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Side ASide B
flow of energy and nutrients through the physical and biological systems
factors that influence the relative abundance of a species.
rates of birth and death, distribution of individuals
process by which the properties of populations change over generations... "Decent with modification from a single common ancestor"
class of individuals with common characteristics, qualities
two copies of the same allele (gene)
different alleles on each chromosome
the particular combination of alleles present at a locus
the outward appearance of an organism
dominant allele is that which is expressed and masks the other
recessive allele is masked and not expressed
the vertical region where water temperature declines most rapidly-depends on solar radiation input and level of mixing
those that feed on detritis-dead plant and animal matter-takes in food then digest unlike decomposer
the dropping of body temp to approx ambient temp for a part of each day, regardless of the season-Hummingbirds, bats, mice
blood circulation system, found in sharks and tunas and allows them to keep internal temps higher than external ones
animals that regulate body temps by both endothermy and ectothermy-bats bees hummingbirds
development of an egg without fertilizing
-animals can remain active regardless of env temps-animals must consume a lot of food to meet the energy demands of endothermy-->a minor amount of energy goes to growth
-animals can allocate more of their energy to biomass production-animals require fewer calories per gram of body weight so can colonize ares of limited food and water
-maintain body temp by oxidizing glucose in cellular respiration -Oxidation is not completely efficient and some energy is lost as heat-Homeothermic respiration rate...
Homeotherms regulate exchange between the body and env by: (3 ways)
1- insulation ----fur, feathers, body fat2-shivering---brown fat oxidation (prevalent in hibernators and human infants)3-Evaporative Cooling-sweating, panting...
animals that aquire heat from the external env--fish, amphibians, reptiles, insects, and other invertebrates-env sources of heat control the rates of metabolism and activity amongst...
a long seasonal torpor characterized by cessation of activity-terrestrial poikilotherms, heterothermic mammals
plants have separate male and female flowers on the same plant
plants have respective male and female organs
involves the formation of a lasting bond between one male and one female-common in birds, rare in mammals
the acquisition by an ind of two or more mates
ind female pairs with two or more males-relatively rare
an ind male pairs with two or more females
males and females mate with one or more of the opposite sex and form no pair bond
What are the 3 types of natural selection?
1- Directional selection occurs when the extreme value of the trait is favored.2- Stabalizing selection occurs when the mean value of the trait is favored.3- Disruptive...
Explain the rain shadow effect
Prevailing winds travel up the mountainside, and is it does so, the falling temps cause the air to lose much of its moisture as precipitation. Therefore, rainfall and moist air prevails...
How does the leaf area index affect the amount of light reaching the ground level at the base of the tree?
Cumulative leaf area and LAI increase as you move down from the top of the forest canopy to the ground. The ratio of red to far-red radiation decreases through the canopy.
Which type of leaf is most efficient at heat exchange?
a leaf perpendicular to the sun absorbs 1.0 unit of light energy. vs. a leaf at a 60 degree angle which only absorbs 0.5 unit of light energy.
Is more water required or created by photosynthesis?
required.6H20 + 6 CO2 ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
What are the advantages and disadvantages of opening stomata for plants in arid conditions?
stomata are a doorway for CO2, O2, and H2O.through the stomata the plant is able to obtain CO2 but it also loses water by evaporation when the pores are open. Some plants cope with...
How does body size affect metabolism for homeotherms?
the smaller the org's (larger SA/V), the greater the relative heat loss to the surrounding environment.-this heat loss must be offset by increased metabolic activity.
What types of animals would you expect to be heterotherms?
bats, bees, hummingbirds
Compare the types of lungs found in the major animal groups
1- Tracheal system-insects, some aquatic insects2-Lungs-mammals, birds, reptiles, (aquatic)marine mammals3-Lungs and Vascularization-amphibians4-Air Sacs- birds5-Diffusion-...
Describe the reasons why latitude would affect clutch size.
-Birds in temperate regions have larger clutch size than those in lower latitudes....same for mammals/larger litters, and lizards insects and plants follow similar pattern.3 PROPOSED...
Compare r-strategists and k-strategists
r-Strategists: -short-lived-inhabit unstable/unpredictable environments that can cause catastrophic mortality.-high reproductive rates-rapid...
Define the different types of herbivores
-characterized by the type of plants they eatGRAZERS: grass and leavesBROWSERS: woody materialsGRANIVORES: seedsFRUGIVORES: fruitNECTIVORES: nectar...
What are 4 types of asexual reproduction?
Rhizomes: strawberry plantsSplitting in two: parameciumBudding: hydra (plant yeast cells)Parthenogenesis: aphids (snakes)
What are the advantages/disadvantages of asexual reproduction?
Benefits:-offspring are well adapted to current conditions-potential for high pop growthCosts:-low genetic variability in the pop-May be unable to adapt...
Compare the 2 different options for parental investment
1-Large numbers of offspring:-produced by org's that inhibit disturbed sites, unpredictable env's, or env's where parental care is impossible-increase the chances that some young will...
Compare altricial and precocial offspring
Altricial: young are born or hatched in a helpless condition and require considerable parental care (e.g., mice)Precocial: young emerge from womb ready to move...