Exam Body

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Exam Body

Body Test

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All of the structures of the CNS originate from the
 
neural tube
Which of the following is not one of the three basic regions of the cerebral hemisphere
 
The blood- and oxygen-rich red zone Each cerebral hemisphere has three basic regions: a superficial cortex of gray matter, internal white matter, and the basal nuclei.
Choose the true statement regarding pyramidal cells
 
They allow us to control our skeletal muscles The primary (somatic) motor cortex is located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe of each hemisphere. Large neurons, called pyramidal cells, in these gyri allow us to consciously control the precise or skilled voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles.
What is the main role of the olfactory cortex
 
detection of odors
Spatial discrimination is the ability to identify the specific region of the body being stimulated
 
true
Which of the following is true of the multimodal association cortex
 
It allows us to tie information that we receive to previous experience and knowledge, and helps us decide what action to take. The multimodal association cortex allows us to give meaning to the information that we receive, store it in memory if needed, tie it to previous experience and knowledge, and decide what action to take.
__________ is a division of labor in which each hemisphere has unique abilities not shared by its partner
 
Lateralization
___________ is responsible for communication between cerebral areas and between the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers
 
The cerebral white matter
Which of the following is not a part of the diencephalon
 
Perithalamus
Which of the following areas regulates body temperature, food intake, and sleep-wake cycles
 
Hypothalamus
Which of the following is not one of the major regions of the brain stem
 
Cerebellum From superior to inferior, the brain stem regions are midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
Which of the following regions acts as an autonomic reflex center of the brain
 
Medulla oblongata The small size of the medulla oblongata belies its crucial role as an autonomic reflex center involved in maintaining body homeostasis. Important visceral motor nuclei found in the medulla include the following:
  1. Cardiovascular center, which adjusts the force and rate of heart contraction to meet the body's needs, and changes blood vessel diameter to regulate blood pressure;
  2. Respiratory center, which generates the respiratory rhythm and helps to control the rate and depth of breathing;
  3. Various other centers, regulating activities such as vomiting, hiccupping, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing.
_________ is a homeostatic brain imbalance that causes a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep.
 
Sleep apnea
Which of the following meninges forms the loose, mid-layer brain covering
 
Arachnoid matter
Which of the following is a protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain
 
Blood-brain barrier The blood-brain barrier is a protective mechanism that helps maintain a stable environment for the brain
Which of the following is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain that ultimately results in dementia
 
Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain that ultimately results in dementia
Choose the true statement regarding second-order neurons
 
Second-order neuron cell bodies reside in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord Second-order neuron cell bodies reside in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord or in the medullary nuclei, and they transmit impulses to the thalamus or to the cerebellum where they synapse
First Order neurons
 
cell bodies reside in ganglion, conduct impuses from the cutaneous receptors of the skin and from porprioceptors to the spinal cord or brain stem, where they synapse with second order neurons.
Third order neurons
 
have cell bodies in the thalamus. they relay impulsesto the somatosensory cortex of the cerebrum. (NO THIRD ORDER NEURONS IN THE CEREBELLUM)
Which of the following conditions results from viral destruction of ventral horn motor neurons
 
Poliomyelitis Poliomyelitis results from destruction of ventral horn motor neurons by the poliovirus. Early symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain and weakness, and loss of some somatic reflexes. Later, paralysis develops and the muscles served atrophy.
Cerebral palsy may be caused by a temporary lack of oxygen during birth
 
True In difficult deliveries, a temporary lack of oxygen may lead to cerebral palsy
Anencephaly is a result of incomplete formation of the vertebral arches, and can be caused by inadequate folic acid in the maternal diet
 
False Spina bifida is a result of incomplete formation of the vertebral arches, and can be caused by inadequate amounts of the B vitamin folic acid in the maternal diet
In which of the following areas does sorting and editing of impulses take place
 
Thalamic nuclei Within the thalamus a sorting-out and information editing process occurs. Virtually all inputs ascending to the cerebral cortex funnel through the thalamic nuclei.
Which of the following is a function of the pons
 
Contains nuclei that relay information from the cerebrum to cerebellum The pons is a "bridge" carrying info to/from the cerebellum
Which of the following areas is NOT involved in speech processing
 
Superior colliculi The superior colliculi function in visual reflexes
Which of the following areas of the brain is involved in maintaining the body's homeostasis
 
Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is the main visceral control center in the body and important to overall body homeostasis. Few tissues in the body escape its influence
Which of the following centers is NOT located in the hypothalamus
 
Center for central balance The center for central balance is in the cerebellum
Which of the following coordinate head and eye movements when we visually follow a moving object
 
Superior colliculi The superior colliculi are visual reflex centers that coordinate head and eye movements when we visually follow a moving object
Which of the following is a function of the basal ganglia
 
Starting, stopping, and monitoring arm swinging and gait Starting, stopping, and monitoring arm swinging and gait are functions of the basal ganglia
Which of the following is NOT one of the basal nuclei
 
Corpus callosum The corpus callosum is the largest commissure in the cerebral cortex and is composed of white matter
Which of the following is the autonomic control center
 
Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is the control center for the autonomic nervous system
Which type of brain waves are seen when a person is concentrating on solving a problem
 
Beta waves Beta waves are recorded when we are awake and alert
Which part of the brain is involved in thirst sensations
 
Hypothalamus Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are activated when body fluid is too concentrated. This also stimulates the thirst receptors, which are also located in the hypothalamus
Which part of the brain produces dopamine
 
Substantia nigra The substantia nigra gets its name from its high content of melanin, which is a precursor of dopamine
Which of the following statements concerning epilepsy is INCORRECT
 
It is associated with intellectual impairment. Epilepsy is not associated with, nor does it cause, intellectual impairments
Which of the following is the central layer of the meninges
 
Arachnoid mater The arachnoid mater is the middle layer
The average weight of the adult brain is
 
3-3.5 lb The average weight of the adult brain is 3-3.5 lb
The CNS can be differentiated in the developing embryo by week
 
four. The CNS can be differentiated in the developing embryo by week four
Which of the following landmarks separates the cerebral hemispheres
 
The longitudinal fissure The transverse cerebral fissure separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
The cerebral cortex has all the following features, except that
 
it is composed of white mater
The visceral sensory area of the cerebral cortex is involved in the conscious perception of all the following, except:
 
taste The visceral sensory area of the cerebral cortex processes the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold Your breathe.
In which part of the cerebral cortex do sensations, emotions, and thoughts come together and make us who we are
 
The multimodal associate areas It is now thought that the multimodal areas of the cerebral cortex are where sensations, emotions, and thoughts come together and make us who we are
Which part of the cerebellum is involved in planning, rather that executing, movement
 
The lateral part of each hemisphere The lateral part of each hemisphere of the cerebellum is involved in planning, rather that executing, movement.
All the following are attributed to the function of the amygdale, except
 
resolving mental conflict. Resolving mental conflict is a function of the cingulated gyrus
The sensory hallucinations experienced by epileptic patients are known as
 
the aura. A petit mal is the old term used for an absence seizure
Which of the following statements about language is INCORRECT
 
All the associated areas on the right side of the cerebral cortex are involved in language
Working memory
 
is limited to seven or eight chunks of information. Working memory, also known as short-term memory, is limited to seven or eight chunks of information
Which of the following neurotransmitters is thought to prime the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobes to form memories
 
Acetylcholine Acetylcholine is thought to prime the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobes to form memories
If you are having a conversation with a person, excuse yourself for five minutes, and come back and the person no longer knows you, the person would be suffering from
 
anterograde amnesia. A person with epilepsy would suffer from seizures, but this would not affect their long- or short-term memory.
The main culprit in the damage caused by a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is
 
glutamate. Serotonin is not thought to play a role in the production of brain damage that results after a CVA
All of the following features can be seen in the brain tissue of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, except
 
increased levels of acetylcholine in the basal forebrain. Tau is the protein involved in the neurofibrillary tangles seen in Alzheimer's patients
Deep brain stimulation via implanted electrodes has been used to treat some of the symptoms of
 
Parkinson's disease. Deep brain stimulation via implanted electrodes has not been used to treat some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
Which of the following structures is not a part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
 
Brain See page 485. The PNS includes all neural structures outside the brain and spinal cord
Mechanoreceptors
 
stretch
Thermoreceptors
 
temperature
Chemoreceptors
 
chemicals in solution
Photoreceptors
 
light energy
Nocioreceptors
 
pain
Proprioceptors are receptors that are classified by
 
their location. See page 486. Sensory receptors are named based on the type of stimulus they recognize, their location, and their structural complexity. Proprioceptors are classified by their location.
Simple receptors found in epithelia and connective tissue tend to
 
uncapsulated dendritic endings
Which of the following has unencapsulated nerve endings
 
hair folicle receptors is especially helpful. Hair follicle receptors, free nerve endings of sensory neurons, and tactile discs have unencapsulated nerve endings. All of the other receptors listed have encapsulated nerve endings.
The final level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the ______ level
 
perceptual
Fast adapting receptors are called
 
phasic receptors Many sensory receptors exhibit adaptation. Adaptation is a change in sensitivity (and nerve impulse generation) in response to a constant stimulus. Phasic receptors are fast adapting receptors. Tonic receptors provide a sustained response with little or no adaptation. Nociceptors and most proprioceptors are tonic receptors because of the protective nature of the information they convey
Most nerves are able to carry impulses both toward and away from the CNS
 
true
CNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate
 
false Unlike peripheral nerve fibers, nerves of the CNS (brain and spinal cord) do not regenerate. Thus, damage to the brain or spinal cord is typically considered irreversible
A nerve that carries autonomic signals away from the CNS is classified as
 
visceral efferant Visceral refers to autonomic nervous system fibers. Afferent means toward the CNS (sensory), while efferent means away from the CNS (motor). Thus, a nerve that carries autonomic signals away from the CNS would be classified as a visceral efferent nerve.
Choose the false statement about cranial nerves
 
The cranial nerves are associated with the spinal cord. See page 493. The cranial nerves are associated with the brain, not the spinal cord. All of the other statements are true.
The first two pairs of cranial nerves attach to the
 
forebrain
All spinal nerves are mixed nerves.
 
true
If the phrenic nerve were severed, what would be the most immediate effect
 
breathing would stop The phrenic nerve serves the diaphragm. If this nerve is irritated, then hiccups result. If this nerve is crushed or damaged, the diaphragm becomes paralyzed and independent breathing ceases.
The pinching motion (with opposed thumb and forefinger) is highly dependent upon impulses transmitted by the:
 
median nerve
Which of the following is false regarding the sciatic nerve
 
The sciatic nerve is a single nerve
The first level of motor control is the
 
segmental level
Which structure is involved in the projection level of motor control
 
primary motor cortex
In a reflex arc, the ___ transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
 
sensory neuron
The flexor reflex is initiated by painful stimuli
 
true
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