Fluid and Electrolytes made easy

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Fluid and Electrolyte Nursing 101


 
  
Created Dec 13, 2009
by
hkovalic

 

 
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1
A liquid such as water that can hold another substance in a solution.
 
Solvent
2
A substance that is either dissolved or suspended in a solution.
 
Solute
3
A solution that has the same concentration of solutes as another solution.
 
Isotonic Solution
4
A solution that has MORE solutes than another solution.
 
Hypertonic Solution
5
A solution that has FEWER solutes than another solution.
 
Hypotonic Solution
6
0.9 Sodium Chloride or NS is an example of ______ used in a hospital setting.
 
Isotonic Solution
7
Elements or compounds that dissolve in water and separate into ions that carry an electric...
 
Electrolytes
8
What is the percentage of body water in a young adult, the elderly, and infants.  (3 answers)
 

Young Adult: 60%

Elderly: 45%

Infants: 80%

9
An infants BSA is greater than that of an adult relative to his/her weight, with that and a...
 
Fluid Volume Defecit
10
This is triggered by the hypothalamus.  As we age it becomes diminished, putting...
 
Thirst Mechanism
11
What electrolyte mainy controls the distribution of water throughout the body?
 
Sodium
12
What is the dominant Cation in ICF?
 
Pottasium (K+)
13
What is the dominant Anion in ICF?
 
Phosphorous (PO4-)
14
What is the dominant Cation in ECF?
 
Sodium (Na+)
15
What is the dominant Anion in ECF?
 
Chloride (Cl-)
16
What amount of body water is intracellular fluid?
 
2/3
17
What amount of body water is extracellular?
 
1/3
18
Estracellular fluid consists of two compartments.  What are they?
 

Interstitial Fluid

Intravascular Fluid

19
What four processes do solutes and solvents move across the membranes?
 

Diffusion

Osmosis

Filtration (Hydrostatic Pressure)

Active Transport...

20
The MOVEMENT OF WATER through a semipermiable membrane from a solution with a lower...
 
Osmosis
21
What is the pulling power of a solution for water?
 
Osmotic Pressure
22
Term used to express osmotic pressure?
 

Osmolality*

*The higher the osmolality the greater the pulling power of water

23
What is the Normal Serum Olsmolality Level?
 
280-300 mOsm/kg
24
The process by which large particles, such as protien, that can pull fluid from tissues...
 
Colloidal Osmotic Pressure
25
The movement of a solute in a solution across a semipermable membrane from an area of higher...
 
Diffusion
26
This requires energy to move substances across cell membranes.  It allows larger molecules...
 
Active Transport
27
This hormone is manufactured in the hypothalamus and is stored in the posterior pituitary gland...
 
ADH
28
This hormone is realesed by the Adrenal Cortex it causes the kidneys to reabsorb Na+ and...
 
Aldosterone
29
Because Sodium retention leads to water retention, Aldosteron acts as a _______.
 
Volume Expander
30

The production of Aldosterone is stimulated by:

Decreased _____ _____ _____...

 

Decreased: B/P, Blood Volume, Sodium (Na+)

Increased: Potassium (K+)

31

Aldosterone is NOT produced with

Increased _____ _____ _____ _____ and decreased...

 

Increased: B/P, Blood Volume, Sodium (Na+)

Decreased : Potassium (K+)

32
The average adult releases ____-____ ml of fluid output daily
 
2600-3600 ml
33
With what four organs does fluid ouput occur?
 

Kidneys 1500 ml/day (Sensible)

Skin 600ml/day (Insensible

lungs 400ml/day...

34
When fluid loss is not perceived b the individual, it is called _________
 
Insensible Fluid Loss
35
When fluid loss is perceived by the individual, it is called ________
 
Sensible Fluid Loss
36
What is the functioning unit of the kidney?
 
Nephron
37
The nephron filters blood at a rate of _______/min
 
125ml
38
What amounf of uring/kg of body weight/hour is produced by all ages.
 
1 ml/hr
39
Name two common fluid imbalances in the body.
 

Edema and

Dehydration

40
When water and electrolytes gained or lost in equal proportion
 
Isotonic fluid imbalances
41
When only water is gained or lost
 
Osmolar fluid imbalances
42
What occurs when water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportions?
 
Isotonic Dehydration
43
Fluid losses are primarily in the ____ (the least stable fluid compartment)
 
Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF)
44
This occurs when more water is lost than electolytes
 
Osmolar Dehydration
45
A lower Serum Osmolality suggests...
 
Fluid Overload
46
A higher Serum Osmolality suggests...
 
Fluid Dehydration
47
These two values are often high due to Hemoconcentration.
 
Hct and BUN
48
Normal Serum Soduim Level
 
135-145 mEq/L
49
Normal Serum Potassium Level
 
3.5-5.0 mEq/L
50
Normal Serum Calcium Level
 
8.5-10.5mg/dl
51
Normal Serum Chloride Level
 
95-108 mEq/L
52
Normal Serum Phosphate Level
 
2.5-4.5 mg/dL
53
Normal Serum Magnesium Level
 
1.4-2.1 mEq/dL
54
Normal Serum Bicarbonate Level
 
22-26 mEq/dL
55
Name the 3 types of IV Solutions
 

Isotonic (NS 0.9)

Hypotonic (1/2 NS 0.45)

Hypertonic (D5NS)

56
What is the main role of Na+
 
To control water distribution and maintian normal fluid balance
57
Sodium dilution from increased volume states
 
Dilutinal Hyponatremia
58
This is caused by excessive administration of hypotonic fluids, diseases that add increased...
 
Hyponatremia
59
Signs and symptoms of Hyponatremia
 

Water shifts from vascular space into the cells causeing headache and altered mental status

Abdominal...

60
This is caused by Excess sodium intake, or excessive infusion of sodium fluids, decreased sodium...
 
Hypernatremia
61
Signs and symptoms of Hypernatremia
 
Whater shifts from Cells (cellular dehydration) into the vascular space.  Dry mucous membranes,...
62
What is the main role of K+
 
maintain cell membrane electric potential.  Neuromuscular function
63
Duretics, excessive loss of GI fliuds, increase secretion of Asldosterone, and high glucose...
 
Hypokalemia
64
Signs and symptoms of Hypokalemia
 
Weak thready pulse, EKG changes, Paralytic ileus and Muscle weakness: leg cramps
65
This is caused by excessive intake from foods, salt substitues, IV infusion of KCL, decreased...
 
Hyperkalemia
66
Signs and symptoms of Hyperkalemia
 
EKG changes, Irregular slow heart rate, Increased peristalsis, causeing nausea, vomiting or...
67
Principle functions of this elecrolyte include enhanced bone strength, normal clotting of the...
 
Calcium
68
Hypoparathyroidism , decreased magnesium leves inadequate Vitamin D, increased Phosphorus...
 
Hypocalcemia
69
Signs and Symptoms of Hypocalcemia
 
Decreased blood pressure and decreased myocardial contractility, increased bleeding, nubness...
70
Positive Chvostek's sign is described as
 
Tapping on the face at the point just anterior to the ear and just below the cheek bone. ...
71
Positive Trousseau's sign is described as
 
inflating a B/P cuff above systolic blood pressue for several minutes.  Positive if...
72
Bones stones and grones, hyperparathyroidism, metastic cancer and decreased phosphourus...
 
Hypercalcemia
73
this is clossaly associated with serum sodum levels, principle functions include  serum...
 
Chloride (Cl-)
74
Caused by decreased intake or absorption, prolonged vomiting , sweating, diarrhea, or GI drainage,...
 
Hypochloremia
75
Caused by certain drugs that lead to retention, usually associated with increased Na+ levels
 
Hyperchloremia
76
Thees two elecrolytes have an inverse relationship when one is up the other is down
 
Calcium and Phosphorus
77

This causes Increased Serum Calcium Levels (hypercalcemia)

and Decresed  Serum...

 
Hyperparathyroidism
78
This causes Decreased Serum Calcium Levels (hypocalcemia) and Increased Serum Phosphorus Levels...
 
Hypoparathyroidism
79
Name the common complications with IV therapy
 

Infiltration

Phlebitis/Thrombophlebitis

Infection (local or systemic)

Fluid...

80
the
 
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