DIURETIC DRUGS

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Diuretic Drugs And Nursing Interventions

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5 types of DIURETICS
 
1.carbonic anhydrase inhibitors 2. loop diuretics 3.osmotic diuretics 4.potassium-sparing diuretics 5.thiazides&related diuretics
hypertension may be treated by giving an antihypertensive drug and what 2 types of diuretics?
 
loop diuretics & thiazides and related diuretics
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS
 
-sulfonamides w/ nonbacteriostatic action. -carbonic anhydrase enzyme makes free H ions. -excretes Na,K,bicarb,water. -decreases IOP *glaucoma
ACETAZOLAMIDE (Diamox)
 
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor *glaucoma,edema,epilepsy. onset 1-2hrs for8-12hrs
FUROSEMIDE (Lasix)
 
Loop Diuretic *HTN,edema,cirrhosis,renal disease
LOOP DIURETICS
 
Lasix:^Na+Cl excretion>>inhibits reabsorption in distal&proximal tubules & in loop of Henle. Bumex:^excretion of Cl,some Na. acts on proximal tubule.
BUMETANIDE (Bumex)
 
Loop Diuretic (PO IV IM) *CHF+pulmonary edema, cirrhosis, renaldisease. onset 30-60min for 4-6hrs
OSMOTIC DIURETICS
 
- ^ the density of the filtrate in the glomerulus, prevents selective reabsorption of water>>H2O,Na,Cl excretion ^
MANNITOL (Osmitrol)
 
Osmotic Diuretic (IV) *renal failure, IOP,cerebral edema,irrigation contraindicated: active intracranial bleeding
POTASSIUM-SPARING DIURETICS
 
-saves K -Spironolactone:blocks aldosterone activity=blocks Na [email protected]>>Na+H2O excreted
SPIRONOLACTONE (Aldactone)
 
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics *HTN,edema,cirrhosis,renal disease. men may develop gynecomastia
THIAZIDES & RELATED DIURETICS
 
-inhibits Na+Cl reabsorption in ascending LoopofHenle & early distal tubule>> Na,Cl,H2O excreted. preg: B
CHLOROTHIAZIDE (Diuril)
 
Thiazide & related diuretics (PO IV) *HTN,edema,cirrhosis,corticosteroid & estrogen therapy
HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE (HydroDIURIL)
 
Thiazide & related diuretics *HTN,edema,cirrhosis,corticosteroid & estrogen therapy
Uses of DIURETICS (4)
 
1.Edema(CHF, cirrhosis, corticosteroid/ estrogen therapy, cerebral). 2.HTN 3.Renaldisease 4.Glaucoma(^IOP)
Diuretics contraindications
 
hypersensitivity, electrolyte imbalances, sever kidney or liver dysfunction, and anuria.
use thiazide & loop diuretics cautiously in pts with...
 
liver disease, diabetes, lupus erythematosus, or diarrhea. sensitivity reaction to sulfonamides.
use potassium-sparing diuretics cautiously in pts with...contraindicated in pts with...
 
liver disease, diabetes, gout... hyperkalemia & not recommended for children
NSAIDS & salicylates + potassium-sparing or loop diuretics = ...
 
decreased diuretic effectiveness
antidiabetic drugs + thiazides & related diuretics = ...
 
hyperglycemia
DIURETIC PREADMINISTRATION ASSESSMENT
 
-vital signs + weight + currentLab (serum electrolytes) -peripheral edema -pain -epilepsy: seizures -osmotic:disease+symptoms+I&O
DIURETIC ONGOING ASSESSMENT
 
-measure and record I&O -weight -frequent serum electrolyte, uric acid, liver & kidney function tests periodically
PT w/ EDEMA (chf)
 
-daily weight (-2lbs/day desirable) -record I&O q8hrs -vitals q4hrs -examine edema qd
PT w/ INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE
 
-Mannitol IV check solution, low temp=crystallized -urine output qh, should be at least 30-50mL -vitals q30-60min. -assess neurologic
diabetes mellitus + loop or thiazide diuretics = ...
 
blood glucose values may be elevated, urine may test positive for glucose. call DR.
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