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Exam 2: Anatomy And Physiology


Anatomy Test Chs 5-8
  
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organ system
 
a group of interacting organs forming a whole
skin
 
membranous tissue forming the external covering of a human and the epidermis and dermis
dermatology
 
the branch of medicine that is concerned with the physiology and pathology of the skin
excretion
 
the physiological processes of discharging waste
subcutaneous
 
located beneath skin, usually within the dermis

hypodermis
 
the layer of loose connective tissue containing fat cells below the dermis in many regions of the body
elasticity
 
flexibility

superficial fascia
 
sheet of irregular dense fibrous connective tissue separating the dermis from its muscles, tendons, ligaments, or bones.
vitamin D
 
fat-soluble vitamin; produced in skin by ultraviolent irradiation of sterols found in milk

epidermal derivative
 
any specialized structure of the epidermis including hair and hair follicles, nails, sweat glands and sebaceous glands
epidermal ridges
 
unique patterns of epidermis which are located on the palms of the hands and soles of feet
-fingerprints

thermoregulation
 
maintenance of internal body temperature
primary germ layers
 
first three tissue types to differentiate in an early stage of embryonic development,
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

ectoderm
 
the outermost layer of an embryo
mesoderm
 
the middle layer of the embryo, lying between the ectoderm and the endoderm

endoderm
 
the innermost layer of an animal embryo
epidermis
 
the outer, protective layer of stratified squamous epithelium covering the dermis

keratinization
 
process of converting (hair, nails, horns..) into keratin
keratohyaline
 
the protein precursor to keratin which is the form of the protein in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis

keratin
 
a tough, protein; helps protect the epidermis from abrasion and water loss
keratinocytes
 
vast majority of cells comprising of stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis

melanocytes
 
small set of spider-shaped epidermal cells int he stratum germinativum (10-25% of the basale cells)
epidermal dendritic cell=Langerhans' cells
 
a star-shaped macrophage derived from the bone marrow

Merkel cell
 
an exteroreceptor located in the stratum germinativum of the epidermis; a small receptor
stratum basale=stratum germinativum
 
the basal layer of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis, the youngest cells which are undergoing mitosis

stratum spinosum
 
the second layer (from the bottom) of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis, consists of prickle cells
stratum granulosum
 
the third deepest layer(from the bottom) of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis; flattened spindle-shaped keratinocytes

stratum lucidum
 
the fourth deepest layer(from the bottom) of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis, only appears in the thick skin of the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
stratum corneum
 
the outer protective layer ("horny layer") of the stratified squamous epithelium of the epidermis, 20 or 30 cell layers thick; dead cells

pili=hairs
 
an epidermal derivative produced by the hair follicle in the dermis of the skin
medulla
 
tthe interior of the hair shaft

cortex
 
the exterior of the hair shaft
hair follicle
 
the tubular infolding of the epidermis containing the root of the hair

bulb of the hair
 
the lower expanded section of the root of a hair which fits like a cap over the hair papilla
papilla of the hair
 
the small nipplelike projection or protuberance of areolar connective tissue at the base of the bulb portion of the root of a hair which brings the capillary blood supply closer to the epidermal cells involved in the synthesis of the growing hair shaft.

arrector pili
 
short smooth muscle that extends from the side of a hair follicle on which the sebaceous gland is located to the basement membrane of the nearby epidermis
root hair plexus
 
complex network of sensory nerve endings

nails
 
an epidermal derivative produced at the dorsal surface of the fingers and toes
dermis
 
the dense irregular fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin located below the epidermis, containing nerve endings, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, and blood vessels

papillary region
 
20% of the dermis, consists areolar connective tissue
dermal papillae
 
series of bulges of the papillary region of the dermis of the skin

recticular region
 
80% of the dermis, consists of dense irregular connective tissue
corpuscles of touch
 
group of sensory receptors in the dermis, which respond to pressure or vibrations

tactile corpuscle=Meisner's corpuscle
 
in the dermal papillae; a small receptor surrounded by Schwann cells
lamellated corpuscle=Pacinian corpuscle
 
receptor scattered deep in the dermis; vibration


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