Endocrine System Vocabulary, Chapter 18


Chapter 18, Endocrine System Vocabulary, Language Of Medicine, 8th Edition
  
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adrenal cortex
 
Outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones.
adrenal medulla
 
Inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
ovaries
 
Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion.
pancreas
 
Located behind the stomach.
parathyroid glands
 
Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland.
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
 
Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenohyophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophsis).
testes
 
Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male.
thyroid gland
 
Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine.
adrenaline (epinephrine)
 
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increased heart rate and blook pressure.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
 
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); also called adrenocorticotropin. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex.
aldosterone
 
Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increase salt (sodium) reabsorption.
androgen
 
Male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
 
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurophpopphysis) ADH (vasopressin) increases reabsorption of water by the kidney.
calcitonin
 
Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels.
cortisol
 
Secreted by te adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar. It is secreted in times of stress and has an anti-flammatory effect.
epinephrine (adrenaline)
 
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic).
estradiol
 
Estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries.
estrogen
 
Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser estent by the adrenal cortex.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
 
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland adenohypophysis).
glucagon
 
Secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancreas; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen (starch) to glucose.
growth hormone (GH); somatotropin
 
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues.
insulin
 
Secreted by beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin lowers blood sugar by transport and conversion of glucose to glycogen (starch)
luteinizing hormone (LH)
 
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males.
norepinephrine
 
Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
oxytocin (OT)
 
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth.
parathormone (PTH)
 
Secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium.
progesterone
 
Secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
prolactin (PRL)
 
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland promotes milk secretion.
somatotropin (STH)
 
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
testosterone
 
Male hormone secreted by the testes.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); thyrotropin
 
Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; TSH acts on the thyroid gland to promote its functioning. Not secreted by the thyroid gland.
thyroxine (T4)
 
Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine. T4 increases metabolism in cells.
triiodothyronine (T3)
 
Secreted by the thyroid gland; T3 increases metabolism in cells.
vasopressin
 
Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
catecholamines
 
Hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine is a catecholamine.
corticosteroids
 
Hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex. Examples are cortisol (raises sugar levels), aldosterone (raises salt reabsorption by kidneys) and androgens and estrogens (sex hormones)
electrolyte
 
Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells; potassium, sodium, and calcium are electrolytes.
glucocorticoid
 
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulares glucose, fat, and protein metabolism. Cortisol raises blood sugar and is part of the stress response.
homeostasis
 
Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.
hormone
 
Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland.
hypothalamus
 
Region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary grland. It secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland.
mineralocorticoid
 
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate meineral salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Adlosterone is an example.
receptor
 
Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.
sella turcica
 
Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.
sex hormones
 
Steroids (androgens and estrogens) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics.
steroid
 
Complex substance related to fats (derived from a sterol, such as cholesterol), and of which many hormones are made. Examples are estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.
sympathomimetic
 
Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline is a sympathomimetic hormone (it raises blood pressure and heart rate and dilates airways).
target tissue
 
Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.

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