Ecology exam 1

46 cards

gen ecology


 
  
Created Sep 19, 2010
by
wa102

 

 
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1
Ecosystem
 
flow of energy and nutrients through the physical and biological systems
2
Community
 
factors that influence the relative abundance of a species.
3
Population
 
rates of birth and death, distribution of individuals
4
Evolution
 
process by which the properties of populations change over generations... "Decent with modification...
5
Species
 
class of individuals with common characteristics, qualities
6
Homozygous
 
two copies of the same allele (gene)
7
Heterozygous
 
different alleles on each chromosome
8
Genotype
 
the particular combination of alleles present at a locus
9
Phenotype
 
the outward appearance of an organism
10
Dominant
 
dominant allele is that which is expressed and masks the other
11
Recessive
 
recessive allele is masked and not expressed
12
Thermocline
 
the vertical region where water temperature declines most rapidly-depends on solar radiation...
13
Ditritivores
 
those that feed on detritis-dead plant and animal matter-takes in food then digest unlike decomposer
14
Torpor
 
the dropping of body temp to approx ambient temp for a part of each day, regardless of the...
15
Rete
 
blood circulation system, found in sharks and tunas and allows them to keep internal temps...
16
Heterotherm
 
animals that regulate body temps by both endothermy and ectothermy-bats bees hummingbirds
17
Parthenogenesis
 
development of an egg without fertilizing
18
Endothermy
 
-animals can remain active regardless of env temps-animals must consume a lot of food...
19
Exothermy
 
-animals can allocate more of their energy to biomass production-animals require fewer...
20
Homeothermy
 
-maintain body temp by oxidizing glucose in cellular respiration  -Oxidation...
21
Homeotherms regulate exchange between the body and env by: (3 ways)
 
1- insulation ----fur, feathers, body fat2-shivering---brown fat oxidation...
22
Poikilothermy
 
animals that aquire heat from the external env--fish, amphibians, reptiles, insects, and other...
23
Hibernation
 
a long seasonal torpor characterized by cessation of activity-terrestrial poikilotherms, heterothermic...
24
Monoecious
 
plants have separate male and female flowers on the same plant
25
Dioecious
 
plants have respective male and female organs
26
Monogamy
 
involves the formation of a lasting bond between one male and one female-common in birds, rare...
27
Polygamy
 
the acquisition by an ind of two or more mates
28
Polyandry
 
ind female pairs with two or more males-relatively rare
29
Polygyny
 
an ind male pairs with two or more females
30
Promiscuity
 
males and females mate with one or more of the opposite sex and form no pair bond
31
What are the 3 types of natural selection?
 
1- Directional selection occurs when the extreme value of the trait is favored.2-...
32
Explain the rain shadow effect
 
Prevailing winds travel up the mountainside, and is it does so, the falling temps cause the...
33
How does the leaf area index affect the amount of light reaching the ground level at the base...
 
Cumulative leaf area and LAI increase as you move down from the top of the forest canopy to...
34
Which type of leaf is most efficient at heat exchange?
 
a leaf perpendicular to the sun absorbs 1.0 unit of light energy. vs. a leaf at a 60 degree...
35
Is more water required or created by photosynthesis?
 
required.6H20 + 6 CO2 ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
36
What are the advantages and disadvantages of opening stomata for plants in arid conditions?
 
stomata are a doorway for CO2, O2, and H2O.through the stomata the plant is able to obtain...
37
How does body size affect metabolism for homeotherms?
 
the smaller the org's (larger SA/V), the greater the relative heat loss to the surrounding...
38
What types of animals would you expect to be heterotherms?
 
bats, bees, hummingbirds
39
Compare the types of lungs found in the major animal groups
 
1- Tracheal system-insects, some aquatic insects2-Lungs-mammals, birds, reptiles,...
40
Describe the reasons why latitude would affect clutch size.
 
-Birds in temperate regions have larger clutch size than those in lower latitudes....same for...
41
Compare r-strategists and k-strategists
 
r-Strategists: -short-lived-inhabit unstable/unpredictable...
42
Define the different types of herbivores
 
-characterized by the type of plants they eatGRAZERS: grass and leavesBROWSERS: woody...
43
What are 4 types of asexual reproduction?
 
Rhizomes: strawberry plantsSplitting in two: parameciumBudding: hydra...
44
What are the advantages/disadvantages of asexual reproduction?
 
Benefits:-offspring are well adapted to current conditions-potential for...
45
Compare the 2 different options for parental investment
 
1-Large numbers of offspring:-produced by org's that inhibit disturbed sites, unpredictable...
46
Compare altricial and precocial offspring
 
Altricial: young are born or hatched in a helpless condition and require considerable...

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