Endocrine System Vocabulary, Chapter 18

Chapter 18, Endocrine System Vocabulary, Language Of Medicine, 8th Edition
  
Created Dec 27, 2009
by
marysummer
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adrenal cortex
Outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones.
adrenal medulla
Inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
ovaries
Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone...
pancreas
Located behind the stomach. 
parathyroid glands
Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland. 
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenohyophysis)...
testes
Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male.
thyroid gland
Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine.
adrenaline (epinephrine)
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increased heart rate and blook pressure.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); also called adrenocorticotropin. ...
aldosterone
Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increase salt (sodium) reabsorption.
androgen
Male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurophpopphysis) ADH (vasopressin)...
calcitonin
Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels.
cortisol
Secreted by te adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar.  It is secreted in times of stress...
epinephrine (adrenaline)
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways...
estradiol
Estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries.
estrogen
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser estent by the adrenal cortex.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland adenohypophysis). 
glucagon
Secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancreas; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen...
growth hormone (GH); somatotropin
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates growth of...
insulin
Secreted by beta islet cells of the pancreas.  Insulin lowers blood sugar by transport...
luteinizing hormone (LH)
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone...
norepinephrine
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
oxytocin (OT)
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus...
parathormone (PTH)
Secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium.
progesterone
Secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
prolactin (PRL)
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland promotes milk secretion.
somatotropin (STH)
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
testosterone
Male hormone secreted by the testes.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); thyrotropin
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; TSH acts on the thyroid gland to promote...
thyroxine (T4)
Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine.  T4 increases...
triiodothyronine (T3)
Secreted by the thyroid gland; T3 increases metabolism in cells.
vasopressin
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
catecholamines
Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla.  Epinephrine...
corticosteroids
Hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex.   Examples are cortisol (raises...
electrolyte
Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells;...
glucocorticoid
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulares glucose, fat, and protein metabolism. ...
homeostasis
Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.
hormone
Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ...
hypothalamus
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary grland.  It secretes...
mineralocorticoid
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate meineral salts (electrolytes) and...
receptor
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.
sella turcica
Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.
sex hormones
Steroids (androgens and estrogens) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female...
steroid
Complex substance related to fats (derived from a sterol, such as cholesterol), and of which...
sympathomimetic
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system.  Adrenaline...
target tissue
Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.


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