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Digital Radiography And PACS

Digital Radiography And Pacs
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Side ASide B
earliest known calculating tool
abacus
blaise pascal(june 1623- august 1662)
built a machanical calculator at the age of 16.
Gottfried Leibniz
worked on adding automatic multiplication adn division to pascals calculator.
charles babbage
concept of a programmalbe computer. "father of the computer"
charles babbage built
Difference engineanalytical engine
Herman Hollerith
machanism for machanical tabulation of punched card data.
Herman Hollerith
IBM in 1924
december 1943
Colossus. first operating computer.
1946
1st general electronic computer. university of penn.
ENIAC
electronic numerical integrator and calculator
1948 william shockey
developed Transistor
1951
UNIVAC, universal automatic computor
1st generation computers
operated by vacuum tubes
2nd Gen computers
based on individually packaged transistors
3rd Gen computers
Integrated Circuits
4th gen computers
Large scale integrationVery large-scale integration.
Digital Imaging
first used in Computed Tomography (CT)
Digital radiography
1980s, Fuji
Pixels
Each cell in the image matrix/grid
Image matrix
layout of cells in rows and colums
image matrix size
total pixles= (# of rows) ( # of columns)
Resolution
sharpness of image. more pixels=sharper image
Algorithms
mathematical formulas that tell system what image should be.
Digital imaging modalities
CTSonographynuclear medicineMRImammographyradiographyangiography
Cassettes consist of
2 intesifying screen speedsDetail ("extremity") cassette: Screen speed=>100Rare Earth Screen Cassettes: screen speed=> 400 or greater.
Detail intensifying screen
Extemitiesslow speed(100)Excellent recorded detailPt. receives more radiation (no)
What is Recorded Detail
ability to see sharply any small areas of the anatomy.
Earth intensifying screen
faster speed 400 or moreless patient dosedecreased recorded detailthorax,abdomen,pelvis,skull,facial bones, and contrast media exams.
Digital Imaging: Two Methods
Computed Radiography (CR)Digital radiography (DR)
remnant image produce Latent image
intracts with phosphor IP or the DR imaging plate
components of CR
imaging plates, ADC processor, Technology Worksation
Imaging plate layers
support active layer of photostimulable phospohrprotective layer
PMT photomultiplier tube
converts light signal to electrical signal
CR technologist Workstation
Monitor
CR is used where?
ICU ED or trauma centerORHigh volume clinic settingportables
practical tips
Ip through erasure cycle if not used within 48 hoursto avoid latent image fading: precess within 1 hour of exposure.
DR'direct digital radiography
flat panel of detectors, that are found in the imaging plate.
DR technologist workstation
x-ray tubex-ray tabledirect capture detector
Advantages of DR over CR
no cassettesquicker processing timedose reduction
Advantages of CR and DR
improvement of image qualitymanipulation of imageless retakesno loss of filmimages can be put on CD or high quality paper
what is PACS
Picture Archiving and Communication Systemcomputers dedicated to storage retrieval transporting displaying and printing of medical images.
picture
referring to radiographic images and radioogy reports
Archiving
refferring to film file storage
communications
referencing mutiple viewers of images and reports at virtually unlimited viewing sites called workstations.
system
fostering the concept that a complex coordinated network makes it all possible.
DICOMdigital imaging communications in medicine
standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging.
PACS data flow
organizations must have tight integration between their HIS/RIS, the various modalities, and PACS
HIShospital information system
used to register, admit, transfer, and discharge patients
RISradiology information system
schedule and track exams, view reports and images
comibination of PACS with CR or DR
Cost less repeats due to film lossmore time efficient
CR and DR
improving patient care with PACS


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