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Side ASide B
earliest known calculating tool
blaise pascal(june 1623- august 1662)
built a machanical calculator at the age of 16.
worked on adding automatic multiplication adn division to pascals calculator.
concept of a programmalbe computer. "father of the computer"
charles babbage built
Difference engineanalytical engine
machanism for machanical tabulation of punched card data.
IBM in 1924
Colossus. first operating computer.
1st general electronic computer. university of penn.
electronic numerical integrator and calculator
1948 william shockey
UNIVAC, universal automatic computor
1st generation computers
operated by vacuum tubes
2nd Gen computers
based on individually packaged transistors
3rd Gen computers
4th gen computers
Large scale integrationVery large-scale integration.
first used in Computed Tomography (CT)
Each cell in the image matrix/grid
layout of cells in rows and colums
image matrix size
total pixles= (# of rows) ( # of columns)
sharpness of image. more pixels=sharper image
mathematical formulas that tell system what image should be.
Digital imaging modalities
Cassettes consist of
2 intesifying screen speedsDetail ("extremity") cassette: Screen speed=>100Rare Earth Screen Cassettes: screen speed=> 400 or greater.
Detail intensifying screen
Extemitiesslow speed(100)Excellent recorded detailPt. receives more radiation (no)
What is Recorded Detail
ability to see sharply any small areas of the anatomy.
Earth intensifying screen
faster speed 400 or moreless patient dosedecreased recorded detailthorax,abdomen,pelvis,skull,facial bones, and contrast media exams.
Digital Imaging: Two Methods
Computed Radiography (CR)Digital radiography (DR)
remnant image produce Latent image
intracts with phosphor IP or the DR imaging plate
components of CR
imaging plates, ADC processor, Technology Worksation
Imaging plate layers
support active layer of photostimulable phospohrprotective layer
PMT photomultiplier tube
converts light signal to electrical signal
CR technologist Workstation
CR is used where?
ICU ED or trauma centerORHigh volume clinic settingportables
Ip through erasure cycle if not used within 48 hoursto avoid latent image fading: precess within 1 hour of exposure.
DR'direct digital radiography
flat panel of detectors, that are found in the imaging plate.
DR technologist workstation
x-ray tubex-ray tabledirect capture detector
Advantages of DR over CR
no cassettesquicker processing timedose reduction
Advantages of CR and DR
improvement of image qualitymanipulation of imageless retakesno loss of filmimages can be put on CD or high quality paper
what is PACS
Picture Archiving and Communication Systemcomputers dedicated to storage retrieval transporting displaying and printing of medical images.
referring to radiographic images and radioogy reports
refferring to film file storage
referencing mutiple viewers of images and reports at virtually unlimited viewing sites called workstations.
fostering the concept that a complex coordinated network makes it all possible.
DICOMdigital imaging communications in medicine
standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging.
PACS data flow
organizations must have tight integration between their HIS/RIS, the various modalities, and PACS
HIShospital information system
used to register, admit, transfer, and discharge patients
RISradiology information system
schedule and track exams, view reports and images
comibination of PACS with CR or DR
Cost less repeats due to film lossmore time efficient
CR and DR
improving patient care with PACS