the 'Frye Criterion' to be developed.

Expert testimony of...
17
What is the significance of the 'R. V. Mohan' (1994) case? 
 
A psychologist testified that the person who committed the crimes (the sexual assault of four...
18
What reasons does Tanford (1990) give to explain why judges are skeptical of allowing psychologists...
 
- Judges are conservative and perceive social scientists as liberal

- judges...
19
What is Eyseneck's (1977) Perosnality Theory of Crime?
 
Eyseneck proposed that personalities are based on two spectrums
- Extroversion-Introversion:...
20
Describe the significance of the Menendez Brothers case
 
The Menendez brothers were on trial for killing their parents. However, three psychologists...
21
Describe a 'dual role' relationship
 
Dual role is having two relationships with the client (which can be either personal or professional)....
22
Describe the role of a 'trial consultant'
 
- An uncertified, unregulated profession
- they identify psychological issues (e.g....
23
Describe the results of the 'Doll Study'
 
Black children were given a caucasian doll and a black doll. They were asked, "Which doll...
24
Explain the difference between a 'fact witness' and a 'expert witness'
 
A fact witness is someone who has firsthand knowledge about a crime or significant event...
25
Describe the following three types of expert forensic psychology witnesses: 
1)...
 
C.E.: an expert witness who views their field as a priority

P.R.: they have...
26
Describe the results of the "Kassin et al" (1989) studies
 
63 PhD's answered a questionnare on how often they were asked to destify and whether they...
27
Describe the following forensic discliplines
1) Forensic anthropology
2) forensic...
 
1) anthropology: examining the remains of diceased victims

2) linguists: examining...
28
Explain the following three relationships between psychology and the law

1)...
 
1) P and the L: the use of psychology to examine the operation of the legal system (e.g. research...
29
Describe the results from Binet's (1900) studies
 
Binet conducted studies with children where he would ask them questions. Some of those questions...
30
Describe the results from Stern's (1993) study
 
He conducted studies that showed that a persons emotional arousal can impact the accuracy of...
31
What did Shrenck Notzing testify in court?
 
Schrenck-Notzing (1896) testified that extensive pretrial press coverage could influence the...
32
What did Varendonck (1991) testify in court?
 
Varendonck testified that children are very prone to suggestion by referencing studies in which...
33
What did Wigmore sue Munsterberg over?
 
Wigmore sued Munsterberg for 'claiming more than he could offer' through a series of...
34
Describe the following biological theories
1) Constitutional theory
2) Chromosomal...
 
1) Constitutional: crime is the product of an individuals body build which is assumed to be...
35
Describe the following sociological theories
1) Strain theory
2) Differential...
 
1) Strain theory: the strain felt by underprivileged individuals in society who have limited...
36
Describe the following psychological theories of crime
1) Maternal deprivation
2)...
 
1) Maternal deprivation: early separation from mothers retards social development and leads...
37
What are the five things identified in textbook as signs that forensic psychology is becoming...
 
1) Growing number of textbooks on forensic psychology
  2) Growing number...
38
Describe how law and psychology differ on the following 7 dimensions
1) Knowledge
 
Knowledge
P: acquired through cumulative research
L: acquired through legal precedent,...
39
What is the equivalent of the 'Mohan Criteria' in the U.S.?
 
Daubert Criteria (U.S.) 1) The research must be peer reviewed 2) The research must...


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