FAMR 230 Exam 1

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FAMR 230 Exam 1

Flashcards Of Terms For The FAMR 230 Class. UH Manoa.

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Lifespan Development
 
Continues through life
3 Interrelated areas of Lifespan development
 
Physical, cognitive, psychosocial
Cohort
 
A group of people born around the same time in the same place
Continuous change
 
Gradual developments where achievements BUILD on previous level
Discontinuous change
 
Distinct steps, each behavior brings out a different change
Critical period
 
Time during development where stimuli has its greatest consequences (Long lasting, irreversible consequences)
Sensitive period
 
Reversible consequences, if stimuli are removed
Maturation
 
Any factor that is produced by the predetermined unfolding of genetic information
Freud's psychoanalytic theory
 
UNCONCIOUS forces act to determine personality and behavior, the unconscious is a part of a person's personality that they are unaware of. i.e. hidden wishes/desires
Freud's 3 components of personality
 
id - raw, unorganized inborn part of personality present at birth, pleasure principleego-rational and reasonable, buffer between world and idsuperego-person's conscience, distinctions between right and wrong
Erikson's psychosocial theory
 
Society and culture shape us
Psychosocial development
 
Changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of us as members of society
Behavioral perspective (SKINNER)
 
Keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment
Operant conditioning
 
Form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive/negative consequences
Behavior modification
 
Formal technique of promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones
Piaget's cognitive theory
 
All pass through fixed sequence series of universal stages of cognitive development, quality of knowledge and understanding
Humanistic perspective
 
People have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior
Bioecological approach
 
Perspective that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory
 
Cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture
Scientific method
 
Posing and answering questions using systematic, orderly observation and data collection
Hypothesis
 
Prediction that can be tested
Naturalistic observation
 
Naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention
Case studies
 
Interviews
Independent variable
 
Variable that researches manipulate
Dependent variable
 
Variable that researchers expect to change and measure
Sample
 
Group of participants chosen for an experiment
Longitudinal research
 
Behavior of one or more participants is measured as they age
Cross-sectional research
 
People of different ages are compared at the same time
Sequential studies
 
Examine number of different age groups over several points in time
Zygote
 
Fertilized egg
Chromosomes
 
23 pairs for humans
Monozygotic twins
 
Identical twins, one egg
Dizygotic twins
 
Fraternal twins, two eggs
Boy or girl
 
Determined by the 23rd chromosome, XY - boy XX - girl
Down syndrome
 
Extra chromosome in 21st pair
Genetic counseling
 
Helps people deal with issues related to inherited disorders
Chriionic villus sampling
 
Test used to find genetic defects, uses samples of hair-like material that surrounds embryo
Amniocentesis
 
Identifies genetic defects using sample of fetal cells
Fertilization
 
Sperm + ovum = zygote
Stages of prenatal period
 
Germinal- First two weeks after conception, shortest period. Division and differentiation of cells occur.Embryonic- 2-8 weeks, critical period, organs developFetal- 8 weeks - birth, last stage of prenatal development
Teratogen
 
Environmental agent (drug, virus, etc.) that produces birth defect
Neonate
 
Term for newborn
Episiotomy
 
Incision made to increase size of vagina allowing baby to pass (GOD DAMN)
Apgar scale
 
Rating system for new born's health, 7-10 is a healthy baby
Anoxia
 
Restriction of oxygen to baby during birth process that can produce brain damage
Bonding
 
Close physical and emotional contact between parent and child immediately following birth.
Preterm infants
 
Infants born prior to 38 weeks after conception
Low birth weight infants
 
Infants who weigh less than 5.5 lbs at birth
Small for gestational age infants
 
Delayed fetal growth causes infants to weigh 90% or less of infants of the same gestational age
very low birthweight infants
 
Infants who weigh less than 2.25 grams or have been in the womb less than 30 weeks
Reflexes
 
Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically from certain stimuli
Habituation
 
Decrease in response to stimulus after it appears repeatedly
Cephalocaudal principle
 
Principle that growth begins at the head and upper body parts and proceeds downwards
Proximodistal principle
 
Principle that development proceeds from center of body outwards
Synaptic pruning
 
Elimination of neurons as the result of nonuse or lack of stimulation
Myelin
 
Fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds transmission of nerve impulses
Plasticity
 
degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable
Rhythms
 
Repetitive, cyclical patterns of behaivor
State
 
Degree of awareness an infant displays to internal and external stimulation
Gross motor skills
 
Involves the whole body
Fine motor skills
 
Hand-eye coordination, picking up a cup to drink
Developmental norms
 
Average performance of large sample of children at a given age
Malnutrition
 
improper amount and balance of nutrient, produces several results, none good. Marasmus for children under 1
Piaget's approach
 
Qualitative, all children must pass through 4 universal stages
Schemes
 
Organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning
Assimilation
 
Incorporates new information
Accommodation
 
Changes information
Deferred imitation
 
Person who is no longer present is imitated later
Information processing approaches
 
Model that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information
Holophrases
 
One-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase
Telegraphic speech
 
2 word speech (doggy go)
Infant directed speech
 
Speech for infants, short simple sentences
Stranger anxiety
 
Caution and wariness displayed by an infant encountering a stranger
Separation anxiety
 
Distress when customary care provider departs
Social smile
 
Smiling in response to others
Social referencing
 
Looking to trusted adult on how to act in unfamiliar situations
Attachment
 
Social bond between child and an individual
Ainsworth Strange Situation
 
sequence of staged episodes that illustrates strength of attachment between child and mother
Secure attachment pattern
 
Style of attachment that uses mother as home base, at ease when present, uneasy when she leaves and runs to her when she returns.
Reciprocal socialization
 
infant's behavior bring responses from parents and caregivers, which brings out more response from infants
Personality
 
Characteristics that differentiates one from another
Trust verus mistrust stage
 
Period where infants develop sense of trust or mistrust, depending on how needs are met by caregiver -Erikson
Autonomy-versus-shame-and doubt stage
 
Period which toddlers (18 months - 3 years) develop independence if they are free to explore or shame if they are restricted
Temperament
 
Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are constant and enduring characteristics
Goodness of fit
 
Notion that development is dependent on degree of match between children's temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised.
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