Diseases And Disorders Of The Eye And Ear

Diseases And Disorders Of The Eye And Ear Diseases And Disorders Of The Eye And Ear
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Functioning Organs of Vision
 
eye and ear
Functional Process of the Eye
 
(1)an image is formed on the retina; (2)the rods and cones are stimulated; (3)nerve impulses are conducted to the brain
Eyeball
 
composed of the sclera, the choroid, and the retina, and is connected to the brain by optic nerve
Sclera
 
external production
Cornea
 
light refraction
Choroid
 
middle layer of the tissue
Ciliary Body
 
secretion of vitreous fluid
Iris
 
color portion
Retina
 
back of eye, responsible for night vision
Rods
 
means of distinguishing light from dark, and perceiving shape and movement
Cones
 
color vision
Conjunctiva
 
pink area under eyelid
Anterior Chambers
 
space between the iris
Aqueous Humor
 
the fluid occupying both the anterior and posterior chambers
Vitreous Humar
 
jellylike fluid; it maintains the globular shape of the eyeball and facilitates the refractions of images
Internal lens of the eye
 
is elastic and therefore can focus images whether viewed close or at a distance
Key to sight
 
light ray
Extrinsic muscle
 
each eye has six extrinsic muscles that control the movements of the eye; these muscles pull on the eyeballs, making the two move together to converge on the visual field
Symptoms and signs of eye disorders
 
some eye disorders are signs of systemic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or certain autoimmune arthritic diseases. Common symptoms are: Redness of the eye, pain, itching, or burning in or around the eye, swollen red eyelids, drainage from the eyes, lesions/sores in or around the eyes, visual disturbances, unequal pupils, sudden loss of vision, persistent pain
Opthamologist
 
study every aspect of your eye
Tests to identify eye disorders
 
eye charts, visual field tests, tonometry, eye cultures, dilation, electronystamography (ENG), electroretinography, fluorecein angiography
Refractive disorders
 
being unable to focus light effectively
Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
 
occurs when light that enters the eye is focused behind the retina rather than on the retina
Myopia (Nearsightedness)
 
the result of light rays entering the eye being focused in front of the retina, causing vision to be blurred
Astigmatism
 
an irregular focusing of the light rays entering the eye
Presbyopia
 
the inability of the internal lens of the eye to focus and then refocus quickly to accommodate variations in distance because of gradual loss of muscle and lens elasticity
Nystagmus
 
involuntary eye movement
Strabismus (cross eyed, lazy eye)
 
a visual defect of misalignment; failure of eyes to look in same direction
Hordeolum (sty)
 
inflammatory infections of the sebaceous glands of the eye lids
Hordeolum (sty) ETIOLOGY
 
often a result of a staphylococcal infection and can be associated with and secondary to blepharitis
Keratitis
 
inflammation of cornea
Keratitis ETIOLOGY
 
herpes, bacteria/fungi, contact lens wear, dry air, intense light
Blepharitis
 
inflammation of the eyelids involving hair follicles and glands
Blepharitis ETIOLOGY
 
the ulcerative form -staphyloccoal infection. nonulcerative-allergies
Entropian
 
eyelid margin go inward
Ectropian
 
eyelid margin go outward
Blepharoptosis
 
drooping of the upper eyelid
Conjunctivitis
 
inflammation of the conjunctiva
Conjunctivitis ETIOLOGY
 
allergies, chemicals
Cataract
 
when the natural lens of the eye becomes opacified
Cataract SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
 
deterioration of vision
Cataract ETIOLOGY
 
aging process, congenital, ocular trauma, drug toxicity, systematic disease
Glaucoma
 
damage to the optic nerve
Glaucoma RESULTS
 
blindness
Diabetic Retinopathy
 
disorder of the retinal blood vessels
Diabetic Retinopathy SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
 
micro aneurysm, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, formation of abnormal new vessels
Diabetic Retinopathy ETIOLOGY
 
usually occurs 8 to 10 years after diagnosis of diabetes
Cancer of the eye
 
may involve the globe, the orbit, the optic nerve, or the eyelids
Functioning organs of hearing
 
the outer, the middle, the inner
Organ of hearing and balance
 
labyrinth
Outer section Parts
 
external ear (pinna or auricle), external auditory canal
Outer section Function
 
to collect sound waves, or vibrations, from the air or environment and channel them to tympanic membrane (eardrum), which then begins to vibrate
Middle section Parts
 
ear drum, 3 little bones (malleus, incus, stapes)
Middle section Function
 
receives the sound waves from the vibrating ear drum and relays them along the three bones to the oval window
Inner section Parts
 
cochlea and the labyrinth
Inner section Function
 
responsible for maintaining balance
Common signs and symptoms of ear disorders
 
hearing loss, ear pain or pressure, tinnitus, vertigo, nausea and vomiting
Conductive hearing loss
 
caused by an impairment of the eardrum or bones in the middle ear
Sensorineural hearing loss (nerve deafness)
 
results from impairment of the cochlea or auditory nerve
Impacted cerumen
 
atypical accumulation of cerumen in the canal of the outer ear. (ear-wax buildup)
Infective otitis externa
 
inflammation of the external ear canal
Infective otitis externa HOW DIAGNOSED
 
an otologic examination and a symptoms confirm the diagnosis
Swimmer's ear
 
inflammation and resulting infection of the outer ear canal after water has been entrapped during swimming
Swimmer's ear SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
 
severe pain, red swollen ear canal, hearing loss, fever, pruritis
Otitis media
 
inflammation of the normally air filled ear with the accumulation of the fluid behind the tympanic membrane (eardrum). occurring either unilaterally or bilaterally
Otitis media SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
 
With serious Otitis media, the only symptoms may be a feeling of fullness or pressure and some degree of impaired hearing. Suppurative Otitis media is painful. General symptoms of infection, fever, chills, nausea and vomiting. Children often rub or pull at the affected ear and lean the head sideways toward the affected side. Dizziness, muffled hearing or loss of hearing.
Otitis media ETIOLOGY
 
can be acute or chronic. with acute, the cause is usually a virus from a URI that has spread through the eustachian tube into the middle ear. Chronic can develop from an acute attack, hypertrophy of the adenoids, or chronic sinus infections. Often follows a bout of influenza or mumps
Otitis media HOW DIAGNOSED
 
Otoscopy
Otitis media TREATMENT
 
Myringotomy (surgical evaluation of the fluid)
Meniere's Disease
 
a chronic disease of the inner ear that affects the labyrinth
Meniere's disease AGE AFFECTED
 
between 40 and 50
Benigh Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
 
usually a vestibilar system disorder
Benigh Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
 
a spinning sensation with moving of head, nausea, vomiting, involuntary eye movement, dizziness
Labrythitis
 
an inflammation or infection of the labyrinth of the inner ear
Labrythitis SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
 
fever, extreme vertigo, nausea & vomiting
Labrythitis ETIOLOGY
 
usually the result of a virus but can be cause by a bacterial infection that has spread from the middle ear. May also be a result from meningitis
Ruptured Tympanic Membrane
 
any type of tear or injury to the eardrum
Ruptured Tympanic Membrane ETIOLOGY
 
insertion of sharp objects into ear canal, explosion, severe middle ear infection, a blow to the ear
Mastoiditis
 
inflammation of the mastoid bone, or mastoid process
Mastoiditis ETIOLOGY
 
Acute mastoiditis is the result of neglected acute otitis media. Chronic mastoiditis is associated with cholesteatoma
Sensorineual Hearing Loss (deafness)
 
sound waves reach the inner ear but are not perceived because the nerve impulses are not transmitted to the brain
Sensorineual Hearing Loss ETIOLOGY
 
nerve failure or damage to the cochlea or the auditory nerve. Aging process, loud noise, side affects of some medications like asprin
Sensorineual Hearing Loss PROGNOSIS
 
Sensorineual Hearing Loss that is caused by damage to the cochlea is IRREVERSIBLE.
Cancer of the ear
 
tumors of the ear can occur in any part of the ear and may be benign or malignant. They include cutaneous tumors of the external ear, ceruminal gland neoplasms, acoustic and facial neuromas, and glomus tumors.
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