CVP-GI (test 2)

127 cards

Flash Cards Cover Part 1 Of 2 For Test #2... Drew Whigham Has Notecards For Part 2


 
  
Created Jul 14, 2010
by
bennett.wyllie

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
General increase in bulk of a part of organ not due to tumor formation.
 
Hypertrophy
2
What is the normal weight of the heart?
 
300 grams in males and 250g in females
3
Abnormal tissue displacement is known as...
 
dysplasia
4
The changing from one cell type to another is known as...
 
metaplasia
5
Hyperplasia is defined as...
 
An increase in the # of cells
6
Define adaptive hypertrophy...
 
working out causes increase in the size of muscle
7
Give an example of compensatory hypertrophy...
 
one kidney fails, the other gets larger b/c it works harder
8
True/False:mitral valve stenosis means the mitral valve does not open correctly.
 
True
9
What chambers of the heart have increased pressure during mitral valve stenosis?  Decreased...
 
LA and RV; LV will have decreased pressure
10
Under what 2 conditions would the LEFT ventricle undergo hypertrophy?
 
Arterial hypertension & Aortic Stenosis
11
Under what condition would the RV undergo hypertrophy?
 
Mitral valve stenosis with accompanying pulmonary hypertension
12
What does an enlarged chamber size indicate? hypertrophy or dialation?
 
Dialation
13
An increase in cardiac weight or size is termed...
 
Cardiomegaly
14
What valve separates the RA from the RV?
 
Tricuspid valve
15
How many 'leaflets' does the mitral valve have?
 
2
16
How many 'leaflets' does the Pulmonic valve have?
 
3
17
What two valves may be referred to as 'semilunar?'
 
Pulmonic and Aortic valve
18
How many 'leaflets' does the Aortic valve have?
 
3
19
Which valve of the heart is the largest?
 
Tricuspid valve
20
Back flow occurs when what goes wrong with a particular valve?
 
When a valve does not close properly, back flow occurs (which leads to hypertrophy)
21
Which valve is the smallest?
 
Aortic valve
22
What is the 'nodule of Arantius?'
 
small nodule on each of the 3 leaflets of the aortic valve which facilitates closure
23
What valves are associated with chordae tendineae?
 
Atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid)
24
What do chordae tendineae attach to?
 
Papillary muscles in the ventricular wall
25
Coordinated actions of related structures that aid in the proper function of one of the AV...
 
Mitral apparatus
26
What components make up the mitral apparatus?
 
Annulus, leaflets, cords, papillary muscles and LV wall
27
Cardiac valves are lined with what type of cells?
 
Endothelium
28
What is the function of the loose connective tissue associated with cardiac valves known as...
 
Shock absorber
29
How are cardiac valves nourished?
 
via diffusion from the heart's blood
30
The point where aortic valve leaflets are joined together is known as....
 
Commisure
31
Widening of aortic valve commissures is an indication of a disease known as....
 
syphillis
32
What 4 structures comprise the conducting system of the heart?
 
SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibers and Bundle of His
33
True/False:Myocytes do not have a distinct outer boundary meaning they are virtually continuous...
 
True
34
Cardiac myocytes are organized into a Syncitial arrangement.  This is essential for what...
 
Transmission of electrical impulses & synchronized contraction of chambers
35
What are considered the functional units of each cardiac myocyte? 
 
Sarcomeres
36
What two contractile proteins are associated with sarcomeres?
 
actin and myosin
37
Sarcomeres are separated by what dark, fibrous structure?
 
Z-line
38
What mechanism accounts for the pattern of contractile strength in relation to sarcomere length?
 
Frank-Starling mechanism
39
True/False:Ventricular myocytes are smaller than atrial myoctes which allows for a greater...
 
False; they are larger than atrial myocytes
40
Atrial natriuretic peptide is stored where?
 
In 'specific atrial granules'
41
Where are'specific atrial granules' located within the atrial cells?
 
Cytoplasm
42
Where is atrial natriuretic peptide synthesized?
 
atrial muscle cells
43
What are the functions of natriuretic peptides?
 
1. Vasodialation2. Natriuresis3. Supression of Renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis 4....
44
True/False:Natriuretic peptides are harmful to the heart that is in a pathological state.
 
False; it is beneficial
45
True/False:Epicardium and Pericardium make up the pericardial sac and are comprised of the...
 
True, they are very closely related
46
The cardiac pacemaker is known as...
 
SA node
47
The SA node creates cardiac impulses at a rate of....
 
72 bpm
48
The AV node transmits the impulses from the SA node to the Bundle of His; however, when the...
 
50 bpm
49
When the AV node takes over for a faulty SA node it is known as....
 
nodal rhythm
50
Where is the AV node located?
 
In the RA at the posterior part of the interatrial septum
51
What is the normal function of the Bundle of His?
 
transmit impulses to the ventricles
52
Can the Bundle of His originate cardiac impulses?
 
Yes, at a rate of 36 bpm (very slow)
53
What is occurring with a condition known as 'Heart Block?'
 
The SA and AV node have failed and the Bundle of His has taken over in the production of cardiac...
54
What is the terminal branch of the conducting system of the heart?
 
Purkinje fibers
55
True/False:When all else fails, the Purkinje fibers are capable of producing cardiac impulses
 
False
56
A Bundle Branch Block effects what portion of the cardiac conducting system?
 
Purkinje fibers; this results in loss of efficiency of ventricular contraction
57
A condition where the ventricular muscle is incapable of maintaining a circulation adequate...
 
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
58
What is the difference between forward and backward heart failure?
 
Forward HF is characterized by decreased Cardiac output while backward HF is...
59
True/False:It is an uncommon and very serious condition when both forward and backward HF occur...
 
False; although any HF is a serious condition, forward and backward HF are commonly found together
60
What is the most common (very serious) disease of the heart that leads to primary muscle failure?
 
Ischemic Heart Disease
61
True/False:Inflammation & toxic degeneration of the mycardium leads to Primary Pump Failure.
 
True
62
True/False:Valvular diseases and Electrical disorders involving the SA node, AV node etc. are...
 
False; secondary pump failure
63
Cardiomyopathies lead to what type of pump failure?
 
Primary
64
An increased work load will eventually lead to what type of pump failure?
 
Secondary
65
All pump failures (primary or secondary) ultimately lead to what condition?
 
Heart Failure
66
At autopsy, the hearts of patients having CHF are generally characterized by what 4 findings?
 
1. Increased weight2. Chamber dialation3. Thin walls4. Having microscopic changes of hypertrophy
67
The onset of heart failure is usually preceded by what?
 
cardiac hypertrophy
68
True/False:Cardiac hypertrophy initially mediates enhanced function but it eventually...
 
True
69
True/False:Failure of the LA is associated with passive congestion of the lungs & pulmonary...
 
False; LV not LA
70
Chronic pulomonary edema leads to what condition?
 
Pulmonary hypertension
71
Failure of which chamber is characterized by generalized subcutaneous edema as well as enlargement...
 
RV
72
Progressive damming of blood within the pulmonary circulation and diminished peripheral blood...
 
Left sided heart failure
73
Which of the following are not considered causes of left sided heart failure?a - Ischemic heart...
 
e - all of the above
74
A fibrillating left atrium carries an increased risk of developing what condition?
 
Embolic stroke
75
Where is the most prominent extra-cardiac effect manifested in left ventricular failure?
 
The Lungs
76
Macrophages that ingest hemoglobin from edema in the lungs are known as...
 
Hemosiderin-containing macrophages
77
What is the cardinal complaint of patients suffering from left-ventricular failure?
 
Dyspnea (breathlessness)
78
Hemosiderin-containing macrophages found in cells that have undergone HF are called....
 
Siderophages
79
Hemosiderin-containing macrophages in the alveoli indicates previous episodes of   ...
 
Pulmonary edema
80
Dyspnea while lying down that is relieved by sitting or standing is known as what?
 
Orthopnea
81
Sudden onset of extreme dyspnea bordering on suffocation (usually occurs at night) is characteristic...
 
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
82
True/False:Cough is a common accompaniment of left-ventricular failure.
 
True; the cough is the lungs plea for more air
83
What secondary organs are affected by left-ventricular failure?
 
Kidneys and Brain
84
Cause of RV failure or LV failure:a - Lung Disease (emphysema, fibrosis, etc.)b - Congenital...
 
a - RVb - RVc - LVd - RVe - LVf - LVg - LV
85
Nitrogen retention resulting from something other than primary renal disease is known as what?
 
Azotemia
86
Dilation & hypertrophy of the right heart in response to pulmonary hypertension is...
 
"cor pulmonale"
87
Pure right-sided heart failure most often occurs as a result of what condition?
 
Chronic severe pulmonary hypertension
88
Acute right heart failure occurs most commonly in response to an obstruction of the outflow...
 
Massive pulmonary embolus
89
Compression of venous return to the heart due to increased volume of fluid in the pericardium...
 
Cardiac Tamponade
90
True/False:Pure right sided heart failure is uncommon, it usually is a secondary...
 
True
91
True/False:One of the common symptoms of Right sided heart failure is pulmonary congestion.
 
False; this is rarely a symptom, more often engorgement of the systemic & portal venous...
92
What organs are effected by Right sided HF?
 
Liver & portal system
93
Cardiac sclerosis or cardiac cirrhosis can develop as a result of cardiac failure of which...
 
Right sided HF
94
Right sided heart failure may lead to swelling of what two primary organs?
 
Liver and spleen
95
Congestion of the kidneys is marked more in Right or Left sided HF?
 
Right sided HF
96
Large effusions in the pleural and pericardial space effect the lungs in what way?
 
may cause partial atelectasis (lung collapse)
97
Generalized massive edema is called....
 
anasarca
98
Peripheral edema is the hallmark of....
 
right sided HF
99
What are 4 major consequences of increased pressure in the alveolar capillaries?
 
1. Microhemorrhages release RBC's into alveolar spaces (formation of hemosiderin)2. Increased...
100
Which of the following symptoms are associated with Right Sided HF?a - Pitting edemab - Jugular...
 
b - Pitting edema
101
True/False:CHF is the consequence of inadequate cardiac output
 
True
102
A group of closely related syndromes resulting from myocardial ischemia is known as....
 
Ischemic Heart Disease
103
"to keep back or hold back blood due to mechanical obstruction" is the definition for what?
 
myocardial ischemia
104
True/False:Inadequate removal of metabolites can lead to myocardial ischemia.
 
True; "garbage collectors are important too"
105
What is the etiology of Ischemic Heart Disease?
 
narrowing of one or more of the three coronary artery branches
106
What are the 3 coronary artery branches associated with IHD?
 
1. Left coronary A. (Anterior descending branch)2. Right coronary A.3. Left coronary A. (Circumflex...
107
98% of the cases of IHD are caused by....
 
Atherosclerosis
108
Which type of ischemia (acute or chronic) is associated with 'sudden death?'
 
Acute ischemia
109
Which type of ischemia(acute or chronic) is associated with myocardial fibrosis?
 
Chronic ischemia
110
Which type of ischemia(acute or chronic) is associated with coronary artery stenosis?
 
Chronic ischemia
111
Myocardial infarcts involve primarily what anatomical areas of the heart?
 
Left ventricle, interventricular septum and conducting system
**the atria and RV are rarely...
112
Transmural infarcts are usually (90%) caused by what? (which form in the atherosclerotic coronary...
 
Occlusive thrombi
113
How is fibrinolysis (breaking down the fibrous component of clots) initiated?
 
by the activation of plasminogen to plasmin
114
True/False:Thrombolytic drugs are fibrinogen activators.
 
False; thrombolytic drugs are plasminogen activators
115
True/False:The second generation of plasminogen activators convert all plasminogen to plasmin...
 
False; this describes 1st generation plasminogen activators, 2nd generation activates selectively
116
What are two examples of first generation plasminogen activators?
 
Steptokinase & Uorkinase
117
What are to examples of second generation plasminogen activators?
 
Alteplase & Reteplase
118
Reprofusion injuries may be mediated by the generation of what?
 
oxygen free radicals
119
What is the most common complication of myocardial infarction that is also the most common...
 
Arrhythmias
120
Cardiac standstill or absence of contractions of the heart.
 
Asystole
121
What is the most dangerous type of arrhythmia?
 
ventricular fibrillation (it leads to cardiac arrest)
122
True/False:The occurrence of tachyarrhythmias is related to the size of the infarct.
 
False
123
True/False:Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme present in early-developing neutrophil granules.
 
False; present in late-developing granules
124
What enzyme is present in early developing neutrophil granules?
 
Peroxide reacting enzymes
125
What effect is the ultimate cause of death for a patient that has a rupture of the free wall...
 
Cardiac Tamponade
126
How many days after a transmural infarct does fibrohemorrhagic pericarditis set in?
 
2-3 days
127
The epicardial manifestation of the underlying myocardial inflammation.....
 
Pericarditis


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