EPPP Physiological Psychology: Brain Anatomy and Physiology

70 cards

Study Guide: Brain Anatomy and Physiology for the Phys. Psych. section of EPPP


 
  
Created Sep 27, 2010
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1
Cerebellum
 
balance and posture; sensorimotor learning and some other aspects of cognitive functioning 
2
Cerebellum in conjunction with basal ganglia and motor cortex
 
vital to performance of coordinated and refined motor movements
3
Smaller-than-normal cerebellum
 
linked to Autism
4
Damage to cerebellum
 
Ataxia (slurred speech, severe tremors, loss of balance)
5
Reticular Formation
 
respiration, coughing, vomiting, posture, locomotion, REM sleep
6
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
 
part of reticular formation; consciousness, arousal, wakefulness; screens sensory input (esp....
7
Damage to Reticular Formation
 
disruption of sleep-wake cycle, can produce coma-like state of sleep
8
Forebrain
 
subcortical and cortical structures
9
Name subcortical structures
 
thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system
10
Thalamus
 
"relay station," transmits incoming sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cortex...
11
Korsakoff Syndrome
 
thalamus, mammillary bodies of hypothalamus; thiamine deficiency, usually from alcoholism;...
12
hypothalamus
 
hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, body temp, movement, emotional reactions, initiates responses needed...
13
Damage to hypothalamus
 
uncontrollable laughter, intense rage, aggression
14
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
 
located in hypothalamus; mediates sleep-wake cycle and other circadian rhythms; maybe involved...
15
Structures of basal ganglia
 
caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra
16
Basal Ganglia
 
planning, organizing, coordinating voluntary movement, regulating amplitude and direction of...
17
Disorders with motor symptoms that are associated with basal ganglia
 
Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome
18
Other basal ganglia-related disorders
 
mania, depression, ocd, psychosis
19
Limbic system
 
primarily associated with the mediation of emotion
20
Parts of the limbic system
 
Amygdala, Hippocampus
21
Amgdala functions
 
integrates, coordinates, directs motivational and emotional activities, attaches emotions to...
22
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
 
lesions in the amygdala and temporal lobes in primates caused: reduced fear and aggression,...
23
Hippocampus functions
 
learning and memory (less implicated in emotions than other limbic structures); processes spatial,...
24
Damage to hippocampus in conjunction with removal of temporal lobes
 
anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia (for events up to 3 years before surgery)
25
List lobes that make up each hemisphere of the Cerebral Cortex (cortical structures)
 
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
26
Name areas of frontal lobe
 
motor, premotor, prefrontal
27
Primary motor cortex functions
 
control of voluntary movements
28
Damage to primary motor cortex
 
loss of reflexes and flaccid hemiplegia (loss of muscle tone) in areas of body contralateral...
29
Premotor cortex functions
 
contains Broca's area (usually on left side); speech production
30
Damage to Broca's area
 
Broca's (expressive) aphasia; difficulties in producing spoken and written language
31
Prefrontal cortex functions
 
emotion, memory, self-awareness, executive (higher-level cognitive) functions
32
Name 2 types of personality change associated with damage to prefrontal cortex
 
Pseudodepression, Pseudopsychopathy
33
Symptoms of pseudodepression
 
apathy, lethargy, narrowing of interests, reduced emotional reactions, reduced interest in...
34
Symptoms of pseudopsychopathy
 
loss of social tact, lack of empathy, impulsivity, sexual disinhibition, inappropriate jocularity
35
Cognitive deficits related to damage to prefrontal cortex
 
problems with abstract thinking, planning ability, decision-making; perseveration, inability...
36
Hypofrontality (reduced metabolism in the prefrontal cortex)
 
linked to Schizophrenia, ADHD, normal age-related cognitive declines
37
Parietal lobe contains the...
 
somatosensory cortex
38
Functions of somatosensory cortex
 
governs pressure, temp, pain, proprioception, and gustation
39
Damage to parietal lobe
 
disturbances in spatial orientation, apraxia, somatosensory agnosia
40
Define apraxia
 
inability to perform skilled motor movements in the absence of impaired motor functioning
41
Define somatosensory agnosia
 
Inability to recognize familiar objects with use of the senses
42
Define tactile agnosia
 
inability to recognize familiar objects by touch
43
Define asomatognosia
 
failure to recognize parts of one's own body
44
Define anosognosia
 
inability to recognize one's own neurological symptoms or other disorder
45
Damage specifically to the right parietal lobe
 
contralateral neglect
46
Define contralateral neglect
 
loss of knowledge about or interest in the left side of the body
47
Damage specifically to the left parietal lobe
 
ideational apraxia, ideomotor apraxia, Gertsmann syndrome
48
Define ideational apraxia
 
inability to carry out a sequence of actions
49
Define ideomotor apraxia
 
inability to carry out a simple action in response to a command
50
Gertsmann syndrome
 
finger agnosia, right-left confusion, agraphia, acalculia
51
Temporal lobe contains the...
 
auditory cortex
52
Functions of auditory cortex
 
mediates auditory sensation and perception
53
Damage to the auditory cortex
 
auditory agnosia, auditory hallucinations, other disturbances in auditory sensation and perception
54
Location of Wernicke's area
 
located in left temporal lobe
55
Functions performed in Wernicke's area
 
receptive; involved in comprehension of language
56
Damage to Wernicke's area
 
Wernicke's (receptive) aphasia, characterized by severed deficits in language comprehension...
57
Function of areas of temporal lobe (other than Wernicke's area)
 
mediate encoding, retrieval, and storage of long-term declarative memories
58
Electrical stimulation of areas in temporal lobe
 
complex, vivid memories that had been previously forgotten
59
Damage to areas of temporal lobe
 
retrograde and anterograde amnesia
60
The occipital lobe contains the...
 
visual cortex
61
Functions of visual cortex
 
visual perception, recognition, and memory
62
Damage to occipital lobes
 
visual agnosia, visual hallucinations, cortical blindness, simultanagnosia
63
Damage to occipital lobe at junction with occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes
 
prosopagnosia
64
Define visual agnosia
 
inability to recognize familiar objects
65
Define simultanagnosia
 
inability to see more than one thing or one aspect of an object at a time
66
Define prosopagnosia
 
inability to recognize familiar faces
67
Name the structures of the hindbrain
 
brain stem (medulla and pons), cerebellum
68
Function of the medulla
 
influences flow of information between the spinal cord and the brain, coordinates swallowing,...
69
Damage to medulla
 
usually fatal
70
Function of the pons
 
connects two halves of cerebellum and plays a role in the integration of movements in the right...

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