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Side ASide B
A liquid such as water that can hold another substance in a solution.
A substance that is either dissolved or suspended in a solution.
A solution that has the same concentration of solutes as another solution.
A solution that has MORE solutes than another solution.
A solution that has FEWER solutes than another solution.
0.9 Sodium Chloride or NS is an example of ______ used in a hospital setting.
Elements or compounds that dissolve in water and separate into ions that carry an electric...
What is the percentage of body water in a young adult, the elderly, and infants. (3 answers)
Young Adult: 60% Elderly: 45% Infants: 80%
An infants BSA is greater than that of an adult relative to his/her weight, with that and a...
Fluid Volume Defecit
This is triggered by the hypothalamus. As we age it becomes diminished, putting...
What electrolyte mainy controls the distribution of water throughout the body?
What is the dominant Cation in ICF?
What is the dominant Anion in ICF?
What is the dominant Cation in ECF?
What is the dominant Anion in ECF?
What amount of body water is intracellular fluid?
What amount of body water is extracellular?
Estracellular fluid consists of two compartments. What are they?
Interstitial Fluid Intravascular Fluid
What four processes do solutes and solvents move across the membranes?
Diffusion Osmosis Filtration (Hydrostatic Pressure) Active Transport (requires energy)
The MOVEMENT OF WATER through a semipermiable membrane from a solution with a lower...
What is the pulling power of a solution for water?
Term used to express osmotic pressure?
Osmolality* *The higher the osmolality the greater the pulling power of water
What is the Normal Serum Olsmolality Level?
The process by which large particles, such as protien, that can pull fluid from tissues...
Colloidal Osmotic Pressure
The movement of a solute in a solution across a semipermable membrane from an area of higher...
This requires energy to move substances across cell membranes. It allows larger molecules...
This hormone is manufactured in the hypothalamus and is stored in the posterior pituitary gland...
This hormone is realesed by the Adrenal Cortex it causes the kidneys to reabsorb Na+ and water...
Because Sodium retention leads to water retention, Aldosteron acts as a _______.
The production of Aldosterone is stimulated by: Decreased _____ _____ _____ _____ and...
Decreased: B/P, Blood Volume, Sodium (Na+) Increased: Potassium (K+)
Aldosterone is NOT produced with Increased _____ _____ _____ _____ and decreased _____
Increased: B/P, Blood Volume, Sodium (Na+) Decreased : Potassium (K+)
The average adult releases ____-____ ml of fluid output daily
With what four organs does fluid ouput occur?
Kidneys 1500 ml/day (Sensible) Skin 600ml/day (Insensible lungs 400ml/day (Insensible) GI...
When fluid loss is not perceived b the individual, it is called _________
Insensible Fluid Loss
When fluid loss is perceived by the individual, it is called ________
Sensible Fluid Loss
What is the functioning unit of the kidney?
The nephron filters blood at a rate of _______/min
What amounf of uring/kg of body weight/hour is produced by all ages.
Name two common fluid imbalances in the body.
Edema and Dehydration
When water and electrolytes gained or lost in equal proportion
Isotonic fluid imbalances
When only water is gained or lost
Osmolar fluid imbalances
What occurs when water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportions?
Fluid losses are primarily in the ____ (the least stable fluid compartment)
Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF)
This occurs when more water is lost than electolytes
A lower Serum Osmolality suggests...
A higher Serum Osmolality suggests...
These two values are often high due to Hemoconcentration.
Hct and BUN
Normal Serum Soduim Level
Normal Serum Potassium Level
Normal Serum Calcium Level
Normal Serum Chloride Level
Normal Serum Phosphate Level
Normal Serum Magnesium Level
Normal Serum Bicarbonate Level
Name the 3 types of IV Solutions
Isotonic (NS 0.9) Hypotonic (1/2 NS 0.45) Hypertonic (D5NS)
What is the main role of Na+
To control water distribution and maintian normal fluid balance
Sodium dilution from increased volume states
This is caused by excessive administration of hypotonic fluids, diseases that add increased...
Signs and symptoms of Hyponatremia
Water shifts from vascular space into the cells causeing headache and altered mental status Abdominal...
This is caused by Excess sodium intake, or excessive infusion of sodium fluids, decreased sodium...
Signs and symptoms of Hypernatremia
Whater shifts from Cells (cellular dehydration) into the vascular space. Dry mucous membranes,...
What is the main role of K+
maintain cell membrane electric potential. Neuromuscular function
Duretics, excessive loss of GI fliuds, increase secretion of Asldosterone, and high glucose...
Signs and symptoms of Hypokalemia
Weak thready pulse, EKG changes, Paralytic ileus and Muscle weakness: leg cramps
This is caused by excessive intake from foods, salt substitues, IV infusion of KCL, decreased...
Signs and symptoms of Hyperkalemia
EKG changes, Irregular slow heart rate, Increased peristalsis, causeing nausea, vomiting or...
Principle functions of this elecrolyte include enhanced bone strength, normal clotting of the...
Hypoparathyroidism , decreased magnesium leves inadequate Vitamin D, increased Phosphorus...
Signs and Symptoms of Hypocalcemia
Decreased blood pressure and decreased myocardial contractility, increased bleeding, nubness...
Positive Chvostek's sign is described as
Tapping on the face at the point just anterior to the ear and just below the cheek bone. ...
Positive Trousseau's sign is described as
inflating a B/P cuff above systolic blood pressue for several minutes. Positive if...
Bones stones and grones, hyperparathyroidism, metastic cancer and decreased phosphourus...
this is clossaly associated with serum sodum levels, principle functions include serum...
Caused by decreased intake or absorption, prolonged vomiting , sweating, diarrhea, or GI drainage,...
Caused by certain drugs that lead to retention, usually associated with increased Na+ levels
Thees two elecrolytes have an inverse relationship when one is up the other is down
Calcium and Phosphorus
This causes Increased Serum Calcium Levels (hypercalcemia) and Decresed Serum Phosphorus...
This causes Decreased Serum Calcium Levels (hypocalcemia) and Increased Serum Phosphorus Levels...
Name the common complications with IV therapy
Infiltration Phlebitis/Thrombophlebitis Infection (local or systemic) Fluid Overload Bleeding