Diseases And Disorders Of The Eye And Ear

Diseases And Disorders Of The Eye And Ear
  
Created Feb 22, 2011
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Functioning Organs of Vision
eye and ear
Functional Process of the Eye
(1)an image is formed on the retina; (2)the rods and cones are stimulated; (3)nerve impulses...
Eyeball
composed of the sclera, the choroid, and the retina, and is connected to the brain by optic...
Sclera
external production
Cornea
light refraction
Choroid
middle layer of the tissue
Ciliary Body
secretion of vitreous fluid
Iris
color portion
Retina
back of eye, responsible for night vision
Rods
means of distinguishing light from dark, and perceiving shape and movement
Cones
color vision
Conjunctiva
pink area under eyelid
Anterior Chambers
space between the iris
Aqueous Humor
the fluid occupying both the anterior and posterior chambers
Vitreous Humar
jellylike fluid; it maintains the globular shape of the eyeball and facilitates the refractions...
Internal lens of the eye
is elastic and therefore can focus images whether viewed close or at a distance
Key to sight
light ray
Extrinsic muscle
each eye has six extrinsic muscles that control the movements of the eye; these muscles pull...
Symptoms and signs of eye disorders
some eye disorders are signs of systemic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus,...
Opthamologist
study every aspect of your eye
Tests to identify eye disorders
eye charts, visual field tests, tonometry, eye cultures, dilation, electronystamography (ENG),...
Refractive disorders
being unable to focus light effectively
Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
occurs when light that enters the eye is focused behind the retina rather than on the retina
Myopia (Nearsightedness)
the result of light rays entering the eye being focused in front of the retina, causing vision...
Astigmatism
an irregular focusing of the light rays entering the eye
Presbyopia
the inability of the internal lens of the eye to focus and then refocus quickly to accommodate...
Nystagmus
involuntary eye movement
Strabismus (cross eyed, lazy eye)
a visual defect of misalignment; failure of eyes to look in same direction
Hordeolum (sty)
inflammatory infections of the sebaceous glands of the eye lids
Hordeolum (sty) ETIOLOGY
often a result of a staphylococcal infection and can be associated with and secondary to blepharitis 
Keratitis
inflammation of cornea
Keratitis ETIOLOGY
herpes, bacteria/fungi, contact lens wear, dry air, intense light
Blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelids involving hair follicles and glands
Blepharitis ETIOLOGY
the ulcerative form -staphyloccoal infection. nonulcerative-allergies
Entropian
eyelid margin go inward
Ectropian
eyelid margin go outward
Blepharoptosis
drooping of the upper eyelid
Conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva
Conjunctivitis ETIOLOGY
allergies, chemicals
Cataract
when the natural lens of the eye becomes opacified
Cataract SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
deterioration of vision
Cataract ETIOLOGY
aging process, congenital, ocular trauma, drug toxicity, systematic disease
Glaucoma
damage to the optic nerve
Glaucoma RESULTS
blindness
Diabetic Retinopathy
disorder of the retinal blood vessels
Diabetic Retinopathy SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
micro aneurysm, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, formation of abnormal new vessels
Diabetic Retinopathy ETIOLOGY
usually occurs 8 to 10 years after diagnosis of diabetes
Cancer of the eye
may involve the globe, the orbit, the optic nerve, or the eyelids
Functioning organs of hearing
the outer, the middle, the inner
Organ of hearing and balance 
labyrinth
Outer section Parts
external ear (pinna or auricle), external auditory canal
Outer section Function
to collect sound waves, or vibrations, from the air or environment and channel them to tympanic...
Middle section Parts
ear drum, 3 little bones (malleus, incus, stapes)
Middle section Function
receives the sound waves from the vibrating ear drum and relays them along the three bones...
Inner section Parts
cochlea and the labyrinth
Inner section Function
responsible for maintaining balance
Common signs and symptoms of ear disorders
hearing loss, ear pain or pressure, tinnitus, vertigo, nausea and vomiting
Conductive hearing loss
caused by an impairment of the eardrum or bones in the middle ear
Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness)
results from impairment of the cochlea or auditory nerve
Impacted cerumen
atypical accumulation of cerumen in the canal of the outer ear. (ear-wax buildup)
Infective otitis externa
inflammation of the external ear canal 
Infective otitis externa HOW DIAGNOSED
an otologic examination and a symptoms confirm the diagnosis 
Swimmer's ear
inflammation and resulting infection of the outer ear canal after water has been entrapped...
Swimmer's ear SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
severe pain, red swollen ear canal, hearing loss, fever, pruritis
Otitis media
inflammation of the normally air filled ear with the accumulation of the fluid behind the tympanic...
Otitis media SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
With serious Otitis media, the only symptoms may be a feeling of fullness or pressure and some...
Otitis media ETIOLOGY
can be acute or chronic. with acute, the cause is usually a virus from a URI that has spread...
Otitis media HOW DIAGNOSED
Otoscopy
Otitis media TREATMENT
Myringotomy (surgical evaluation of the fluid)
Meniere's Disease
a chronic disease of the inner ear that affects the labyrinth
Meniere's disease AGE AFFECTED
between 40 and 50
Benigh Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
usually a vestibilar system disorder
Benigh Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
a spinning sensation with moving of  head, nausea, vomiting, involuntary eye movement,...
Labrythitis
an inflammation or infection of the labyrinth of the inner ear
Labrythitis SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
fever, extreme vertigo, nausea & vomiting
Labrythitis ETIOLOGY
usually the result of a virus but can be cause by a bacterial infection that has spread from...
Ruptured Tympanic Membrane
any type of tear or injury to the eardrum
Ruptured Tympanic Membrane ETIOLOGY
insertion of sharp objects into ear canal, explosion, severe middle ear infection, a blow to...
Mastoiditis
inflammation of the mastoid bone, or mastoid process
Mastoiditis ETIOLOGY
Acute mastoiditis is the result of neglected acute otitis media. Chronic mastoiditis is associated...
Sensorineual Hearing Loss (deafness)
sound waves reach the inner ear but are not perceived because the nerve impulses are not transmitted...
Sensorineual Hearing Loss ETIOLOGY
nerve failure or damage to the cochlea or the auditory nerve. Aging process, loud noise, side...
Sensorineual Hearing Loss PROGNOSIS
Sensorineual Hearing Loss that is caused by damage to the cochlea is IRREVERSIBLE.
Cancer of the ear
tumors of the ear can occur in any part of the ear and may be benign or malignant. They include...


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