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Chapter 1: Introduction to Developmental Psychology
What is Developmental Psychology?
It is the scientific study of how and why people change over time as well as how and why they...
3 Domains of Change
1. Biosocial - Changes in Brain2. Cognitive - Changes in Thinking3. Psychosocial - Interrelations...
Includes all the growth and change that occur in person's body and the genetic nutritional,...
Includes all the mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about...
Includes development of emotions, temperament, and social skills. Family friends, the community,...
Five Characteristics of Development
1. Multidirectional2. Multicontextual3. Multicultural4. Multidisciplinary5. Plasticity
Change occurs in every direction, not always in a straight line. Gains and losses, predictable...
Human lives are embedded in many contexts, including historical conditions, economic constraints,...
Many cultures - not just between nations but also within them - affect how people develop.
Numerous academic fields - especially psychology, biology, education, and sociology but also...
Every individual, and every trait within each individual, can be altered at any point in the...
How Science tries to answer questions. Theory - Hypothesis - Data - Conclusions.
General Scientific Methods
1. Observational2. Correlational3. Experimental
1. Naturalistic (Field Study): Observing a subject in natural environment, as little interaction...
Describes the relationship between two variables. Does not prove that one variable causes another.
A researcher manipulates one variable to determine if it has an effect on another variable...
The manipulated variable
Hypothesis: To be affected by the Independent variable
Those getting the treatment/ method of focused concentration
Same conditions except for the treatment.
Cannot have a true experiment without having subjects being randomly assigned to either groups.
A task that is dependably consistent.
Task that measures what it is supposed to measure. Accuracy Valid test must be reliable,...
A group of subjects is tested across time. The experiment must remain consistent. Example:...
Weaknesses of Longitudinal design
Mortality, attrition - they dropped out of the program, Cohort effect - refers to people born...
Different groups of people are studied at the same time, such as different age groups.
Weaknesses of Cross-Sectional Design
Cannot look at change across time. Can get the cohort effect
Mix between the two. Different cohorts across time.Compare cohorts at the same time in their...
Weaknesses of Longitudinal-Sequential
You need to have the same test subjects and it is a long period of time. Mortality and attrition.