Developmental Psych Exam #1 Chapter 1

Developmental Psych Test On Chapters 1-2, And 4-7. The Test Is On Wednesday, Feb. 24th, 2010.
 
Created Feb 20, 2010
by meyesa06
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Developmental Psychology 
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What is Developmental Psychology?
It is the scientific study of how and why people change over time as well as how and why they...
3 Domains of Change
1. Biosocial  - Changes in Brain2. Cognitive - Changes in Thinking3. Psychosocial - Interrelations...
Biosocial Development
Includes all the growth and change that occur in person's body and the genetic nutritional,...
Cognitive Development
Includes all the mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about...
Psychosocial Development
Includes development of emotions, temperament, and social skills. Family friends, the community,...
Five Characteristics of Development
1. Multidirectional2. Multicontextual3. Multicultural4. Multidisciplinary5. Plasticity
Multidirectional
Change occurs in every direction, not always in a straight line. Gains and losses, predictable...
Multicontexual
Human lives are embedded in many contexts, including historical conditions, economic constraints,...
Multicultural
Many cultures - not just between nations but also within them - affect how people develop. 
Multidisciplinary
Numerous academic fields - especially psychology, biology, education, and sociology but also...
Plasticity
Every individual, and every trait within each individual, can be altered at any point in the...
Hypothetico-Deductive Method
How Science tries to answer questions.   Theory - Hypothesis - Data - Conclusions. 
General Scientific Methods
1. Observational2. Correlational3. Experimental
Observational 
1. Naturalistic (Field Study): Observing a subject in natural environment, as little interaction...
Correlational
Describes the relationship between two variables. Does not prove that one variable causes another.
Experimental
A researcher manipulates one variable to determine if it has an effect on another variable...
Independent Variable
The manipulated variable
Dependent Variable
Hypothesis: To be affected by the Independent variable
Experimental Group
Those getting the treatment/ method of focused concentration
Control Group
Same conditions except for the treatment. 
Random Assignment
Cannot have a true experiment without having subjects being randomly assigned to either groups. 
Reliability 
A task that is dependably consistent. 
Validity
 Task that measures what it is supposed to measure. Accuracy Valid test must be reliable,...
Longitudinal Design
A group of subjects is tested across time. The experiment must remain consistent. Example:...
Weaknesses of Longitudinal design
Mortality, attrition - they dropped out of the program, Cohort effect - refers to people born...
Cross-Sectional Design
Different groups of people are studied at the same time, such as different age groups. 
Weaknesses of Cross-Sectional Design
Cannot look at change across time. Can get the cohort effect
Longitudinal-Sequential (Cross-Sequential)
Mix between the two. Different cohorts across time.Compare cohorts at the same time in their...
Weaknesses of Longitudinal-Sequential
You need to have the same test subjects and it is a long period of time. Mortality and attrition. 


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