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Exam 2: Anatomy And Physiology

Anatomy Test Chs 5-8
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Side ASide B
organ system
a group of interacting organs forming a whole
skin
membranous tissue forming the external covering of a human and the epidermis and dermis
dermatology
the branch of medicine that is concerned with the physiology and pathology of the skin
excretion
the physiological processes of discharging waste
subcutaneous
located beneath skin, usually within the dermis
hypodermis
the layer of loose connective tissue containing fat cells below the dermis in many regions...
elasticity
flexibility
superficial fascia
sheet of irregular dense fibrous connective tissue separating the dermis from its muscles,...
vitamin D
fat-soluble vitamin; produced in skin by ultraviolent irradiation of sterols found in milk
epidermal derivative
any specialized structure of the epidermis including hair and hair follicles, nails, sweat...
epidermal ridges
unique patterns of epidermis which are located on the palms of the hands and soles of feet-fingerprints
thermoregulation
maintenance of internal body temperature
primary germ layers
first three tissue types to differentiate in an early stage of embryonic development, ectoderm,...
ectoderm
the outermost layer of an embryo
mesoderm
the middle layer of the embryo, lying between the ectoderm and the endoderm
endoderm
the innermost layer of an animal embryo
epidermis
the outer, protective layer of stratified squamous epithelium covering the dermis
keratinization
process of converting (hair, nails, horns..) into keratin
keratohyaline
the protein precursor to keratin which is the form of the protein in the stratum granulosum...
keratin
a tough, protein; helps protect the epidermis from abrasion and water loss
keratinocytes
vast majority of cells comprising of stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis
melanocytes
small set of spider-shaped epidermal cells int he stratum germinativum (10-25% of the basale...
epidermal dendritic cell=Langerhans' cells
a star-shaped macrophage derived from the bone marrow
Merkel cell
an exteroreceptor located in the stratum germinativum of the epidermis; a small receptor
stratum basale=stratum germinativum
the basal layer of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis, the youngest cells...
stratum spinosum
the second layer (from the bottom) of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis,...
stratum granulosum
the third deepest layer(from the bottom) of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis;...
stratum lucidum
the fourth deepest layer(from the bottom) of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis,...
stratum corneum
the outer protective layer ("horny layer") of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis,...
pili=hairs
an epidermal derivative produced by the hair follicle in the dermis of the skin
medulla
tthe interior of the hair shaft
cortex
the exterior of the hair shaft
hair follicle
the tubular infolding of the epidermis containing the root of the hair
bulb of the hair
the lower expanded section of the root of a hair which fits like a cap over the hair papilla
papilla of the hair
the small nipplelike projection or protuberance of areolar connective tissue at the base of...
arrector pili
short smooth muscle that extends from the side of a hair follicle on which the sebaceous gland...
root hair plexus
complex network of sensory nerve endings
nails
an epidermal derivative produced at the dorsal surface of the fingers and toes
dermis
the dense irregular fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin located below the epidermis,...
papillary region
20% of the dermis, consists areolar connective tissue
dermal papillae
series of bulges of the papillary region of the dermis of the skin
recticular region
80% of the dermis, consists of dense irregular connective tissue
corpuscles of touch
group of sensory receptors in the dermis, which respond to pressure or vibrations
tactile corpuscle=Meisner's corpuscle
in the dermal papillae; a small receptor surrounded by Schwann cells
lamellated corpuscle=Pacinian corpuscle
receptor scattered deep in the dermis; vibration


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